During each school semester, students face an onslaught of material to be learned. Students work hard to achieve initial mastery of the material, but when they move on, the newly learned facts, concepts, and skills degrade in memory. Although both students and educators appreciate that review can help stabilize learning, time constraints result in a trade-off between acquiring new knowledge and preserving old knowledge. To use time efficiently, when should review take place? Experimental studies have shown benefits to long-term retention (...) with spaced study, but little practical advice is available to students and educators about the optimal spacing of study. The dearth of advice is due to the challenge of conducting experimental studies of learning in educational settings, especially where material is introduced in blocks over the time frame of a semester. In this study, we turn to two established models of memory—ACT-R and MCM—to conduct simulation studies exploring the impact of study schedule on long-term retention. Based on the premise of a fixed time each week to review, converging evidence from the two models suggests that an optimal review schedule obtains significant benefits over haphazard (suboptimal) review schedules. Furthermore, we identify two scheduling heuristics that obtain near optimal review performance: (a) review the material from μ-weeks back, and (b) review material whose predicted memory strength is closest to a particular threshold. The former has implications for classroom instruction and the latter for the design of digital tutors. (shrink)
The Declaration of Helsinki and the Council of the International Organization of Medical Sciences provide guidance on standards of care and prevention in clinical trials. In the current and increasingly challenging research environment, the ethical status of a trial design depends not only on protection of participants, but also on social value, feasibility, and scientific validity. Using the example of a study assessing efficacy of a vaccine to prevent human papilloma virus in HIV-1 infected adolescent girls in low resource countries (...) without access to the vaccine, we compare several trial designs which rank lower on some criteria and higher on others, giving rise to difficult trade-offs. This case demonstrates the need for developing more nuanced guidance documents to help researchers balance these often conflicting criteria. (shrink)
For Gianni Vattimo, the renunciation of violence is the starting point for constructing a post foundational politics. So far, criticism of Vattimo’s argument has focused on his larger commitment to metaphysical nihilism and whether the renunciation of violence is a thicker principle than his post foundational philosophy can support. I argue that Vattimo’s renunciation of violence can also be criticized for two other reasons. First, Vattimo attempts to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable uses of violence through an under developed idea (...) of self-defense. Second, despite his attention to the political and philosophical impact of mass communications technology, Vattimo ignores emerging technological challenges to our understanding of violence. Nonetheless, I argue that Vattimo’s renunciation can still serve as a useful starting point for contemporary political thinking. What Vattimo’s logic shows is that we can enhance the moral standing of democracy by decisively detaching its practices and institutions from historical artifacts of political violence. (shrink)
In this paper I present a critical analysis of the English law relating to the safeguarding of vulnerable adults, in particular how the law impacts on the sexual lives of adult women with mental disabilities. I consider the discourses of vulnerability that surround the different legal regimes and whether the emerging theoretical vulnerability literature can assist in developing more nuanced legal responses. I argue that the inherent jurisdiction and Care Act 2014 provide an opportunity to move away from the focus (...) on inherent features of vulnerability such as mental disability towards a more nuanced, situational and embodied account of what it means to safeguard ‘vulnerable adults’. This has the potential to be developed in England through the new legal framework of the Care Act and can be achieved through targeting interventions against the situational causes of vulnerability, for example the perpetrators of sexual violence. (shrink)
Acara reuni ini bukan hanya sekedar acara dadakan. Beberapa hal melatarbelakangi acara tersebut. Di antaranya, keinginan banyak alumni Ushuluddin untuk menengok kembali "kampus tercintanya"ny dan bertemu teman lama. Juga keinginan berkumpul bersama dan mencari kemungkinan format kerjasama sesama alumni karena, paling tidak, katanya, di antara sekian banyak alumni banyak yang boleh dibilang telah "menjadi" dan "sukses".
The institutional development can be done by any strategies, one of them are creating new innovation called as blue ocean strategy. Blue ocean strategy is theway to develops the institution without had to quarrel in the strict zone with another institution. Its different with red zone strategy determining the birth of new market space or different innovation has been owned. So, this strategy is more emphasize how the institutions have not to conquer the competition using the vis á vis to (...) the rival. The study of this article is about using Blue ocean strategy at public relation in developing the institution since the beginning the statuses change of STAIN Tulungagung to IAIN Tulungagung, 2013. This paper approaches qualitative research which is focused on the strategy of developing IAIN Tulungagung institution through the new innovation: creating of the value innovation, recruiting new students intensively established the out of box edu-fair event, branding, establishing the advance program and promoting the institution, developing the human capital. All of those new innovations are blue ocean strategy has been done by IAIN Tulungagung according to different four steps of work scheme profits such as Decrease-Delete-Create-Increase becomes Passive-Save-Create-Increase. (shrink)
Iain McGilchrist, The master and his emissary: the divided brain and the making of the Western world (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2010) Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 119-124 DOI 10.1007/s11097-011-9235-x Authors Rupert Read, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Journal Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences Online ISSN 1572-8676 Print ISSN 1568-7759 Journal Volume Volume 11 Journal Issue Volume 11, Number 1.
This essay reviews Iain Morley’s The Prehistory of Music, an up-to-date and authoritative overview of recent research on evolution and cognition of musicality from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. Given the diversity of the project explored, integration of evidence from multiple fields is particularly pressing, required for any novel evolutionary account to be persuasive, and for the project’s continued progress. Moreover, Morley convincingly demonstrates that there is much more to understanding musicality than is supposed by some theorists. I outline Morley’s review (...) of the archaeological and ethnographic literature, and then go on to critique his assessment of philosophical and evolutionary theories, offering some alternative perspectives that might better benefit his project. (shrink)
Peran dunia pendidikan menjadi penting dalam membangun peradaban bangsa yang didasarkan atas jati diri dan karakter bangsa. Tema Hari Pendidikan Nasional Tahun 2012 ini adalah “Bangkitnya Generasi Emas Indonesia”. Tema ini sejalan dengan hakikat pendidikan yang telah ditekankan oleh Bapak Pendidikan Nasional yaitu Ki Hajar Dewantoro. Melalui pembangunan karakter bangsa, diharapkan dapat menciptakan manusia Indonesia yang unggul. Dalam penelitian ini, mengembangkan 6 (enam) nilai karakteristik yang wajib tertanam pada setiap diri mahasiswa. Karakteristik tersebut ditanamkan melalui proses perkuliahan yang diselenggarakan selama (...) 1 semester pada Mata Kuliah Matematika 1 di Jurusan PGMI Fakultas Tarbiyah Tahun Pelajaran 2011-2012. Pada mata kuliah ini, pendidikan karakter didekati melalui pemecahan masalah, yang merupakan bagian penting yang harus diajarkan kepada peserta didik. Pendekatan yang dilakukan adalah dengan metode inkulkasi (penanaman), yang ditempuh dengan memperhatikan perbedaan pada masing-masing peserta didik. Di sinilah penggolongan tipe kepribadian akan bermanfaat untuk menghargai perbedaan, sehingga bermanfaat bagi penunjang keberhasilan pembelajaran. Hasil yang diharapkan dari pembelajaran ini adalah peserta didik mampu memecahkan masalah dalam kehidupannya, dengan didasari oleh nilai yang sekaligus akan dapat mendukung pembangunan karakternya, sehingga pada akhirnya pendidikan karakter dapat tertanam. (shrink)