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    Instrumentalizing Failure: Edison's Invention of the Carbon Microphone.Ian Wills - 2007 - Annals of Science 64 (3):383-409.
    Summary For Thomas Edison, experiencing a failure did not mean that he had failed. Through an examination of the process that led to his invention of the carbon microphone, I argue that his positive approach to failure contributed both to his success as an inventor and to the functional success of his inventions. Edison's laboratory notebooks and legal testimony reveal that his seemingly erratic approach and reliance on trial and error methods in fact had a consistent direction and a rational (...)
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    First Page Preview.Ian Wills - 2007 - Annals of Science 64 (2).
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