37 found
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  1.  41
    Embedding Values in Artificial Intelligence (AI) Systems.Ibo van de Poel - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (3):385-409.
    Organizations such as the EU High-Level Expert Group on AI and the IEEE have recently formulated ethical principles and values that should be adhered to in the design and deployment of artificial intelligence. These include respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, fairness, transparency, explainability, and accountability. But how can we ensure and verify that an AI system actually respects these values? To help answer this question, I propose an account for determining when an AI system can be said to embody certain values. (...)
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  2. Ethics, Technology, and Engineering: An Introduction.Ibo van de Poel - 2011 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Featuring a unique systematic approach to dealing with ethical problems known as the 'ethical cycle, ' the book utilizes an abundance of real-life case studies ...
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  3. The Problem of Many Hands: Climate Change as an Example.Ibo van de Poel, Jessica Fahlquist, Neelke Doorn, Sjoerd Zwart & Lambèr Royakkers - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (1):49-67.
    In some situations in which undesirable collective effects occur, it is very hard, if not impossible, to hold any individual reasonably responsible. Such a situation may be referred to as the problem of many hands. In this paper we investigate how the problem of many hands can best be understood and why, and when, it exactly constitutes a problem. After analyzing climate change as an example, we propose to define the problem of many hands as the occurrence of a gap (...)
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  4.  38
    Engineering and the Problem of Moral Overload.Jeroen Van den Hoven, Gert-Jan Lokhorst & Ibo Van de Poel - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (1):143-155.
    When thinking about ethics, technology is often only mentioned as the source of our problems, not as a potential solution to our moral dilemmas. When thinking about technology, ethics is often only mentioned as a constraint on developments, not as a source and spring of innovation. In this paper, we argue that ethics can be the source of technological development rather than just a constraint and technological progress can create moral progress rather than just moral problems. We show this by (...)
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  5.  46
    An Ethical Framework for Evaluating Experimental Technology.Ibo van de Poel - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (3):667-686.
    How are we to appraise new technological developments that may bring revolutionary social changes? Currently this is often done by trying to predict or anticipate social consequences and to use these as a basis for moral and regulatory appraisal. Such an approach can, however, not deal with the uncertainties and unknowns that are inherent in social changes induced by technological development. An alternative approach is proposed that conceives of the introduction of new technologies into society as a social experiment. An (...)
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  6. Mapping Value Sensitive Design Onto AI for Social Good Principles.Steven Umbrello & Ibo van de Poel - 2021 - AI and Ethics 1:1-14.
    Value Sensitive Design (VSD) is an established method for integrating values into technical design. It has been applied to different technologies and, more recently, to artificial intelligence (AI). We argue that AI poses a number of challenges specific to VSD that require a somewhat modified VSD approach. Machine learning (ML), in particular, poses two challenges. First, humans may not understand how an AI system learns certain things. This requires paying attention to values such as transparency, explicability, and accountability. Second, ML (...)
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  7.  20
    Varieties of Responsibility: Two Problems of Responsible Innovation.Ibo van de Poel & Martin Sand - forthcoming - Synthese:1-19.
    The notion of responsible innovation suggests that innovators carry additional responsibilities beyond those commonly suggested. In this paper, we will discuss the meaning of these novel responsibilities focusing on two philosophical problems of attributing such responsibilities to innovators. The first is the allocation of responsibilities to innovators. Innovation is a process that involves a multiplicity of agents and unpredictable, far-reaching causal chains from innovation to social impacts, which creates great uncertainty. A second problem is constituted by possible trade-offs between different (...)
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  8.  53
    Nuclear Energy as a Social Experiment.Ibo van de Poel - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (3):285 - 290.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 3, Page 285-290, October 2011.
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  9.  6
    Editorial: Ethics and Engineering Design.Peter-Paul Verbeek & Ibo van de Poel - 2006 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 31 (3):223-236.
    Engineering ethics and science and technology studies have until now developed as separate enterprises. The authors argue that they can learn a lot from each other. STS insights can help make engineering ethics open the black box of technology and help discern ethical issues in engineering design. Engineering ethics, on the other hand, might help STS to overcome its normative sterility. The contributions in this special issue show in various ways how the gap between STS and engineering ethics might be (...)
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  10.  30
    Why New Technologies Should Be Conceived as Social Experiments.Ibo van de Poel - 2013 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (3):352-355.
  11.  46
    How Should We Do Nanoethics? A Network Approach for Discerning Ethical Issues in Nanotechnology.Ibo van de Poel - 2008 - NanoEthics 2 (1):25-38.
    There is no agreement on how nanoethics should proceed. In this article I focus on approaches for discerning ethical issues in nanotechnology, which is as of yet one of the most difficult and urging tasks for nanoethics. I discuss and criticize two existing approaches for discerning ethical issues in nanotechnology and propose a network approach as alternative. I discuss debates in nanoethics about the desirable role of ethics in nanotechnological development and about the newness of ethical issues in nanotechnology. On (...)
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  12. Moral Responsibility and the Problem of Many Hands.Ibo van de Poel, Lambèr Royakkers & Sjoerd D. Zwart - 2015 - Routledge.
    When many people are involved in an activity, it is often difficult, if not impossible, to pinpoint who is morally responsible for what, a phenomenon known as the ‘problem of many hands.’ This term is increasingly used to describe problems with attributing individual responsibility in collective settings in such diverse areas as public administration, corporate management, law and regulation, technological development and innovation, healthcare, and finance. This volume provides an in-depth philosophical analysis of this problem, examining the notion of moral (...)
     
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  13.  69
    Investigating Ethical Issues in Engineering Design.Ibo van de Poel - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (3):429-446.
    This paper aims at contributing to a research agenda in engineering ethics by exploring the ethical aspects of engineering design processes. A number of ethically relevant topics with respect to design processes are identified. These topics could be a subject for further research in the field of engineering ethics. In addition, it is argued that the way design processes are now organised and should be organised from a normative point of view is an important topic for research.
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  14.  24
    Safe-by-Design: From Safety to Responsibility.Ibo van de Poel & Zoë Robaey - 2017 - NanoEthics 11 (3):297-306.
    Safe-by-design aims at addressing safety issues already during the R&D and design phases of new technologies. SbD has increasingly become popular in the last few years for addressing the risks of emerging technologies like nanotechnology and synthetic biology. We ask to what extent SbD approaches can deal with uncertainty, in particular with indeterminacy, i.e., the fact that the actual safety of a technology depends on the behavior of actors in the value chain like users and operators. We argue that while (...)
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  15.  21
    How to Weigh Values in Value Sensitive Design: A Best Worst Method Approach for the Case of Smart Metering.Geerten van de Kaa, Jafar Rezaei, Behnam Taebi, Ibo van de Poel & Abhilash Kizhakenath - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):475-494.
    Proactively including the ethical and societal issues of new technologies could have a positive effect on their acceptance. These issues could be captured in terms of values. In the literature, the values stakeholders deem important for the development of technology have often been identified. However, the relative ranking of these values in relation to each other have not been studied often. The best worst method is proposed as a possible method to determine the weights of values, hence it is used (...)
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  16.  47
    A Network Approach for Distinguishing Ethical Issues in Research and Development.Sjoerd D. Zwart, Ibo van de Poel, Harald van Mil & Michiel Brumsen - 2006 - Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (4):663-684.
    In this paper we report on our experiences with using network analysis to discern and analyse ethical issues in research into, and the development of, a new wastewater treatment technology. Using network analysis, we preliminarily interpreted some of our observations in a Group Decision Room session where we invited important stakeholders to think about the risks of this new technology. We show how a network approach is useful for understanding the observations, and suggests some relevant ethical issues. We argue that (...)
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  17.  54
    Editors' Overview: Moral Responsibility in Technology and Engineering.Neelke Doorn & Ibo van de Poel - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (1):1-11.
    Editors’ Overview: Moral Responsibility in Technology and Engineering Content Type Journal Article Category Original Paper Pages 1-11 DOI 10.1007/s11948-011-9285-z Authors Neelke Doorn, Department of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5015, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands Ibo van de Poel, Department of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5015, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands Journal Science and Engineering Ethics Online ISSN 1471-5546 Print ISSN 1353-3452 Journal Volume Volume 18 Journal Issue Volume 18, (...)
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  18. Values in Engineering Design.Ibo Van de Poel - 2009 - In Anthonie W. M. Meijers (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Science. pp. 973-1006.
     
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  19.  20
    Design for Value Change.Ibo van de Poel - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  20.  45
    Designing Games to Teach Ethics.Peter Lloyd & Ibo van de Poel - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):433-447.
    This paper describes a teaching methodology whereby students can gain practical experience of ethical decision-making in the engineering design process. We first argue for the necessity to teach a ‘practical’ understanding of ethical issues in engineering education along with the usual theoretical or hypothetical approaches. We then show how this practical understanding can be achieved by using a collaborative design game, describing how, for example, the concept of responsibility can be explored from this practical basis. We conclude that the use (...)
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  21.  1
    Reflective Equilibrium in R & D Networks.Sjoerd D. Zwart & Ibo van de Poel - 2010 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 35 (2):174-199.
    In this article, we develop an approach for the moral assessment of research and development networks on the basis of the reflective equilibrium approach proposed by Rawls and Daniels. The reflective equilibrium approach aims at coherence between moral judgments, principles, and background theories. We use this approach because it takes seriously the moral judgments of the actors involved in R & D, whereas it also leaves room for critical reflection about these judgments. It is shown that two norms, namely reflective (...)
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  22.  44
    Teaching Ethics and Technology with Agora , an Electronic Tool.Simone van der Burg & Ibo van de Poel - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (2):277-297.
    Courses on ethics and technology have become compulsory for many students at the three Dutch technical universities during the past few years. During this time, teachers have faced a number of didactic problems, which are partly due to a growing number of students. In order to deal with these challenges, teachers in ethics at the three technical universities in the Netherlands — in Delft, Eindhoven and Twente — have developed a web-based computer program called Agora (see www.ethicsandtechnology.com). This program enables (...)
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  23.  26
    Moral Responsibility: Beyond Free Will and Determinism.Nicole Vincent, Ibo van de Poel & Jeroen van den Hoven (eds.) - 2011 - Springer.
    This book'¬"s chapters deal with a range of theoretical problems discussed in classic compatibilist literature '¬ ; e.g. the relationship between ...
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  24.  14
    The Food Warden: An Exploration of Issues in Distributing Responsibilities for Safe-by-Design Synthetic Biology Applications.Zoë Robaey, Shannon L. Spruit & Ibo van de Poel - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (6):1673-1696.
    The Safe-by-Design approach in synthetic biology holds the promise of designing the building blocks of life in an organism guided by the value of safety. This paves a new way for using biotechnologies safely. However, the Safe-by-Design approach moves the bulk of the responsibility for safety to the actors in the research and development phase. Also, it assumes that safety can be defined and understood by all stakeholders in the same way. These assumptions are problematic and might actually undermine safety. (...)
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  25.  1
    The Need for Ethical Reflection in Engineering Design: The Relevance of Type of Design and Design Hierarchy.A. C. van Gorp & Ibo van de Poel - 2006 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 31 (3):333-360.
    The authors explore whether the need for ethical reflection on the part of designing engineers is dependent on the type of design process. They use Vincenti's distinction between normal and radical design and different levels of design hierarchy. These two dimensions are coupled with the concept of ill-structured problems, which are problems in which possible solutions cannot be ordered on a scale from better to worse. Design problems are better structured at lower hierarchical levels and in cases of normal design. (...)
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  26.  24
    Informed Consent in Asymmetrical Relationships: An Investigation Into Relational Factors That Influence Room for Reflection.Shannon Lydia Spruit, Ibo van de Poel & Neelke Doorn - 2016 - NanoEthics 10 (2):123-138.
    In recent years, informed consent has been suggested as a way to deal with risks posed by engineered nanomaterials. We argue that while we can learn from experiences with informed consent in treatment and research contexts, we should be aware that informed consent traditionally pertains to certain features of the relationships between doctors and patients and researchers and research participants, rather than those between producers and consumers and employers and employees, which are more prominent in the case of engineered nanomaterials. (...)
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  27.  51
    A Special Section on Research in Engineering Ethics Towards a Research Programme for Ethics and Technology.Michiel Brumsen & Ibo van de Poel - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (3):365-378.
    In this editorial contribution, two issues relevant to the question, what should be at the top of the research agenda for ethics and technology, are identified and discussed. Firstly: can, and do, engineers make a difference to the degree to which technology leads to morally desirable outcomes? What role does professional autonomy play here, and what are its limits? And secondly, what should be the scope of engineers’ responsibility; that is to say, on which issues are they, as engineers, morally (...)
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  28. Philosophy and Engineering.Ibo van de Poel & David E. Goldberg (eds.) - 2010 - Springer.
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  29.  9
    Digital Platforms and Responsible Innovation: Expanding Value Sensitive Design to Overcome Ontological Uncertainty.Mark de Reuver, Aimee van Wynsberghe, Marijn Janssen & Ibo van de Poel - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):257-267.
    In this paper, we argue that the characteristics of digital platforms challenge the fundamental assumptions of value sensitive design. Traditionally, VSD methods assume that we can identify relevant values during the design phase of new technologies. The underlying assumption is that there is only epistemic uncertainty about which values will be impacted by a technology. VSD methods suggest that one can predict which values will be affected by new technologies by increasing knowledge about how values are interpreted or understood in (...)
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  30.  21
    Algorithms and values in justice and security.Paul Hayes, Ibo van de Poel & Marc Steen - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):533-555.
    This article presents a conceptual investigation into the value impacts and relations of algorithms in the domain of justice and security. As a conceptual investigation, it represents one step in a value sensitive design based methodology. Here, we explicate and analyse the expression of values of accuracy, privacy, fairness and equality, property and ownership, and accountability and transparency in this context. We find that values are sensitive to disvalue if algorithms are designed, implemented or deployed inappropriately or without sufficient consideration (...)
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  31. Moral Uncertainty in Technomoral Change: Bridging the Explanatory Gap.Philip J. Nickel, Olya Kudina & Ibo van de Poel - manuscript
    This paper explores the role of moral uncertainty in explaining the morally disruptive character of new technologies. We argue that existing accounts of technomoral change do not fully explain its disruptiveness. This explanatory gap can be bridged by examining the epistemic dimensions of technomoral change, focusing on moral uncertainty and inquiry. To develop this account, we examine three historical cases: the introduction of the early pregnancy test, the contraception pill, and brain death. The resulting account highlights what we call “differential (...)
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  32.  5
    Erratum To: Book Symposium on Peter Paul Verbeek’s Moralizing Technology: Understanding and Designing the Morality of Things. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.Evan Selinger, Don Ihde, Ibo van de Poel, Martin Peterson & Peter-Paul Verbeek - 2012 - Philosophy and Technology 25 (4):605-631.
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  33.  7
    Ethics for Responsible Innovation.Marc Steen, Martin Sand & Ibo Van de Poel - forthcoming - Business and Professional Ethics Journal.
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  34.  4
    Virtue Ethics for Responsible Innovation.Marc Steen, Martin Sand & Ibo Van de Poel - 2021 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 40 (2):243-268.
    Governments and companies are increasingly promoting and organizing Responsible Innovation. It is, however, unclear how the seemingly incompatible demands for responsibility, which is associated with care and caution, can be harmonized with demands for innovation, which is associated with risk-taking and speed. We turn to the tradition of virtue ethics and argue that it can be a strong accomplice to Responsible Innovation by focussing on the agential side of innovation. Virtue ethics offers an adequate response to the epistemic and moral (...)
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  35.  16
    COVID-19, Uncertainty, and Moral Experiments.Ibo Van de Poel & Michael Klenk - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (1):1-5.
    Pandemics like COVID-19 confront us with decisions about life and death that come with great uncertainty, factual as well as moral. How should policy makers deal with such uncertainty? We suggest that rather than to deliberate until they have found the right course of action, they better do moral experiments that generate relevant experiences to enable more reliable moral evaluations and rational decisions.
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  36.  7
    Introduction: Technology and Normativity.Ibo van de Poel & Peter Kroes - 2006 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 10 (1):1-6.
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  37.  28
    Teaching Ethics to Engineering Students. Interview with Professor Ibo Van de Poel Made on 25th September, 2014 at the Technical University of Delft by Eulalia Smuga-Fries During Her Internship There. [REVIEW]Ibo van de Poel & Eulalia Smuga-Fries - 2015 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 63 (1):213-216.
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