Results for 'Ideal theory'

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  1.  14
    Feasibility Beyond Non-Ideal Theory: A Realist Proposal.Ilaria Cozzaglio & Greta Favara - 2021 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 25 (3):417-432.
    Some realists in political theory deny that the notion of feasibility has any place in realist theory, while others claim that feasibility constraints are essential elements of realist normative theorising. But none have so far clarified what exactly they are referring to when thinking of feasibility and political realism together. In this article, we develop a conception of the realist feasibility frontier based on an appraisal of how political realism should be distinguished from non-ideal theories. In this (...)
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  2. Assessing Ideal Theories: Lessons From the Theory of Second Best.David Wiens - 2016 - Politics, Philosophy, and Economics 15 (2):132-149.
    Numerous philosophers allege that the "general theory of second best" (Lipsey and Lancaster, 1956) poses a challenge to the Target View, which asserts that real world reform efforts should aim to establish arrangements that satisfy the constitutive features of ideal just states of affairs. I demonstrate two claims that are relevant in this context. First, I show that the theory of second best fails to present a compelling challenge to the Target View in general. But, second, the (...)
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  3. Debate: Ideal Theory—A Reply to Valentini.Holly Lawford-Smith - 2010 - Journal of Political Philosophy 18 (3):357-368.
    In her ‘On the apparent paradox of ideal theory’, Laura Valentini combines three supposedly plausible premises to derive the paradoxical result that ideal theory is both unable to, and indispensable for, guiding action. Her strategy is to undermine one of the three premises by arguing that there are good and bad kinds of ideal theory, and only the bad kinds are vulnerable to the strongest version of their opponents’ attack. By undermining one of the (...)
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  4. Ideal Vs. Non‐Ideal Theory: A Conceptual Map.Laura Valentini - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (9):654-664.
    This article provides a conceptual map of the debate on ideal and non‐ideal theory. It argues that this debate encompasses a number of different questions, which have not been kept sufficiently separate in the literature. In particular, the article distinguishes between the following three interpretations of the ‘ideal vs. non‐ideal theory’ contrast: full compliance vs. partial compliance theory; utopian vs. realistic theory; end‐state vs. transitional theory. The article advances critical reflections on (...)
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  5. Ideal Theory” as Ideology.Charles W. Mills - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (3):165-184.
  6.  47
    Rawls’s Ideal Theory: A Clarification and Defense.D. C. Matthew - 2019 - Res Publica 25 (4):553-570.
    In recent work in political philosophy there has been much discussion of two approaches to theorizing about justice that have come to be called ‘ideal theory’ and ‘non-ideal theory’. The distinction was originally articulated by Rawls, who defended his focus on ideal theory in terms of a supposed ‘priority’ of the latter over non-ideal theory. Many critics have rejected this claim of priority and in general have questioned the usefulness of ideal (...)
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  7. Ideal Theory in Theory and Practice.Ingrid Robeyns - 2008 - Social Theory and Practice 34 (3):341-362.
  8. Ideal Theory” as Ideology.Charles W. Mills - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (3):165-183.
  9.  7
    Rawls’s Ideal Theory: A Clarification and Defense.D. C. Matthew - 2019 - Res Publica 25 (4):553-570.
    In recent work in political philosophy there has been much discussion of two approaches to theorizing about justice that have come to be called ‘ideal theory’ and ‘non-ideal theory’. The distinction was originally articulated by Rawls, who defended his focus on ideal theory in terms of a supposed ‘priority’ of the latter over non-ideal theory. Many critics have rejected this claim of priority and in general have questioned the usefulness of ideal (...)
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  10. Ideal Theory” as Ideology.Charles W. Mills - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (3):165-184.
  11. What (If Anything) is Ideological About Ideal Theory?Titus Stahl - 2022 - European Journal of Political Theory:147488512211071.
    It is sometimes argued that ideal theories in political philosophy are a form of ideology. This article examines arguments building on the work of Charles Mills and Raymond Geuss for the claim that ideal theories are cognitively distorting belief systems that have the effect of stabilizing unjust social arrangements. I argue that Mills and Geuss neither succeed in establishing that the content of ideal theories is necessarily cognitively defective in the way characteristic for ideologies, nor can they (...)
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  12. The Ideal Theory of Berkeley, and the Real World.Thomas Hughes - 1865 - Theclassics.Us.
    This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1865 edition. Excerpt:... PART II. BERKELEY'S PHILOSOPHY: SECTION XIV. Bishop Berkeley is best known by the system of idealism developed by him. This theory is unfolded in two works, called "The Principles of Human Knowledge/' and "Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous."t If it were not for this system, the name (...)
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  13. Prescribing Institutions Without Ideal Theory.David Wiens - 2012 - Journal of Political Philosophy 20 (1):45-70.
    It is conventional wisdom among political philosophers that ideal principles of justice must guide our attempts to design institutions to avert actual injustice. Call this the ideal guidance approach. I argue that this view is misguided— ideal principles of justice are not appropriate "guiding principles" that actual institutions must aim to realize, even if only approximately. Fortunately, the conventional wisdom is also avoidable. In this paper, I develop an alternative approach to institutional design, which I call institutional (...)
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  14. Ideal Theory and "Ought Implies Can".Amy Berg - 2018 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 99 (4):869-890.
    When we can’t live up to the ultimate standards of morality, how can moral theory give us guidance? We can distinguish between ideal and non-ideal theory to see that there are different versions of the voluntarist constraint, ‘ought implies can.’ Ideal moral theory identifies the best standard, so its demands are constrained by one version. Non-ideal theory tells us what to do given our psychological and motivational shortcomings and so is constrained by (...)
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  15.  77
    Beyond Ideal Theory: Foundations for a Critical Rawlsian Theory of Climate Justice.Paul Clements & Paul Formosa - forthcoming - New Political Science:1-20.
    Rawls’s contractualist approach to justice is well known for its adoption of ideal theory. This approach starts by setting out the political goal or ideal and leaves it to non-ideal or partial compliance theory to map out how to get there. However, Rawls’s use of ideal theory has been criticized by Sen from the right and by Mouffe from the left. We critically address these concerns in the context of developing a Rawlsian approach (...)
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  16.  88
    Incomplete Ideal Theory.Amy Berg - 2019 - Social Theory and Practice 45 (4):501-524.
    What is the best way to make sustained societal progress over time? Non-ideal theory done on its own faces the problem of second best, but ideal theory seems unable to cope with disagreement about how to make progress. If ideal theory gives up its claims to completeness, then we can use the method of incompletely theorized agreements to make progress over time.
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  17. Climate Change and Non-Ideal Theory: Six Ways of Responding to Noncompliance.Simon Caney - 2016 - In Clare Heyward & Dominic Roser (eds.), Climate Justice in a Non-Ideal World. Oxford University Press. pp. 21-42.
    This paper examines what agents should do when others fail to comply with their responsibilities to prevent dangerous climate change. It distinguishes between six different possible responses to noncompliance. These include what I term (1) 'target modification' (watering down the extent to which we seek to prevent climate change), (2) ‘responsibility reallocation’ (reassigning responsibilities to other duty bearers), (3) ‘burden shifting I’ (allowing duty bearers to implement policies which impose unjust burdens on others, (4) 'burden shifting II’ (allowing some to (...)
     
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  18. Justice in Ideal Theory: A Refutation.Colin Farrelly - unknown
    Political philosophers have recently begun to take seriously methodological questions concerning what a theoretical examination of political ideals is suppose to accomplish and how effective theorising in ideal theory is in securing those aims. Andrew Mason and G.A. Cohen, for example, believe that the fundamental principles of justice are logically independent of issues of feasibility and questions about human nature. Their position contrasts sharply with political theorists like John Dunn and Joseph Carens who believe that normative theorising must (...)
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  19. Geoengineering and Non-Ideal Theory.David R. Morrow & Toby Svoboda - 2016 - Public Affairs Quarterly 30 (1):85-104.
    The strongest arguments for the permissibility of geoengineering (also known as climate engineering) rely implicitly on non-ideal theory—roughly, the theory of justice as applied to situations of partial compliance with principles of ideal justice. In an ideally just world, such arguments acknowledge, humanity should not deploy geoengineering; but in our imperfect world, society may need to complement mitigation and adaptation with geoengineering to reduce injustices associated with anthropogenic climate change. We interpret research proponents’ arguments as an (...)
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  20.  1
    Introduction: Methodology and Non-Ideal Theory in Christine Hobden’s Citizenship in a Globalised World. [REVIEW]Stephanie Collins - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-5.
    This contribution examines the methodology of Christine Hobden’s Citizenship in a Globalised World. It introduces some concepts, themes, and arguments that arise in the discussion by the three commentators Ashwini Vasanthamukar, Anna Stilz, and Shuk Ying Chan in this book symposium. It then examines Hobden’s approach to non-ideal political theorising and her proposal for citizens’ responsibilities.
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  21. Ideal Theory Bioethics and the Exclusion of People with Severe Cognitive Disabilities.Eva Feder Kittay - 2009 - In Hilde Lindemann, Marian Verkerk & Margaret Urban Walker (eds.), Naturalized Bioethics: Toward Responsible Knowing and Practice. Cambridge University Press.
  22.  58
    Ideal Theory in an Nth-Best World: The Case of Pauper Labor.Joseph Heath - 2013 - Journal of Global Ethics 9 (2):159 - 172.
    One of the most troubling features of international trade is that it often involves exchange between individuals facing dramatically different life circumstances, who therefore derive different levels of benefit from the exchange. Most obviously, wages are extremely low in underdeveloped countries. However, the principle underlying these wages is the same as the one the dictates wage levels in wealthy countries. It is, therefore, difficult to criticize the wages paid to ?pauper labor? without at the same time criticizing the way that (...)
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  23. What’s Ideal About Ideal Theory?Zofia Stemplowska - 2008 - Social Theory and Practice 34 (3):319-340.
  24. Tragedies of Non-Ideal Theory.Robert Jubb - 2012 - European Journal of Political Theory 11 (3):229-246.
    This paper has three aims. First, it argues that the present use of ‘ideal theory’ is unhelpful, and that an earlier and apparently more natural use focusing on perfection would be preferable. Second, it has tried to show that revision of the use of the term would better expose two distinctive normative issues, and illustrated that claim by showing how some contributors to debates about ideal theory have gone wrong partly through not distinguishing them. Third, in (...)
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  25.  12
    Ideal Theory for a Complex World.Jeffrey Carroll - 2022 - Res Publica 28 (3):531-550.
    The modern social world is unjust. It is also complex. What does this latter fact imply about the kind of approach that should be used in ameliorating the injustice expressed in the former fact? One answer, recently put forth by Jacob Barrett, is that ideal theory, which he understands as being fundamentally defined by the identification and subsequent pursuit of an aspirational macro-level institutional goal, lacks a place in social reform. The reason he thinks ideal theory (...)
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  26. Confirming Idealized Theories and Scientific Realism.Chuang Liu - unknown
    Two types of idealization in theory construction are distinguished, and the distinction is used to give a critique of Ron Laymon's account of confirming idealized theories and his argument for scientific realism.
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  27. Three Failed Charges Against Ideal Theory.Eva Erman & Niklas Möller - 2013 - Social Theory and Practice 39 (1):19-44.
    An intensified discussion on the role of normative ideals has re-emerged in several debates in political philosophy. What is often referred to as “ideal theory,” represented by liberal egalitarians such as John Rawls, is under attack from those that stress that political philosophy at large should take much more seriously the nonideal circumstances consisting of relations of domination and power under which normative ideals, principles, and ideas are supposed to be applied. While the debate so far has mainly (...)
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  28.  1
    Ideal Code, Real World: A Rule-Consequentialist Theory of Morality.Brad Hooker - 2000 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Ideal Code, Real World is a powerful presentation of rule-consequentialism, an ethical theory of which Brad Hooker is a leading contemporary exponent. According to rule-consequentialism, acts are to be assessed in terms of rules, and rules are to be assessed by their consequences. Hooker starts by establishing appropriate criteria for assessing a theory of morality. He then sets out his rule-consequentialism, discusses criticisms and rival theories, and considers implications of the theory for practical issues.
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  29.  66
    Non-Ideal Theory and Gender Voluntarism in Against Purity.Kathryn J. Norlock - 2018 - Apa Newsletter on Feminism and Philosophy 18 (1):1-5.
    In Against Purity, Alexis Shotwell takes up a multiplicity of tasks with respect to what I think of as non-ideal ethical theory. In what follows, I trace the relationship of her work to that of non-ideal theorists whose work influences mine. Then, more critically, I probe her analysis of gender voluntarism in Chapter 5, “Practicing Freedom: Disability and Gender Transformation,” partly to better understand what she takes it to be, and partly to advance a cautious defense of (...)
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  30. Is Ideal Theory Useless for Non-Ideal Theory?Eva Erman & Niklas Möller - forthcoming - Journal of Politics.
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  31. Race, Ideology, and Ideal Theory.James Boettcher - 2009 - Metaphilosophy 40 (2):237-259.
    Abstract: Philosophers who have addressed the problems of enduring racial injustice have been suspicious of the role played by ideal theory in ethics and political philosophy generally, and in contemporary liberal political philosophy in particular. The theoretical marginalization of race in the work of Rawls has led some to charge that ideal theory is at the very least unhelpful in understanding one of the most significant forms of contemporary injustice, and is at worst ideological in the (...)
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  32.  64
    Can Rawls’s Non-Ideal Theory Save His Ideal Theory?Hye-Ryoung Kang - 2016 - Social Theory and Practice 42 (1):32-56.
    Critical attention directed to John Rawls ’s ideal theory has in particular leveled three charges against it: first, its infeasibility; second, its inadequacy for providing normative guidance on actual injustices; and third, its insensitivity to the justice concerns of marginalized groups. Recently, advocates for Rawls ’s ideal theory have replied that problems arising at the stage of ideal theory can be addressed at the later stage of his nonideal theory. This article disputes that (...)
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  33.  82
    Ideal and Non‐Ideal Theory and the Problem of Knowledge.Lisa Herzog - 2012 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (4):271-288.
    This article analyses a hitherto neglected problem at the transition from ideal to non‐ideal theory: the problem of knowledge. Ideal theories often make idealising assumptions about the availability of knowledge, for example knowledge of social scientific facts. This can lead to problems when this knowledge turns out not to be available at the non‐ideal level. Knowledge can be unavailable in a number of ways: in principle, for practical reasons, or because there are normative reasons not (...)
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  34. The Value of Ideal Theory.Matthew Adams - 2020 - In Jon Mandle & Sarah Roberts-Cady (eds.), John Rawls: Debating the Major Questions.
    This chapter delineates two types of ideal theory that are found in Rawls’s corpus of work. The first is ideal-method theory, which is theory constructed using idealizing assumptions that do not directly correspond with the actual world. The second is ideal-content theory, namely criteria for assessing whether something is a perfectly justice institution. The chapter provides an independent justification for both types of theory, arguing that ideal-method theory is valuable within (...)
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  35.  31
    Explanation by Idealized Theories.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2018 - Kairos 20 (1):43-63.
    The use of idealized scientific theories in explanations of empirical facts and regularities is problematic in two ways: they don’t satisfy the condition that the explanans is true, and they may fail to entail the explanandum. An attempt to deal with the latter problem was proposed by Hempel and Popper with their notion of approximate explanation. A more systematic perspective on idealized explanations was developed with the method of idealization and concretization by the Poznan school in the 1970s. If idealizational (...)
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  36.  67
    Kant, Ideal Theory, and the Justice of Exclusionary Zoning.Sarah Williams Holtman - 1999 - Ethics 110 (1):32-58.
  37.  17
    Ideal Theory: True and False. [REVIEW]Peter Stone - 2021 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 24 (1):375-380.
    In The Tyranny of the Ideal, Gerald Gaus offers a critique of ideal theory, as practiced by political philosophers from Plato to the present day. This critique rests upon a formal model Gaus develops of a theory of the ideal. This model supposedly captures the essential features of any theory that both identifies an ideal society and uses that society to orient political activity. A theory must do the former or fail to (...)
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  38.  19
    Non-Ideal Theory and the Application of Cautionary Precepts.David Lyons - 2017 - Journal of Global Ethics 13 (1):40-51.
    This paper discusses non-ideal theory as guidance for making bad situations better by morally permissible means. It distinguishes constructive theorizing, which suggests ways of improving specific kinds of bad situation, from cautionary theory, which concerns moral risks of actions under bad conditions. Reflective moral judgment yields cautionary precepts, identifying presumptively unjustifiable modes of action. The paper illustrates the application of precepts cautioning about coercion and the exposure of others to significant risks, by considering the 1955–1956 bus boycott (...)
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  39.  17
    The Non-Ideal Theory of the Aharonov–Bohm Effect.John Dougherty - 2020 - Synthese (12):12195-12221.
    Elay Shech and John Earman have recently argued that the common topological interpretation of the Aharonov–Bohm (AB) effect is unsatisfactory because it fails to justify idealizations that it presupposes. In particular, they argue that an adequate account of the AB effect must address the role of boundary conditions in certain ideal cases of the effect. In this paper I defend the topological interpretation against their criticisms. I consider three types of idealization that might arise in treatments of the effect. (...)
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  40.  14
    Ideal Theory and Action-Guidance.Naima Chahboun - 2019 - Social Theory and Practice 45 (4):549-578.
    This article clarifies the disagreement concerning ideal theory’s action-guiding capacity through the unpacking of two underlying disagreements. The first concerns the threshold for action-guidance on the scales of empirical and normative determinacy; I argue that the dispute between critics and proponents of ideal theory is not about whether ideal principles offer some specific information, but about which information should count as action-guiding. The second concerns the task of normative principles; I argue that the different weight (...)
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  41. When is Non-Ideal Theory Too Ideal? Adaptive Preferences, Children, and Ideal Theory.Rosa Terlazzo - 2017 - In Kevin Vallier & Michael Weber (eds.), Political Utopias: Contemporary Debates. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 233-252.
    Political philosophers working on ideal and non-ideal theory sometimes seem to be stuck in a bind: while ideal theory risks being too ideal to be useful in the real world, non-ideal theory risks being so non-ideal that it stops far short of justice. In this paper, I highlight a third – and equally unappealing – possibility: that non-ideal theory, precisely because of its obvious engagement with real-world problems, might fail (...)
     
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  42. The Challenges of Ideal Theory and Appeal of Secular Apocalyptic Thought.Ben Jones - 2020 - European Journal of Political Theory 19 (4):465-488.
    Why do thinkers hostile or agnostic toward Christianity find in its apocalyptic doctrines—often seen as bizarre—appealing tools for interpreting politics? This article tackles that puzzle. First, i...
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  43.  33
    Justice, Feasibility, and Ideal Theory: A Pluralist Approach.Andrew Mason - 2016 - Social Philosophy and Policy 33 (1-2):32-54.
    :A qualified pluralism is defended that recognizes value in a variety of forms of political theory and resists arguments that purport to show that one particular approach should occupy a privileged position. Against realists, it is argued that abstract analyses of political values that bracket a wide range of facts about people and their circumstances can be both coherent and important, whereas against those who think “ideal theory” or the identification of ultimate principles should come first, it (...)
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  44.  38
    What is an Ideal Theory in Political Philosophy?Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    I present two senses in which a political philosophy may be an ideal theory. They are not identified by Laura Valentini, in her much-cited paper. The paper is written as a pastiche of the writing style of the distinguished legal and political philosopher Joseph Raz, who recently passed away, with my notes at the foot of the page within square brackets.
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  45. Comparative Assessments of Justice, Political Feasibility, and Ideal Theory.Pablo Gilabert - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (1):39-56.
    What should our theorizing about social justice aim at? Many political philosophers think that a crucial goal is to identify a perfectly just society. Amartya Sen disagrees. In The Idea of Justice, he argues that the proper goal of an inquiry about justice is to undertake comparative assessments of feasible social scenarios in order to identify reforms that involve justice-enhancement, or injustice-reduction, even if the results fall short of perfect justice. Sen calls this the “comparative approach” to the theory (...)
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  46. The Case for Ideal Theory.Laura Valentini - 2018 - In Robyn Eckersley & Chris Brown (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of International Political Theory. New York, NY, USA: pp. 664-676.
  47.  16
    Normative Behaviourism as a Solution to Four Problems in Realism and Non-Ideal Theory.Jonathan Floyd - 2018 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-26.
  48. Ideal Theories and Truth: Putnam's Argument for the Epistemic Nature of Truth.Carsten Hansen - 1986 - Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 23:17-40.
     
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  49.  73
    The Incompleteness of Ideal Theory.Jörg Schaub - 2014 - Res Publica 20 (4):413-439.
    Can one give an account of a perfectly just society without invoking principles governing our responses to injustice? My claim is that addressing this question puts us in a position to reveal ambiguities and problems with the way in which Rawls draws the ideal/nonideal theory distinction that have so far gone unnoticed. In the first part of my paper, I demonstrate that Rawls’s original definition of the ideal/nonideal theory distinction is ambiguous as it is composed of (...)
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  50.  16
    The Genesis of Ideal Theory.Harold M. Edwards - 1980 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 23 (4):321-378.
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