Results for 'Idealisation'

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  1. Models, Idealisations, and Realism.Juha Saatsi - 2016 - In Emiliano Ippoliti, Fabio Sterpetti & Thomas Nickles (eds.), Models and Inferences in Science. Cham: Springer.
    I explore a challenge that idealisations pose to scientific realism and argue that the realist can best accommodate idealisations by capitalising on certain modal features of idealised models that are underwritten by laws of nature.
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  2. Idealisations in normative models.Mark Colyvan - 2013 - Synthese 190 (8):1337-1350.
    In this paper I discuss the kinds of idealisations invoked in normative theories—logic, epistemology, and decision theory. I argue that very often the so-called norms of rationality are in fact mere idealisations invoked to make life easier. As such, these idealisations are not too different from various idealisations employed in scientific modelling. Examples of the latter include: fluids are incompressible (in fluid mechanics), growth rates are constant (in population ecology), and the gravitational influence of distant bodies can be ignored (in (...)
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  3.  37
    An idealised account of mechanistic computation.Luke Kersten - 2024 - Synthese 203 (99):1-23.
    The mechanistic account of computation offers one promising and influential theory of computational implementation. The aim of this paper is to shore up its conceptual foundations by responding to several recent challenges. After outlining and responding to a recent proposal from Kuokkanen (2022a), I suggest that computational description should be conceptualised as a form of idealisation (selectively attending to modified subsets of model features) rather than abstraction (selectively attending to subsets of features within a target system). I argue that (...)
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  4.  65
    Idealisation, naturalism, and rationality: Some lessons from minimal rationality.C. A. Hooker - 1994 - Synthese 99 (2):181 - 231.
    In his bookMinimal Rationality (1986), Christopher Cherniak draws deep and widespread conclusions from our finitude, and not only for philosophy but also for a wide range of science as well. Cherniak's basic idea is that traditional philosophical theories of rationality represent idealisations that are inaccessible to finite rational agents. It is the purpose of this paper to apply a theory of idealisation in science to Cherniak's arguments. The heart of the theory is a distinction between idealisations that represent reversible, (...)
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  5. False idealisation: A philosophical threat to scientific method.Nancy Cartwright - 1995 - Philosophical Studies 77 (2-3):339 - 352.
  6. Credibility, Idealisation, and Model Building: An Inferential Approach.Xavier Donato Rodríguez & Jesús Zamora Bonilla - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):101-118.
    In this article we defend the inferential view of scientific models and idealisation. Models are seen as “inferential prostheses” (instruments for surrogative reasoning) construed by means of an idealisation-concretisation process, which we essentially understand as a kind of counterfactual deformation procedure (also analysed in inferential terms). The value of scientific representation is understood in terms not only of the success of the inferential outcomes arrived at with its help, but also of the heuristic power of representation and their (...)
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  7.  8
    Idealisation in Greek Geometry.Justin Humphreys - 2023 - Ancient Philosophy Today 5 (2):178-198.
    Some philosophers hold that mathematics depends on idealising assumptions. While these thinkers typically emphasise the role of idealisation in set theory, Edmund Husserl argues that idealisation is constitutive of the early Greek geometry that is codified by Euclid. This paper takes up Husserl's idea by investigating three major developments of Greek geometry: Thalean analogical idealisation, Hippocratean dynamic idealisation, and Archimedean mechanical idealisation. I argue that these idealisations are not, as Husserl held, primarily a matter of (...)
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  8.  33
    Idealisations and the no-miracle argument.Quentin Ruyant - manuscript
    The fact that many scientific models are idealised, and therefore incorporate known falsehoods, seems to undermine the idea that science aims at truth. Various authors have proposed different solutions to this problem: they have claimed that idealisations are harmless because models can be "de-idealised", that the function of idealisations is to isolate explanatory relevant factors, or that idealised models still convey veridical modal information. I argue that even if these strategies succeed in making idealisations compatible with theoretical truth, a deeper (...)
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  9. Idealisation in Natural Language Semantics: Truth-Conditions for Radical Contextualists.Gabe Dupre - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    In this paper, I shall provide a novel response to the argument from context-sensitivity against truth-conditional semantics. It is often argued that the contextual influences on truth-conditions outstrip the resources of standard truth-conditional accounts, and so truth-conditional semantics rests on a mistake. The argument assumes that truth-conditional semantics is legitimate if and only if natural language sentences have truth-conditions. I shall argue that this assumption is mistaken. Truth-conditional analyses should be viewed as idealised approximations of the complexities of natural language (...)
     
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  10.  21
    Idealisation in semantics: truth-conditional semantics for radical contextualists.Gabe Dupre - 2023 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 66 (5):917-946.
    In this paper, I shall provide a novel response to the argument from context-sensitivity against truth-conditional semantics. It is often argued that the contextual influences on truth-conditions outstrip the resources of standard truth-conditional accounts, and so truth-conditional semantics rests on a mistake. The argument assumes that truth-conditional semantics is legitimate if and only if natural language sentences have truth-conditions. I shall argue that this assumption is mistaken. Truth-conditional analyses should be viewed as idealised approximations of the complexities of natural language (...)
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  11. Idealisation and Mathematisation in Cassirer's Critical Idealism.Thomas Mormann - 2004 - In Donald Gillies (ed.), Laws and Models in Science. London, England: KIng's College Publications. pp. 139 - 159.
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  12.  7
    The Idealised Style of Vesalius’s Fabrica Illustrations.Hannah Burgess - 2014 - Dissertation, School of Art History
    Vesalius wrote nothing about the aesthetics of the anatomical illustrations found in his De humani corporis fabrica (1543). There are, however, two passages in this work that offer a starting point for an investigation into the illustration’s idealised style. In discussing the body that is best for a public dissection Vesalius says that it must be one that resembles the ‘Canon of Polycleitus’, and later, he refers to his pursuit of the historia absoluti hominis or historia of the perfect man. (...)
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  13. Credibility, idealisation, and model building: An inferential approach.Xavier Donato Rodríguedez & Jesús Zamora Bonilla - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1).
    In this article we defend the inferential view of scientific models and idealisation. Models are seen as “inferential prostheses” (instruments for surrogative reasoning) construed by means of an idealisation-concretisation process, which we essentially understand as a kind of counterfactual deformation procedure (also analysed in inferential terms). The value of scientific representation is understood in terms not only of the success of the inferential outcomes arrived at with its help, but also of the heuristic power of representation and their (...)
     
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  14. Deflationary realism: Representation and idealisation in cognitive science.Dimitri Coelho Mollo - 2021 - Mind and Language 37 (5):1048-1066.
    Debate on the nature of representation in cognitive systems tends to oscillate between robustly realist views and various anti‐realist options. I defend an alternative view, deflationary realism, which sees cognitive representation as an offshoot of the extended application to cognitive systems of an explanatory model whose primary domain is public representation use. This extended application, justified by a common explanatory target, embodies idealisations, partial mismatches between model and reality. By seeing representation as part of an idealised model, deflationary realism avoids (...)
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  15.  23
    Credibility, Idealisation, and Model Building: An Inferential Approach.Xavier De Donato Rodriguez & Jesus Zamora Bonilla - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):101-118.
    In this article we defend the inferential view of scientific models and idealisation. Models are seen as “inferential prostheses” (instruments for surrogative reasoning) construed by means of an idealisation-concretisation process, which we essentially understand as a kind of counterfactual deformation procedure (also analysed in inferential terms). The value of scientific representation is understood in terms not only of the success of the inferential outcomes arrived at with its help, but also of the heuristic power of representation and their (...)
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  16. Mechanist idealisation in systems biology.Dingmar van Eck & Cory Wright - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):1555-1575.
    This paper adds to the philosophical literature on mechanistic explanation by elaborating two related explanatory functions of idealisation in mechanistic models. The first function involves explaining the presence of structural/organizational features of mechanisms by reference to their role as difference-makers for performance requirements. The second involves tracking counterfactual dependency relations between features of mechanisms and features of mechanistic explanandum phenomena. To make these functions salient, we relate our discussion to an exemplar from systems biological research on the mechanism for (...)
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  17. Explanation, Idealisation and the Goldilocks Problem.Brian Weatherson - 2012 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 84 (2):461-473.
    Michael Strevens’s book Depth is a great achievement.1 To say anything interesting, useful and true about explanation requires taking on fundamental issues in the metaphysics and epistemology of science. So this book not only tells us a lot about scientific explanation, it has a lot to say about causation, lawhood, probability and the relation between the physical and the special sciences. It should be read by anyone interested in any of those questions, which includes presumably the vast majority of readers (...)
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  18.  28
    L'idealisation Kantienne de la république : Kant contre Rousseau.B. Bourgeois - 1993 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 55 (2):293 - 306.
    According to Kant there is not just a current 'republican morality', as if a republic could be anything else but morality. The republican state is the morality of politics. However, this does not mean that politics has to be made subservient to the ethical order. In itself the state implies for everybody the absolute requirement of submission to the law. Republican morality might and should inspire whichever political body, since the republic is neither a structure (a form of sovereignty) nor (...)
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  19.  22
    Idealised versus tainted femininity: discourses of the menstrual experience in Australian magazines that target young women.Maree Raftos, Debra Jackson & Judy Mannix - 1998 - Nursing Inquiry 5 (3):174-186.
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  20. Scientific progress and idealisation.Insa Lawler - 2022 - In Yafeng Shan (ed.), New Philosophical Perspectives on Scientific Progress. New York: Routledge.
    Intuitively, science progresses from truth to truth. A glance at history quickly reveals that this idea is mistaken. We often learn from scientific theories that turned out to be false. This chapter focuses on a different challenge: Idealisations are deliberately and ubiquitously used in science. Scientists thus work with assumptions that are known to be false. Any account of scientific progress needs to account for this widely accepted scientific practice. It is examined how the four dominant accounts—the problem-solving account, the (...)
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  21. Gradual de-idealisation and progress in political science: a case study.Mateusz Wajzer - 2024 - Synthese 203 (6):1-25.
    This article contributes to the discussion regarding the relationship between idealisation, de-idealisation and cognitive scientific progress. In this, I raise the question of the significance of the gradual de-idealisation procedure for constructing political science theories. I show that conceptions that assume the reversibility of the idealisation process can be an extremely useful theoretical perspective in reconstructions of political science modelling and analyses of scientific progress in political science. I base my position on the results of the (...)
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  22. Idealisations in the Philosophy of Language.Gad Prudovsky - 1991
     
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  23.  16
    Idéalisation du conjugal et fragilisation du couple, ou le paradoxe de l'individualisme relationnel.Gérard Neyrand - 2002 - Dialogue: Families & Couples 155 (1):80.
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  24. On idealisation in the exact sciences.Ladislav Kvasz - 2012 - Filosoficky Casopis 60 (4):483-503.
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  25.  12
    Idealisation.Jac Ladyman - unknown
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  26. A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: Idealisations and the aims of polygenic scores.Davide Serpico - 2023 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 102 (C):72-83.
    Research in pharmacogenomics and precision medicine has recently introduced the concept of Polygenic Scores (PGSs), namely, indexes that aggregate the effects that many genetic variants are predicted to have on individual disease risk. The popularity of PGSs is increasing rapidly, but surprisingly little attention has been paid to the idealisations they make about phenotypic development. Indeed, PGSs rely on quantitative genetics models and methods, which involve considerable theoretical assumptions that have been questioned on various grounds. This comes with epistemological and (...)
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  27.  69
    Identity conditions, idealisations and isomorphisms: a defence of the Semantic Approach.Steven French - 2016 - Synthese:1-21.
    In this paper I begin with a recent challenge to the Semantic Approach and identify an underlying assumption, namely that identity conditions for theories should be provided. Drawing on previous work, I suggest that this demand should be resisted and that the Semantic Approach should be seen as a philosophical device that we may use to represent certain features of scientific practice. Focussing on the partial structures variant of that approach, I then consider a further challenge that arises from a (...)
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  28.  13
    Identity conditions, idealisations and isomorphisms: a defence of the Semantic Approach.Steven French - 2017 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 24):5897-5917.
    In this paper I begin with a recent challenge to the Semantic Approach and identify an underlying assumption, namely that identity conditions for theories should be provided. Drawing on previous work, I suggest that this demand should be resisted and that the Semantic Approach should be seen as a philosophical device that we may use to represent certain features of scientific practice. Focussing on the partial structures variant of that approach, I then consider a further challenge that arises from a (...)
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  29. The Idealised Subject of Freedom and the Refugee.Shahin Nasiri (ed.) - 2023 - London: Routledge.
    As with terms such as “human rights”, “democracy”, and “equality”, the notion of “freedom” has an emblematic character with highly normative overtones. After the declaration of universal human rights, one might argue that freedom is – at least formally – a universal entitlement belonging to every human being. However, this universalist structure is built upon a conflictual foundation, as the juridico-political meaning of freedom is determined by the boundaries of national citizenship, statehood, and territorial sovereignty. This chapter examines refugeehood as (...)
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  30.  17
    Reconsidering idealisation.Jennifer M. Morton - 2016 - The Philosophers' Magazine 72:83-84.
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  31. The Idealisation of Rural Life and Rural Health Care.Fiona McDonald & Christy Simpson - 2017 - In Fiona McDonald & Christy Simpson (eds.), Rethinking Rural Health Ethics. Cham: Springer Verlag.
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  32.  82
    Unrealistic models for realistic computations: how idealisations help represent mathematical structures and found scientific computing.Philippos Papayannopoulos - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):249-283.
    We examine two very different approaches to formalising real computation, commonly referred to as “Computable Analysis” and “the BSS approach”. The main models of computation underlying these approaches—bit computation and BSS, respectively—have also been put forward as appropriate foundations for scientific computing. The two frameworks offer useful computability and complexity results about problems whose underlying domain is an uncountable space. Since typically the problems dealt with in physical sciences, applied mathematics, economics, and engineering are also defined in uncountable domains, it (...)
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  33. How (not) to think about idealisation and ceteris paribus -laws.Robert Kowalenko - 2009 - Synthese 167 (1):183-201.
    "Semantic dispositionalism" is the theory that a speaker's meaning something by a given linguistic symbol is determined by her dispositions to use the symbol in a certain way. According to an objection by Kripke, further elaborated in Kusch :156–163, 2005), semantic dispositionalism involves ceteris paribus-clauses and idealisations, such as unbounded memory, that deviate from standard scientific methodology. I argue that Kusch misrepresents both ceteris paribus-laws and idealisation, neither of which factually "approximate" the behaviour of agents or the course of (...)
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  34.  5
    Platon et la vieillesse : idéalisation du grand 'ge ou valorisation de l’ancien?Laetitia Monteils-Laeng - 2019 - Revue de Philosophie Ancienne 2:153-178.
    La vieillesse suffit-elle à produire la vertu et la sagesse? Loin de promouvoir une vision idéalisée de la vieillesse qui laisserait intact l’ensemble de nos facultés, Platon nous montre que, le plus souvent, elle est synonyme de corruption intellectuelle et morale. Un homme non vertueux ne deviendra pas plus sage parce qu’il vieillit. Pourquoi, dans ces conditions, placer les plus âgés à la tête de la cité? Au-delà de la longueur de l’éducation expliquant l’arrivée tardive au pouvoir, il y a (...)
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  35. The Structure of Idealisation: Towards a Systematic Interpretation of the Marxian Idea of Science.Leszek Nowak - 1984 - Studia Logica 43 (3):309-311.
  36. The Structure of Idealisation: Towards a Systematic Interpretation of the Marxian Idea of Science.Leszek Nowak - 1982 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 33 (1):97-101.
     
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  37.  55
    Conception “dynamique” en géométrie, idéalisation et rôle de l'intuition.Luciano Boi - 1995 - Theoria 10 (1):145-161.
  38.  18
    Conception “dynamique” en géométrie, idéalisation et rôle de l’intuition.Luciano Boi - 1995 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 10 (1):145-161.
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  39.  15
    A Semantic Perspective on Idealisation in Quantum Mechanics.Jac Ladyman & S. French - 1998 - In Shanks N. (ed.), Idealization IX: Idealization in Contemporary Physics.
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  40.  89
    Deductive unification and idealisation.S. Körner - 1963 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 14 (56):274-284.
  41. Prémisses d'idéalisation dans les sciences médicales.T. Wojewodzki - 1988 - Zagadnienia Naukoznawstwa 24 (23):57-70.
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  42.  5
    Beyond Physics: Or the Idealisation of Mechanism.Oliver Lodge - 1930 - London,: Routledge.
    Originally published in 1930, Sir Oliver Lodge proposes a connection between physics and philosophy, or as he describes it, a key to unlock the intricate connection between mind and matter. A response to early twentieth century mathematically-led philosophy, Lodge looks at physics from a physical direction rather than from a theoretical model. This title will be of interest to students of philosophy as well physics.
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  43.  1
    Beyond Physics: Or the Idealisation of Mechanism.Oliver Lodge - 1930 - Humana Mente 5 (20):624-626.
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  44. Beyond Physics or, the Idealisation of Mechanism.Oliver Lodge - 1930 - G. Allen & Unwin.
    Originally published in 1930, Sir Oliver Lodge proposes a connection between physics and philosophy, or as he describes it, a key to unlock the intricate connection between mind and matter. A response to early twentieth century mathematically-led philosophy, Lodge looks at physics from a physical direction rather than from a theoretical model. This title will be of interest to students of philosophy as well physics.
     
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  45.  3
    Hinsides objektivering og idealisering.Thomas Krogh - 2008 - Agora Journal for metafysisk spekulasjon 26 (4):339-347.
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    De hoofse liefde: Sublimering door idealisering?Paul Moyaert - 2001 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 63 (3):569 - 592.
    I argue that courtly love can throw a new light upon two major problems in Freud's theory of sublimation. For Freud sublimation is the procès in which the sexual aim of the drives is diverted towards a non-sexual aim that is still related with the original one. The first problem regards the relation between the terminus a quo and the terminus ad quern. Freud describes this relation with different terms. The notion of ‘desexualisation’ represents precisely what he has in mind. (...)
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  47.  3
    Exemplification and Idealisation.Mark Textor - 2009 - In Gerhard Ernst, Jakob Steinbrenner & Oliver R. Scholz (eds.), From Logic to Art: Themes from Nelson Goodman. Frankfurt: Ontos. pp. 207-218.
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  48.  84
    Metaphysical realism and idealisation.Damian Cox - 1998 - Philosophia 26 (3-4):465-487.
    Hilary Putnam's famous model-theoretic arguments have the virtue of presenting metaphysical realists with a clear challenge. On pain of embracing either an implausible antifallibilism or the radical indeterminacy of reference, metaphysical realists must appeal to metalinguistic levels of interpretation richer than our own in order to fix meaning. And sense must be made of this appeal. In this paper I begin the task of developing a version of metaphysical realism that takes up this challenge.
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    Knowledge as idealisation.John Dewey - 1887 - Mind 12 (47):382-396.
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    The Kac Ring or the Art of Making Idealisations.Julie Jebeile - 2020 - Foundations of Physics 50 (10):1152-1170.
    In 1959, mathematician Mark Kac introduced a model, called the Kac ring, in order to elucidate the classical solution of Boltzmann to the problem of macroscopic irreversibility. However, the model is far from being a realistic representation of something. How can it be of any help here? In philosophy of science, it is often argued that models can provide explanations of the phenomenon they are said to approximate, in virtue of the truth they contain, and in spite of the idealisations (...)
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