Results for 'Ido Weijers'

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  1.  46
    Punishment and Upbringing: Considerations for an Educative Justification of Punishment.Ido Weijers - 2000 - Journal of Moral Education 29 (1):61-73.
    Punishment seems taboo both in modern education and in theory. In so far as philosophers of education engage with this problem they follow the pattern of the philosophy of law: consequentialism or deontology. This article starts from another perspective. Its starting point is that punishment in education and upbringing must be seen as an interactive moral process. Two conditions are considered which have to be fulfilled before one can speak of educative punishment: punishment assumes a relationship based both on trust (...)
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  2.  46
    Conscious Awareness is Necessary for Processing Race and Gender Information From Faces.Ido Amihai, Leon Deouell & Shlomo Bentin - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):269-279.
    Previous studies suggested that emotions can be correctly interpreted from facial expressions in the absence of conscious awareness of the face. Our goal was to explore whether subordinate information about a face’s gender and race could also become available without awareness of the face. Participants classified the race or the gender of unfamiliar faces that were ambiguous with regard to these dimensions. The ambiguous faces were preceded by face-images that unequivocally represented gender and race, rendered consciously invisible by simultaneous continuous-flash-suppression. (...)
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  3.  82
    Optimistic Naturalism: Scientific Advancement and the Meaning of Life.Dan Weijers - 2014 - Sophia 53 (1):1-18.
    Naturalist theories of the meaning of life are sometimes criticised for not setting the bar high enough for what counts as a meaningful life. Tolstoy’s version of this criticism is that Naturalist theories do not describe really meaningful lives because they do not require that we connect our finite lives with the infinite. Another criticism of Naturalist theories is that they cannot adequately resolve the Absurd—the vast difference between how meaningful our actions and lives appear from subjective and objective viewpoints. (...)
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  4.  16
    On Adaptation, Maximization, and Reinforcement Learning Among Cognitive Strategies.Ido Erev & Greg Barron - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (4):912-931.
  5.  17
    Simultaneous Over- and Underconfidence: The Role of Error in Judgment Processes.Ido Erev, Thomas S. Wallsten & David V. Budescu - 1994 - Psychological Review 101 (3):519-527.
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  6. The Description–Experience Gap in Risky Choice.Ralph Hertwig & Ido Erev - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (12):517-523.
  7.  3
    From Anomalies to Forecasts: Toward a Descriptive Model of Decisions Under Risk, Under Ambiguity, and From Experience.Ido Erev, Eyal Ert, Ori Plonsky, Doron Cohen & Oded Cohen - 2017 - Psychological Review 124 (4):369-409.
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  8.  35
    Assessing Decision-Making Capacity in the Behaviorally Nonresponsive Patient With Residual Covert Awareness.Andrew Peterson, Lorina Naci, Charles Weijer, Damian Cruse, Davinia Fernández-Espejo, Mackenzie Graham & Adrian M. Owen - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 4 (4):3-14.
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  9.  30
    An Ethics of Welfare for Patients Diagnosed as Vegetative With Covert Awareness.Mackenzie Graham, Charles Weijer, Damian Cruse, Davinia Fernandez-Espejo, Teneille Gofton, Laura E. Gonzalez-Lara, Andrea Lazosky, Lorina Naci, Loretta Norton, Andrew Peterson, Kathy N. Speechley, Bryan Young & Adrian M. Owen - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 6 (2):31-41.
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  10.  60
    Ethical Criteria for Human Challenge Studies in Infectious Diseases: Table 1.Ben Bambery, Michael Selgelid, Charles Weijer, Julian Savulescu & Andrew J. Pollard - 2016 - Public Health Ethics 9 (1):92-103.
    Purposeful infection of healthy volunteers with a microbial pathogen seems at odds with acceptable ethical standards, but is an important contemporary research avenue used to study infectious diseases and their treatments. Generally termed ‘controlled human infection studies’, this research is particularly useful for fast tracking the development of candidate vaccines and may provide unique insight into disease pathogenesis otherwise unavailable. However, scarce bioethical literature is currently available to assist researchers and research ethics committees in negotiating the distinct issues raised by (...)
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  11.  19
    Kant on Aesthetic Ideas, Rational Ideas and the Subject-Matter of Art.Ido Geiger - 2021 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 79 (2):186-199.
    The notion of aesthetic ideas is of great importance to Kant's thinking about art. Despite its importance, he says little about it. He characterizes aesthetic ideas as representations of the imagination and says that the gift of artistic genius is the inscrutable capacity to envision them. Furthermore, they are counterparts of rational ideas. Works of art thus sensibly present rational ideas; the pleasure they occasion is a consequence of the enriching process of reflection upon the wealth of content they sensibly (...)
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  12.  65
    Rational Feelings and Moral Agency.Ido Geiger - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (2):283-308.
    Kant's conception of moral agency is often charged with attributing no role to feelings. I suggest that respect is the effective force driving moral action. I then argue that four additional types of rational feelings are necessary conditions of moral agency: The affective inner life of moral agents deliberating how to act and reflecting on their deeds is rich and complex . To act morally we must turn our affective moral perception towards the ends of moral action: the welfare of (...)
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  13.  39
    A Comparison of Journal Instructions Regarding Institutional Review Board Approval and Conflict-of-Interest Disclosure Between 1995 and 2005.Anne Rowan-Legg, Charles Weijer, J. Gao & C. Fernandez - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (1):74-78.
    OBJECTIVES: To compare 2005 and 1995 ethics guidelines from journal editors to authors regarding requirements for institutional review board (IRB) approval and conflict-of-interest (COI) disclosure. DESIGN: A descriptive study of the ethics guidelines published in 103 English-language biomedical journals listed in the Abridged Index Medicus in 1995 and 2005. Each journal was reviewed by the principal author and one of four independent reviewers. RESULTS: During the period, the proportion of journals requiring IRB approval increased from 42% (95% CI 32.2% to (...)
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  14.  53
    Ethical Decision Making Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process.Ido Millet - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (11):1197-1204.
    Ethical dilemmas require evaluation of alternatives in light of conflicting principles. Because of the difficulty of making and defending such complex decisions, we may compromise the quality of our ethical decisions and debates. We need a methodology that combines the weighted effects of multiple ethical guidelines on the issue at hand. This paper describes how the Analytic Hierarchy Process can help us improve ethical decision making.
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  15.  7
    Signal Detection by Human Observers: A Cutoff Reinforcement Learning Model of Categorization Decisions Under Uncertainty.Ido Erev - 1998 - Psychological Review 105 (2):280-298.
  16.  32
    Acknowledging Awareness: Informing Families of Individual Research Results for Patients in the Vegetative State.Mackenzie Graham, Charles Weijer, Andrew Peterson, Lorina Naci, Damian Cruse, Davinia Fernández-Espejo, Laura Gonzalez-Lara & Adrian M. Owen - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (7):534-538.
  17. What is the Use of the Universal Law Formula of the Categorical Imperative?Ido Geiger - 2010 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 18 (2):271 – 295.
  18.  10
    An Ethical Analysis of the SUPPORT Trial: Addressing Challenges Posed by a Pragmatic Comparative Effectiveness Randomized Controlled Trial.Austin R. Horn, Charles Weijer, Jeremy Grimshaw, Jamie Brehaut, Dean Fergusson, Cory E. Goldstein & Monica Taljaard - 2018 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 28 (1):85-118.
    Pragmatic comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trials evaluate the effectiveness of one interventions under real-world clinical conditions. The results of ceRCTs are often directly generalizable to everyday clinical practice, providing information critical to decision-making by patients, clinicians, and healthcare policymakers. The PRECIS-2 framework identifies nine domains that serve to score a trial on a continuum between very explanatory to very pragmatic. According to the framework, pragmatic trials may have one or more of the following features: there are fewer eligibility criteria for (...)
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  19.  76
    How Are the Different Formulas of the Categorical Imperative Related?Ido Geiger - 2015 - Kantian Review 20 (3):395-419.
  20.  75
    The Research Subject as Wage Earner.James A. Anderson & Charles Weijer - 2002 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (4-5):359-376.
    The practice of paying research subjects for participating inclinical trials has yet to receive an adequate moral analysis.Dickert and Grady argue for a wage payment model in whichresearch subjects are paid an hourly wage based on that ofunskilled laborers. If we accept this approach, what follows?Norms for just working conditions emerge from workplacelegislation and political theory. All workers, includingpaid research subjects under Dickert and Grady''s analysis,have a right to at least minimum wage, a standard work week,extra pay for overtime hours, (...)
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  21.  7
    Does Consent Form Follow Function?Charles Weijer, Jamie Brehaut & Cory E. Goldstein - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (12):29-31.
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  22.  42
    Trust Based Obligations of the State and Physician-Researchers to Patient-Subjects.Paul B. Miller & Charles Weijer - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (9):542-547.
    When may a physician enroll a patient in clinical research? An adequate answer to this question requires clarification of trust-based obligations of the state and the physician-researcher respectively to the patient-subject. The state relies on the voluntarism of patient-subjects to advance the public interest in science. Accordingly, it is obligated to protect the agent-neutral interests of patient-subjects through promulgating standards that secure these interests. Component analysis is the only comprehensive and systematic specification of regulatory standards for benefit-harm evaluation by research (...)
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  23.  26
    Helsinki Discords: FDA, Ethics, and International Drug Trials.Jonathan Kimmelman, Charles Weijer & Eric M. Meslin - unknown
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  24.  44
    Fiduciary Obligation in Clinical Research.Paul B. Miller & Charles Weijer - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (2):424-440.
    Heated debate surrounds the question whether the relationship between physician-researcher and patient-subject is governed by a duty of care. Miller and Weijer argue that fiduciary law provides a strong legal foundation for this duty, and for articulating the terms of the relationship between physician-researcher and patient-subject.
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  25.  44
    Assay Sensitivity and the Epistemic Contexts of Clinical Trials.Spencer Phillips Hey & Charles Weijer - 2013 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (1):1-17.
    In February 2010, the World Medical Association hosted an international symposium on the ethics of placebo controls in clinical trials (WMA 2010). Despite years of debate, ethicists, clinical trialists, and policy makers remain divided over the ethical acceptability of using placebos in research when a proven, effective treatment is available. The protracted nature of this problem is due, at least in part, to a perceived conflict between the opposing demands placed on clinical research by science and ethics. A good, scientifically (...)
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  26.  87
    Is the Assumption of a Systematic Whole of Empirical Concepts a Necessary Condition of Knowledge?Ido Geiger - 2003 - Kant-Studien 94 (3):273-298.
  27.  13
    A Principled Argument, But Not a Practical One.Andrew Peterson, Lorina Naci, Charles Weijer & Adrian M. Owen - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 4 (1):52-53.
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  28.  72
    Three Epigenetic Information Channels and Their Different Roles in Evolution.Nicholas Shea, Ido Pen & Tobias Uller - 2011 - Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24:1178-87.
    There is increasing evidence for epigenetically mediated transgenerational inheritance across taxa. However, the evolutionary implications of such alternative mechanisms of inheritance remain unclear. Herein, we show that epigenetic mechanisms can serve two fundamentally different functions in transgenerational inheritance: (i) selection-based effects, which carry adaptive information in virtue of selection over many generations of reliable transmission; and (ii) detection-based effects, which are a transgenerational form of adaptive phenotypic plasticity. The two functions interact differently with a third form of epigenetic information transmission, (...)
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  29. Nozick's Experience Machine is Dead, Long Live the Experience Machine!Dan Weijers - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology 27 (4):513-535.
    Robert Nozick's experience machine thought experiment (Nozick's scenario) is widely used as the basis for a ?knockdown? argument against all internalist mental state theories of well-being. Recently, however, it has been convincingly argued that Nozick's scenario should not be used in this way because it elicits judgments marred by status quo bias and other irrelevant factors. These arguments all include alternate experience machine thought experiments, but these scenarios also elicit judgments marred by status quo bias and other irrelevant factors. In (...)
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  30.  22
    Ethical issues in pragmatic randomized controlled trials: a review of the recent literature identifies gaps in ethical argumentation. [REVIEW]Cory E. Goldstein, Charles Weijer, Jamie C. Brehaut, Dean A. Fergusson, Jeremy M. Grimshaw, Austin R. Horn & Monica Taljaard - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):14.
    Pragmatic randomized controlled trials are designed to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in real-world clinical conditions. However, these studies raise ethical issues for researchers and regulators. Our objective is to identify a list of key ethical issues in pragmatic RCTs and highlight gaps in the ethics literature. We conducted a scoping review of articles addressing ethical aspects of pragmatic RCTs. After applying the search strategy and eligibility criteria, 36 articles were included and reviewed using content analysis. Our review identified four (...)
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  31.  5
    What is the Use of the Universal Law Formula of the Categorical Imperative?Ido Geiger - 2010 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 18 (2):271-295.
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  32.  30
    Natural Beauty, Fine Art and the Relation Between Them.Aviv Reiter & Ido Geiger - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (1):72-100.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 109 Heft: 1 Seiten: 72-100.
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  33. In Loco Parentis Minimal Risk as an Ethical Threshold for Research Upon Children.Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks & Charles Weijer - 1993 - Hastings Center Report 23 (2):13-19.
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  34.  16
    Ethics of Surgical Training in Developing Countries.Kevin M. Ramsey & Charles Weijer - unknown
    The practice of surgical trainees operating in developing countries is gaining interest in the medical community. Although there has been little analysis about the ethical impact of these electives, there has been some concerns raised over the possible exploitation of trainees and their patients. An ethical review of this practice shows that care needs to be taken to prevent harm. Inexperienced surgeons learning surgical skills in developing countries engender greater risk of violating basic ethical principles. Advanced surgical trainees who have (...)
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  35. An Assessment of Recent Responses to the Experience Machine Objection to Hedonism.Dan Weijers & Vanessa Schouten - 2013 - Journal of Value Inquiry 47 (4):461-482.
    Prudential hedonism has been beset by many objections, the strength and number of which have led most modern philosophers to believe that it is implausible. One objection in particular, however, is nearly always cited when a philosopher wants to argue that prudential hedonism is implausible—the experience machine objection to hedonism. This paper examines this objection in detail. First, the deductive and abductive versions of the experience machine objection to hedonism are explained. Following this, the contemporary responses to each version of (...)
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  36.  7
    Rules of the Road for Patient-Driven Consent Processes.Hayden P. Nix & Charles Weijer - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (5):36-37.
    Volume 20, Issue 5, June 2020, Page 36-37.
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  37.  2
    On the Homocentric Spheres of Eudoxus.Ido Yavetz - 1998 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 52 (3):221-278.
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  38.  63
    Rehabilitating Equipoise.Paul B. Miller & Charles Weijer - 2003 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (2):93-118.
    : When may a physician legitimately offer enrollment in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to her patient? Two answers to this question have had a profound impact on the research ethics literature. Equipoise, as originated by Charles Fried, which we term Fried's equipoise (FE), stipulates that a physician may offer trial enrollment to her patient only when the physician is genuinely uncertain as to the preferred treatment. Clinical equipoise (CE), originated by Benjamin Freedman, requires that there exist a state of (...)
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  39.  38
    Will the Real Charles Fried Please Stand Up?Paul B. Miller & Charles Weijer - 2003 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (4):353-357.
    : In response to the preceding commentary by Jerry Menikoff in this issue of the Journal , the authors argue that Fried's central concern is not that randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are conducted without consent, but rather that various aspects of the design and conduct of RCTs are in tension with physicians' duties of personal care to their patients. Although Fried does argue that the existence of equipoise cannot justify failure to obtain consent from research subjects, informed consent by itself (...)
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  40.  72
    Is Teleological Judgement (Still) Necessary? Kant's Arguments in the Analytic and in the Dialectic of Teleological Judgement.Ido Geiger - 2009 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (3):533 – 566.
  41.  79
    Why the Debate Over Minimal Risk Needs to Be Reconsidered.Ariella Binik & Charles Weijer - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (4):387-405.
    Minimal risk is a central concept in the ethical analysis of research with children. It is defined as the risks “. . . ordinarily encountered in daily life . . . .” But the question arises: who is the referent for minimal risk? Commentators in the research ethics literature often answer this question by endorsing one of two possible interpretations: the uniform interpretation or the relative interpretation of minimal risk. We argue that describing the debate over minimal risk as a (...)
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  42.  1
    Uses of Equipoise in Discussions of the Ethics of Randomized Controlled Trials of COVID-19 Therapies.Charles Weijer & Hayden P. Nix - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1).
    BackgroundEarly in the COVID-19 pandemic, the urgent need to discover effective therapies for COVID-19 prompted questions about the ethical problem of randomization along with its widely accepted solution: equipoise. In this scoping review, uses of equipoise in discussions of randomized controlled trials of COVID-19 therapies are evaluated to answer three questions. First, how has equipoise been applied to COVID-19 research? Second, has equipoise been employed accurately? And third, do concerns about equipoise pose a barrier to the ethical conduct of COVID-19 (...)
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  43.  11
    It Does Not Matter Whether Research Interventions Are Usual Care.Cory E. Goldstein & Charles Weijer - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (1):47-48.
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  44.  19
    When Are Research Risks Reasonable in Relation to Anticipated Benefits?Charles Weijer & Paul B. Miller - unknown
    The question "When are research risks reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits?" is at the heart of disputes in the ethics of clinical research. Institutional review boards are often criticized for inconsistent decision-making, a problem that is compounded by a number of contemporary controversies, including the ethics of research involving placebo controls, developing countries, incapable adults and emergency rooms. If this pressing ethical question is to be addressed in a principled way, then a systematic approach to the ethics of risk (...)
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  45.  1
    Is Humanity an End in Itself?Ido Geiger - 2018 - In Violetta L. Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur Und Freiheit. Akten des Xii. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. De Gruyter. pp. 1831-1840.
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  46.  27
    Ethical Issues in Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trials: A Review of the Recent Literature Identifies Gaps in Ethical Argumentation. [REVIEW]Cory E. Goldstein, Charles Weijer, Jamie C. Brehaut, Dean A. Fergusson, Jeremy M. Grimshaw, Austin R. Horn & Monica Taljaard - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):1-10.
    Background Pragmatic randomized controlled trials are designed to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in real-world clinical conditions. However, these studies raise ethical issues for researchers and regulators. Our objective is to identify a list of key ethical issues in pragmatic RCTs and highlight gaps in the ethics literature. Methods We conducted a scoping review of articles addressing ethical aspects of pragmatic RCTs. After applying the search strategy and eligibility criteria, 36 articles were included and reviewed using content analysis. Results Our (...)
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  47.  29
    Protecting Communities in Biomedical Research.Charles Weijer & E. J. Emanuel - unknown
    Although for the last 50 years, ethicists dealing with human experimentation have focused primarily on the need to protect individual research subjects and vulnerable groups, biomedical research, especially in genetics, now requires the establishment of standards for the protection of communities. We have developed such a strategy, based on five steps. (i) Identification of community characteristics relevant to the biomedical research setting, (ii) delineation of a typology of different types of communities using these characteristics, (iii) determination of the range of (...)
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  48.  75
    Protecting Communities in Research: Philosophical and Pragmatic Challenges.Charles Weijer - 1999 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (4):501-513.
    The issue of the protection of communities in clinical research first arose 10 years ago in studies conducted in technologically developing countries by scientists from technologically developed nations. The question was, which ethical standards ought to apply, those of the Western investigators or local standards?
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  49.  24
    The Ethical Analysis of Risk.Charles Weijer - 2000 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (4):344-361.
    The institutional review board is the social-oversight mechanism charged with protecting research subjects. Performing this task competently requires that the IRB scrutinize informed-consent procedures, the balance of risks and potential benefits, and subject-selection procedures in research protocols. Unfortunately, it may be said that IRBs are spending too much time editing informed-consent forms and too little time analyzing the risks and potential benefits posed by research. This time mismanagement is clearly reflected in the research ethics literature. A review of articles published (...)
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  50.  13
    Fiduciary Obligation in Clinical Research.Paul B. Miller & Charles Weijer - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (2):424-440.
    Bioethics is currently witnessing unprecedented debate over the moral and legal norms governing the conduct of clinical research. At the center of this debate is the duty of care in clinical research, and its most widely accepted specification, clinical equipoise. In recent work, we have argued that equipoise and cognate concepts central to the ethics of clinical research have been left unnecessarily vulnerable to criticism. We have suggested that the vulnerability lies in the conspicuous absence of an articulated foundation in (...)
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