Pedro Sanchez de Acre, born at the beginning of the 16th century, was a prebendary of the cathedral of Toledo. He wrote three books about moral philosophy: Tree of Consultation and Varied Teaching in 1584, Moral and Philosophical Histor y in 1590 and Triangle of the Three Theological Virtues in 1595. These three books, representative of Miscellany, one of the most editorially successful literary genres of the 16th century, have become completely unknown with the passing of time. Besides the rare (...) quotation, used mostly in writings of a bibliographic nature, the presence of these books in Spanish philosophy is almost nonexistent. (shrink)
Tuberculosis en América Latina y el Caribe: reflexiones desde la bioética Tuberculose na América Latina e no Caribe: reflexões da bioética The objective of this article is to analyze the conditions of access to health services by people with tuberculosis in Latin America and the Caribbean, reflecting on the public health aspects involved from a bioethical perspective. A literature review of the context of tuberculosis in LAC based on epidemiological data was performed. The results were analyzed from its relationship with (...) the social determinants of health and the ethical principles that guide medical practice. Tuberculosis is a pressing public health problem in the region because of its family, social, economic and health impact. It mainly affects vulnerable individuals and populations. Health services violate ethical principles. Tuberculosis is a serious ethics and public health problem in the region that causes death, disability and increased poverty. It is imperative to ensure the right to health services and to understand the individual and public health consequences of non-adherence to treatment. It is important that national tuberculosis control strategies include principles of dignity and non-discrimination of the sick, changes in the social determinants of the disease, and respect for the ethnicity, language culture and identity of patients. Para citar este artículo / To reference this article / Para citar este artigo Muñoz del Carpio-Toia A, Sánchez-Pérez HJ, Verges de López C, López-Dávila LM, Sotomayor-Saavedra MA, Sorokin P. Tuberculosis en América Latina y el Caribe: reflexiones desde la bioética. pers. bioét. 2018; 22: 331-357. DOI: 10.5294/pebi.2018.22.2.10. (shrink)
Este número da Revista Diálogos debate o tema da consolidação dos estudos acerca da Idade Média. Assim, neste artigo, apresentamos um levantamento bibliográfico da personagem Morgana na lenda arturiana, de suas origens medievais a seu resgate literário oitocentos anos depois de que fora literariamente citada pela primeira vez. Baseamos nossas considerações em teóricos como Câmara, Carver e Kopřivová. Concluímos que este é um estudo válido porque dialoga com a História e com a Literatura no que tange ao reflexo de Morgana (...) na história das mulheres no Ocidente, não se restringindo ao Medievo, mas que se amplia multidisciplinarmente. (shrink)
Calvin's 1559 Institutes is one of the most important works of theology that emerged at a pivotal time in Europe's history. As a movement, Calvinism has often been linked to the emerging features of modernity, especially to capitalism, rationalism, disenchantment, and the formation of the modern sovereign state. In this book, Michelle Sanchez argues that a closer reading of the 1559 Institutes recalls some of the tensions that marked Calvinism's emergence among refugees, and ultimately opens new ways to understand the (...) more complex ethical and political legacy of Calvinism. In conversation with theorists of practice and signification, she advocates for reading the Institutes as a pedagogical text that places the reader in the world as the domain in which to actively pursue the 'knowledge of God and ourselves' through participatory uses of divine revelation. Through this lens, she reconceives Calvin's understanding of sovereignty and how it works in relation to the embodied reader. Sanchez also critically examines Calvin's teaching on providence and the incarnation in conversation with theorists of political theology and modernity who emphasize the importance of those very doctrines. (shrink)
El jesuita morisco P. Ignacio de las Casas colaboró en la traducción de algunos de los libros plúmbeos encontrados en Granada a fines del siglo XVI. Inicialmente se manifestó partidario de su autenticidad, pero pronto se convenció de que eran una falsificación. Desarrolló entonces una activa lucha para conseguir que la Iglesia evitara su divulgación. En el artículo se pasa revista a su intervención como traductor y a los argumentos que utilizó para criticar la doctrina de los libros plúmbeos. (...) El P. Las Casas, además de señalar la presencia de elementos islámicos, ve en ellos claras muestras de antiguas herejías antitrinitarias. Aunque no los considera obra de moriscos, señala el atractivo que el mesianismo y milenarismo contenidos en la doctrina de los libros plúmbeos tenía para los moriscos. (shrink)
A veces se argumenta que la acción tiene primacía sobre la cau salidad. Esto se puede entender de dos maneras: que la causalidad es una proyección de la acción al ámbito natural o que la causalidad presupone un agente que actúa. Defiendo que la primera tesis es falsa y que la segun da sólo liene sentido desde una teoría realista de las causas.
The concept of corporate social responsibility is becoming integral to effective corporate brand management. This study adopts a multidimensional and cross-country perspective of the concept and analyses consumer perceptions of behaviour of four leading consumer products manufacturers. Data was collected from consumers in two countries – Spain and the UK. The study analyses consumers’ degree of interest in corporate responsibility and its impact on their perception about the company. The findings here suggest a weak impact of company-specific communication on consumers’ (...) perception. The implications of this study are relevant to companies for strengthening their social responsibility associations with the consumers. (shrink)
This paper discusses how Salvadoran companies practice corporate philanthropy in El Salvador, and what might motivate it. First, I briefly discuss three principal theories of corporate philanthropy, and explore some current trends in international corporate philanthropy to highlight some of the motives Salvadoran companies may have to participate in charitable activities. Then, I discuss the history of the Salvadoran private sector to help us understand philanthropic activity today. Next, I suggest that philanthropic acts by Salvadoran firms are driven by altruistic (...) and politically strategic motives, and reflect individualistic and paternalistic attitudes. In the discussion, I include examples of Salvadoran corporate philanthropy as it is practiced today, based on recent field research in El Salvador. (shrink)
In this article, we suggest that one of the unexplored paths toward collaboration between firms and civil society organizations starts with confrontation or potential conflict, and that the transition toward collaboration can be further understood if one focuses on triadic relationships rather than dyadic ones. We analyze the presence of third parties and their different roles to explain how collaboration is facilitated. The article aims at bringing together the bodies of research on business–civil society confrontation and on business–civil society collaboration. (...) It offers a comparative analysis of four case studies, and proposes a typology of third parties composed of facilitating allies, participating allies, mediators, and solution seekers. We conclude with some implications for further research as well as for practice. (shrink)
This paper explores and expands upon Jorge Gracia's reasons for the apparent lack of Hispanics in US philosophy. The point is to explain the underrepresentation of Hispanics in philosophy, with a focus on a specific subgroup of Hispanics, namely, "homegrown" US Hispanics. This group wasentirely missing from the "established" ranks in Gracia's census. I propose a phenomenological explanation for this lack, rooted in my experience as ahomegrown US Hispanic. This experience gives rise to a sense of identity described as "post-immigrant." (...) Those of us in the American philosophical establishment who share this identity, or who feel its pull, desire but hesitate to fully and authentically engage philosophy and the philosophical life, where thisrequires an uncompromising insertion of our cultural and historical identity into what we write and teach. The reason for the absence of homegrown Hispanicphilosophers who are willing to engage issues related to their circumstance as Hispanics is what I call, "the post-immigrant fear.". (shrink)
This paper traces the concept and phenomenon of generosity from Aristotle to Emannuel Levinas and beyond. The question motivating this investigation is: must the generous act be restricted by a rational calculation of correct, or prudent, giving? Answers to this question vary. Aristotle and Kant would answer in the affirmative, while Emerson and Levinas would not. The bulk of this paper is dedicated to Levinas's characterization of excessive generosity as a condition for the fundamental ethical relation, namely, the generous welcome (...) of the Other. I end by considering the phenomenon of generosity from the point of view of the mid‐20th century Mexican philosopher, Emilio Uranga. (shrink)
The goal of the 2010 Ontology Summit was to address the current shortage of persons with ontology expertise by developing a strategy for the education of ontologists. To achieve this goal we studied how ontologists are currently trained, the requirements identiﬁed by organizations that hire ontologists, and developments that might impact the training of ontologists in the future. We developed recommendations for the body of knowledge that should be taught and the skills that should be developed by future ontologists; these (...) recommendations are intended as guidelines for institutions and organizations that may consider establishing a program for training ontologists. Further, we recommend a number of speciﬁc actions for the community to pursue. (shrink)
La primera mitad del siglo XVI es un momento trascendental en la historia de España. En efecto, no sólo es una época de transición del Medioevo a la Modernidad, sino que con ella asistimos a un “renacimiento” en todos los órdenes de la vida cultural, política, ideológica... En este tiempo –finales del siglo XV y mediados del XVI– los problemas del “descubrimiento”, “conquista” y “gobierno de las Indias” únicamente podían ser afrontados con pautas ideológicas heredadas de la Edad Media. El (...) problema que ahora se plantea –desde una dimensión jurídica, filosófica y teológica– es el del ‘justo título’ que tienen los Reyes cristianos de Castilla y León para ‘el sometimiento de las poblaciones indígenas’, produciéndose así uno de los acontecimientos más curiosos en la historia del mundo occidental cuando dos notables españoles, Bartolomé de Las Casas y Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, se reunieron en Valladolid en 1550 para discutir un gran problema nacional que concernía tanto a los indios americanos como a Aristóteles. Entonces, por primera vez y quizá por última, un imperio organizó oficialmente una encuesta sobre la justicia de los métodos empleados para extender su dominio. La disputa de Valladolid ha de interpretarse claramente como el testimonio apasionado de un hecho decisivo en la historia de la humanidad: por no haber triunfado las ideas de Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda se dio un paso más, penoso e inseguro todavía, en el camino de la justicia para “todas las razas en un mundo de múltiples razas”; por hablar con tanta vehemencia Fray Bartolomé de las Casas en Valladolid en favor de los indios americanos, su larga y complicada argumentación tuvo también otra utilidad: fortaleció a todos aquellos que en su tiempo, y en los siglos que siguieron, trabajaron con la creencia de que “todas las gentes del mundo son hombres”. No bestias, ni esclavos por naturaleza, no como niños con un entendimiento limitado o estático, sino hombres que son capaces de llegar a ser cristianos, que tienen pleno derecho a gozar de sus bienes, su libertad política y su dignidad humana, y que en su creencia deberían ser incorporados a la civilización española y cristiana en vez de ser esclavizados o destruidos. (shrink)
En la coyuntura histórica, turbulenta y apasionante a la vez del Humanismo Renacentista, caracterizada por la vuelta a la Antigüedad clásica y por la renovación de principios en todas las manifestaciones culturales, resultan afectadas, desde sus mismos cimientos, la filosofía y la religión. Esta crisis escolástica incide de tal manera en la conciencia de los individuos y de los pueblos, que exige sin demora una solución, aun cuando sea provisional, que haga posible a los hombres el simple fenómeno de seguir (...) viviendo como tales. Nada tiene, pues, de extraño que entre las ruinas de la Moral tomista surjan impulsos moralizadores, como el de Justus Lipsius (1547-1606), queriendo renovar las doctrinas estoicas de Epicteto (ca. 50 a. de C.-125/138) y Séneca (ca. 4-65) y el de Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), empeñado en cristianizar a Epicuro. Para algunos, a esto se reduce, más o menos, la Etica del Renacimiento. Otros opinan que la primera Ética de la filosofía moderna hay que buscarla entre los grandes filósofos, que sin pertenecer cronológicamente al Renacimiento, son consecuencia madura de él. Se refieren a Descartes (1596-1650), Spinoza (1632-1677) y Kant (1724-1804). Pero en opinión de significativos autores, no hay que remontarse hasta Kant para hallar la auténtica Ética del Renacimiento. Juan Luis Vives publicaba en 1524 un pequeño librito titulado Introductio ad Sapientiam [Introducción a la Sabiduría], que por su estructura ideológica interna y por su ascendencia senequista y cristiana ocupa un lugar preferente entre las Éticas modernas, y por su contenido y cronología puede ser considerada como la Ética del Renacimiento, al menos del Renacimiento español. (shrink)
We used 7,415 advertisements published in Spain to analyze traits sought/offered by men and women from different age groups. Findings regarding age, socioeconomic status, and physical attractiveness requirements support evolutionary predictions about mate preferences. However, changes in trait preferences among women under 40 appear to be contingent on Spain’s socioeconomic transformation. Women under 40 seek mainly physical attractiveness in men, whereas those over 40 seek mainly socioeconomic status. The trait most sought by men in all age groups is physical attractiveness. (...) Traits sought and offered by advertisers may be conditioned by the personal situation of the advertiser. Mean age of advertisers (around their forties) and Spain’s social indicators suggest that the majority of advertisers have been unsuccessful in the mating arena at the conventional age. (shrink)
El propósito de este trabajo es mostrar, por una parte, que el estoicismo es una de las fuentes principales del naturalismo spinoziano, y por otra, que hay diferencias en el alcance y nivel de desarrollo de ambos naturalismos. Se trata, pues, de determinar qué afinidades y diferencias hay en sus conceptos de naturaleza y qué implicaciones tienen éstas en el ámbito práctico. Y ello, sobre todo, atendiendo a la diferente concepción de las pasiones que ambos mantuvieron.
The present paper attempts to accomplish the following: (1) to clarify and critically discuss the phenomenology of “belief” as we find it in Husserl’s Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy, First Book (1913) (henceforward, Ideas I); (2) to clarify and critically discuss the manner in which the phenomenological method treats beliefs; (3) to clarify and critically discuss the manner of belief justification as described by the phenomenological method; and (4) to argue that, just as the (...) phenomenological method can be used to validate scientific hypotheses, it can likewise be practised in our everyday worldly comportment to justify our everyday, commonsense beliefs. The paper proceeds from the idea that the phenomenological method is not the static descriptive method some make it out to be, but, rather, a living method at the service of life. The author begins with some preliminary remarks about Husserl’s concerns with unfounded or presupposed beliefs and their necessary “suspension” as dictated by the phenomenological reduction and epoche (“the method”). He then engages the text of Ideas I, especially sections 101 to 106, where Husserl presents a phenomenological conception of the character of belief. The paper concludes by treating the nature of belief justification, or “rational positing”, and puts forward the view that the phenomenological method in everyday practice can aid us in the realization of responsible epistemic conduct and, ultimately, lead toward responsible conduct towards ourselves and, hence, authentic being. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology , Volume 7, Edition 2 September 2007. (shrink)
Como dijimos en la Parte I, las obras de Heráclito y Parménides nos resultan desconocidas en su integridad. Sin embargo, pocos filósofos han sido tan comentados como ellos. Pero esta crítica –diversa y contradictoria– de los fragmentos heraclitanos y del Poema de Parménides, respectivamente, en vez de aclarar, ha servido para ocultar aún más sus genuinas reflexiones filosóficas, pues muchos de estos escritos se han utilizado ya sea para alabar a Heráclito o Parménides, ya sea para criticarlos y contraponerlos, o (...) bien para justificar intereses espurios. Esta Parte II de nuestro trabajo versa sobre las interpretaciones de la doctrina de la •8Zhg4" y de la *`>" en el filósofo de Elea, advirtiendo de nuevo que siempre se planteará el problema de la duda respecto a la autenticidad o falsedad, orden y estructura de sus fragmentos como fuente.As we said in the Parte I, the works of Heráclito and Parménides we find unknown in their integrity. However, few philosophers have been so commented as them. But this –diverse and contradictory critic– of the fragments heraclitanos and of the Poem of Parménides, respectively, instead of clarifying, it has been good to hide even more their genuine philosophical reflections, because many of these writings have either been used to praise Heráclito or Parménides, either to criticize them and to oppose them, or to justify spurious interests. This Part II of our work turns on the interpretations of the doctrine of the •8Zhg4" and of the *`>" in the philosopher of Elea, noticing again that [he/she] will always think about the problem of the doubt regarding the authenticity or falsehood, order and it structures of its fragments like source. (shrink)
In a journal entry from 1906, Husserl complains of lacking “internal stability” and of his desire to “achieve” it. My claim in this paper is that the “phenomenological method,” which he made public in his 1907 lectures Die Idee der Phänomenologie was, and is, a means to achieve the inner harmony that Husserl longed for. I do not provide an analysis of why Husserl might have felt the way he did; my aim is to show what internal stability might be (...) and how one might achieve it. I conclude that the phenomenological method is the means, the “how,” to internal stability, which I characterize as “clarity” and “harmony” regarding our beliefs and, and ultimately, our authentic comportment. (shrink)
This compilation of around 20 texts presents an heterogeneous spectrum of topics by authors such as: Diamela Eltit, Elvira Hernndez and Guadalupe Santa Cruz, among others who from a philosophical point of view the writings of George ...
Este estudo enfoca os estilos de vida de adolescentes escolares a fim de identificar tanto as práticas protetivas quanto as arriscadas entre grupos de adolescentes. O estudo transversal contou com uma amostra de 1210 adolescentes escolares de nono ano do ensino fundamental de 66 escolas públicas est.
El presente ensayo pretende, en su esencia, mostrar cómo el poder de la palabra es capaz de sanar dentro del contexto ritual de los cultos desde la Antigüedad Clásica, circa IV o III milenio a. C. Igualmente, se observa la aplicación de las más modernas teorías psiquiátricas con respecto a esta problemática.
The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, it deals with showing that Spinoza´s ontology is naturalistic because it conceives of reality as nature, and, in this way, it combats all form of mystification that presents us the reality as something supernatural and transcendent nature itself. Secondly, it deals with showing, according to characteristic features of Spinoza ´s naturalism, that is, its dynamism and its materialistic elements, that Spinoza´s ontology is an ontology of the passions. The passions are, according to (...) Spinoza´s philosophy, modes of being, finite, human modes of being. (shrink)
Two populations are subdivided into two categories of individuals (hawks and doves). Individuals fight to have access to a resource which is necessary for their survival. Conflicts occur between individuals belonging to the same population and to different populations. We investigate the long term effects of the conflicts on the stability of the community. The modelis a set of ODE's with four variables corresponding to hawk and dove individuals of the two populations. Two time scales are considered. A fast time (...) scale is used to describe frequent encounters and fightings between individuals trying to monopolize the resource. A slow time scale is used for the demography and the long term effects of encounters. We use aggregation methods in order to reduce this model into a system of two ODE's only for the total densities of the two populations which is found to be a classical Lotka-Volterra competition model. We study different cases of proportions of hawks and doves in both populations on the global coexistence and the mutal exclusion of the two populations. Pure dove tactics in both populations are unstable. In cases of mixed hawk and dove in both populations, there is coexistence. Pure dove or mixed hawk-dove tactics in one population can coexist with pure hawks in the other one when the costs of fightings between hawks are large enough. (shrink)
Ideal rods and clocks are defined as an infinitesimal symmetry of the spacetime, at least in the non-quantum case. Since no a priori geometric structure is considered, all the possible models of spacetime are obtained.
This text considers the results of the western powers’ recognition of Kososvo’s independence from three perspectives: firstly, the possible consequences (of which what is happening in Georgia already gives us some proof) of this independence proclaimed and recognised outside the provisions of international law, and which can be considered a precedent in other territories with similar problems; secondly, it proposes, following Hegel, a rational conception of the state, far removed from ideas of ethnicity based on race, language, and so on, (...) in which nationalism finds its inspiration. Finally, it analyses and criticises from the Hegelian perspective, as updated by the reasoning of authors such as Habermas, the foundations of nationalism, especially its mistaken defence of the pre-eminence of collective over individual rights. (shrink)
This final part of the essay begins by exploring some linguistic resources that organize the overall structure of utterances and longer stretches of discourse. Then specific study of emission is broached: after touching upon some further constraints and patterns of interpersonal behavior, the previously developed general sketch of (actionlike) activities’ inception is applied to several types of speech (soliloquy, full other-addressed speech and an intermediate type); the section ends with an assessment of results. Study of linguistic reception is prefaced by (...) a general sketch of processes occurring in perception-like activities, which is then specified for Iinguistic reception; on this basis alternative preferential interpretations of an example are delved into. After an appraisal of results and perspectives and a section on general (mainly methodological) conclusions, the essay comes to a close with several Appendixes. (shrink)
The rationalization of a choice function, in terms of assumptions that involve expansion or contraction properties of the feasible set, over non-finite sets is analyzed. Schwartz's results, stated in the finite case, are extended to this more general framework. Moreover, a characterization result when continuity conditions are imposed on the choice function, as well as on the binary relation that rationalizes it, is presented.
In the many studies of shame that have been carried out in several disciplines during the past years, shame has generally been understood as an emotion that bears importantly on our sense of self and has crucial implications for ethics. While most accounts of shame agree on several core aspects, notably taking shame to be an emotion of negative self-assessment, one main area of disagreement focuses on the question of whether shame is a social or a private emotion: whether it (...) is essentially anxiety about the way others judge us, or rather about our faults or inadequacies as perceived and judged by ourselves. In my view, however, the dichotomy arises as a result of conceiving the moral self in restrictive terms, but phenomenology can offer a more adequate picture, that allows us to take into account and fully articulate both dimensions. Both the social and the private are necessary to understand this emotion and its special relevance for selfhood and ethics. My aim in this paper is therefore to challenge this dichotomy and point towards self-revelation as the essential feature of this emotion. (shrink)