The doctrine of double effect shows that for which the moral agent is responsible, by explicating the relationship between the act directly intended and the consequences of that act. I contend that this doctrine is necessary not only for natural law absolutism, but also for Donagan's Kantianism and for Quinn's revised construal of the doctrine, and even for consequentialism, as bioethical implications of the doctrine make clear. For those who do not accept this necessity, I contend that it is necessary (...) metatheoretically, in order to deal with those moral agents with irreconcilably different notions of the morally good. Keywords: cost-benefit analysis, double effect, intention, side effect CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
This note uses an analysis of Broussais's objection to medical ontology to suggest why Broussais's neologism o o is derived not from o but from a conflation of o and the plural of o o . For Broussais medical ontology, in contrast to philosophical ontology, always refers to abstract entities alleged to explain sensible symptoms, o o , in the sense of indivisible particles in the writings of Lucretius and Epicurus, are such particles; o are not. Keywords: Broussais, disease, (...) medical ontology CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
In the case of the irreversibly comatose patient, though no personal consciousness remains, some moral duty is owed the remaining biological life. Such an ending to human life, if pathetic, is also both intelligible and meaningful in a biological and evolutionary perspective. By distinguishing between the human subjective life and the spontaneous objective life, we can recognize a naturalistic principle in medical ethics, contrary to a current tendency to defend purely humanistic norms. This principle has applications in clinical care in (...) the definition of death, in the use of life support therapy, in distinguishing ordinary from extraordinary therapy, in evaluating euthanasia, and in the extent of appropriate medical intervention in terminal cases. CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
This note uses an analysis of Broussais's objection to medical ontology to suggest why Broussais's neologism οντοι is derived not from οντα but from a conflation of οντα and the plural of ογκος. For Broussais medical ontology, in contrast to philosophical ontology, always refers to abstract entities alleged to explain sensible symptoms, ογκοι, in the sense of indivisible particles in the writings of Lucretius and Epicurus, are such particles; οντα are not.
A 14.2 megapixel camera with full 1080p video capabilities, the Nikon D3100 camera is both powerful and yet, accessible to first-time dSLR users. The Nikon D3100 Digital Field Guide will teach you how to get the most out of the advanced dSLR features of the Nikon D3100 as well as improve your basic photography skills. Chapter 1: Exploring the Nikon D3100. – This chapter covers the key components of the Nikon D3100 including basic layout, dials, switches, buttons, and navigation of (...) the viewfinder screen. Chapter 2: Nikon D3100 Essentials. – Learn the various modes for exposures, auto focus, white balance, and picture controls. Chapter 3: Exploring the Nikon D3100 Menus. – Learn to use the playback, shooting, setup and retouch menus to get the most out of the Nikon D3100's photographic potential. Chapter 4: Essential Photography Concepts. – Understand the basics of exposure, depth of field, and composition on your Nikon D3100 to take your photography to the next level. Chapter 5: Selecting and Using Lenses. – Learn lens basics and which lens to use to get the exact type of photos that you want. Chapter 6: Working With Light. – Create natural and beautiful photographs with your D3100 and this chapter's tips on soft light, hard light, natural light, and the use of flash to get the best possible photos. Chapter 7: Working With Live View and Video. – Learn the various video modes of the Nikon D3100 camera, and find tips and tricks for getting the best video possible with your dSLR. Chapter 8: Real World Applications. – Get professional pointers for capturing still-life, action, and abstract photos, as well as landscapes, sports, and architectural subjects with your Nikon D3100. Chapter 9: Viewing and In-Camera Editing. – Learn to view, download, and re-touch images with the Nikon D3100's easy to use editing interface. Appendix A: Accessories. – This Appendix brings together information about remote controls, tripods, monopods, and other accessories that will help you get the most out of your Nikon D3100. Appendix B: How to Use the Grey Card and Color Checker. – Learn how to produce photos with accurate white balance and color with these free-inside-the-book tools. This go-anywhere, full-color guide includes a free grey/color checker card to help you achieve accurate white balance and color in any situation. With the Nikon D3100 Digital Field Guide, you will gain a thorough understanding not only of the Nikon D3100, but also the basic fundamentals of capturing the best possible photos. (shrink)
The thesis that the human zygote is essentially identical with the person into which it can develop is difficult to maintain, because the zygote can become several persons. In addition, the thesis depends upon ambiguities in the notions of human being, human individual, human body, and soul. A human being may be individual in the sense of either a biologically integrated unity or a psychologically integrated unity. A person is a psychologically integrated unity, because it must unify its experiences in (...) morally imputable actions. To say that the zygote is a person requires one to assert that the zygote has the same principle of psychological integration, i.e., a rational soul, as one who can obviously manifest psychological integration. The assertion is incapable of being justified in empirical (e.g., non-religious) terms. (shrink)
That the soul of a human person is infused at conception is a metaphysical claim. But given its traditional articulation, it has the empirical consequence that the zygote must have a substantial continuity with the adult person, a continuity which is already determined at conception. This empirical consequence is contradicted by the fact that the zygote may become a hydatidiform mole, or several persons. The metaphysical claim is falsified by the facts. Keywords: abortion, information capacity, metaphysical account, person, zygote CiteULike (...) Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
This book examines Hegel's presentation of the absolute as knowing and as spirit. McRae construes this absolute both metaphysically, as a self-sufficient existent, the conceptual articulation of which explains the essence and existence of reality, and as truth-oriented, as the conceptual integration of thought and being. He is not, however, aware of the distinction between these construals. He contends that Hegel fails to show that the theoretically inquisitive reader should accept the standpoint of the absolute, because it is presented as (...) self-explanatory in a way alien to what would serve as an explanation for the reader. But he also contends that Hegel's presentation should be accepted both as explaining reality for his time and culture, and as the basis for understanding our own. The reason to distinguish construals, I think, is that it is the absolute's metaphysical status which for McRae seems to make its articulation in purely systematic terms inaccessible to the reader, and it is the truth-oriented absolute which seems to ground his claim that the reader should seek to know it. (shrink)
These papers, arising from a 1983 conference on one of the last and most acute Neoplatonist commentators on Aristotle, a Christian later condemned for his monophysitism and tritheism, focus on the arguments in which he objects to tenets of Aristotle's philosophy of nature, notably on the eternity of the world and the natures of place and projectile motion.
The traditional distinction between ordinary, i.e., obligatory means to preserve life and extraordinary, non-obligatory means is an especially useful tool for HECs in today's secular pluralist health care system, because it gives factors that can override the prima facie good of preserving the patient's life. I first indicate the need for such a tool. I then demonstrate the present misunderstanding of the distinction and give its proper understanding. Finally, I show the applicability of the distinction for HEC deliberations about three (...) important types of cases: the conscious, irreversibly but not terminally ill patient who requests cessation of curative treatment; the provision of artificial nutrition and hydration to permanently vegetative patients; and the allotment of intensive care and other scarce medical resources. (shrink)
The first fundamental English-language study in bioethics, this book gives a lucid analysis of, and powerfully argued resolutions to, conflicts of values that arise in medicine. It also provides salutary emphasis upon the obligations of health-care professionals to respect the moral autonomy of patients or their guardians. It is fundamental, however, because it does more: it is concerned with rationally choosing among competing orderings of goods and harms which are involved not only in the proper practice of medicine but in (...) any diversity of views about the good life. Engelhardt frames his concern in terms of universal grounds for ethically obligating rational agents within a peaceable community. In what follows, I largely prescind from issues of bioethics to attend to issues more congenial to the interests of this journal's readers. (shrink)
Much of the reigning research on non-religion and non-belief focuses on demographics and personality characteristics. While this is a necessary foundation on which future research may be built upon, such data does not necessarily produce theory. In many ways the dominant cultural milieu of religions along with the benign intent of some researchers force a person who holds no belief in a God to assume an oppositional identity in relation to religion. This oppositional identity tautologically sets researchers up to continually (...) define its object by the absence of something. This something cannot always function as a normative point of reference in which to tell researchers what to look for. This article provides one such normative trajectory, termed “horizontal transcendence.”. (shrink)
Theories of explanation need to account for a puzzling feature of our explanatory practices: the fact that we prefer explanations that are relatively abstract but only moderately so. Contra Franklin-Hall (), I argue that the interventionist account of explanation provides a natural and elegant explanation of this fact. By striking the right balance between specificity and generality, moderately abstract explanations optimally subserve what interventionists regard as the goal of explanation, namely identifying possible interventions that would have changed the (...) explanandum. (shrink)
The doctrine of double effect shows that for which the moral agent is responsible, by explicating the relationship between the act directly intended and the consequences of that act. I contend that this doctrine is necessary not only for natural law absolutism, but also for Donagan's Kantianism and for Quinn's revised construal of the doctrine, and even for consequentialism, as bioethical implications of the doctrine make clear. For those who do not accept this necessity, I contend that it is necessary (...) metatheoretically, in order to deal with those moral agents with irreconcilably different notions of the morally good. (shrink)
The purpose of this paper is to outline an alternative approach to introductory logic courses. Traditional logic courses usually focus on the method of natural deduction or introduce predicate calculus as a system. These approaches complicate the process of learning different techniques for dealing with categorical and hypothetical syllogisms such as alternate notations or alternate forms of analyzing syllogisms. The author's approach takes up observations made by Dijkstrata and assimilates them into a reasoning process based on modified notations. The author's (...) model adopts a notation that addresses the essentials of a problem while remaining easily manipulated to serve other analytic frameworks. The author also discusses the pedagogical benefits of incorporating the model into introductory logic classes for topics ranging from syllogisms to predicate calculus. Since this method emphasizes the development of a clear and manipulable notation, students can worry less about issues of translation, can spend more energy solving problems in the terms in which they are expressed, and are better able to think in abstract terms. (shrink)
The following demarcates the sense of the human person in Orthodox-Catholic bioethics from the family of senses proper to secular bioethics and philosophy. The radically different sources of knowledge about the senses proper to each discipline suggest that the importation of philosophical and secular psychological distinctions and analyses into true Christianity's concern with the human person, is fundamentally misguided. This suggestion is confirmed by examination of the articles of Crosby, Glannon, Hoswepian, and Meador and Shuman.
Near the end of Practice in Christianity, Kierkegaard’s pseudonym Anti-Climacus denies that progress occurs within history. We are not getting better every day, in every way. According to Anti-Climacus, we are the same as we have always been. This essay sets Anti-Climacus’s denial of progress in its historical context, arguing that he develops a counter-philosophy of history which combats the prevailing Hegelianism of his age. The essay also draws connections between Anti-Climacus’s philosophy of history and the themes of imitation and (...) contemporaneity, showing how a denial of history’s progress enables contemporary humans to interact with the same world Christ faced. (shrink)
Get the results your camera was meant to deliver With the D700, you've stepped up to a high-performance camera. The possibilities offered by its 12.1-megapixel, FX-format CMOS sensor are exhilarating. This guide helps you take full advantage of every feature you paid for, offering clear and comprehensive directions for setting up the camera, choosing modes, selecting lenses, and much more. With detailed guidance for working with lighting, exposure, and depth of field plus advanced shooting techniques for many different situations, it's (...) your camera's perfect partner. Customize the D700's settings and learn how to use them all Maximize Live View and use single-point and dynamic-area autofocus Explore original, optional, and custom picture controls Investigate wide-angle lenses, VR and DX lenses, filters, and lens accessories Learn secrets for getting great shots of sporting events, concerts, wildlife, products, and people. (shrink)
The Nikon COOLPIX Digital Field Guide is filled with everything you need to know in order to take amazing photographs using any Nikon COOLPIX camera. This full-color portable guide walks you through the essential controls, features, and functions of the Nikon COOLPIX point-and shoot camera line using step-by-step instructions and full-color images of each menu screen. This robust guide not only shows you how to adjust a variety of settings on your Nikon COOLPIX, it also teaches you when and why (...) you should adjust them. The Nikon COOLPIX Digital Field Guide goes beyond camera settings to offer you a friendly guide to the principles of digital photography, covering the essentials of lighting and composition. Filled with amazing examples, this book also presents a variety of techniques for getting great photos, including specific tips and tricks for capturing portraits, candids, sports and action shots, travel pictures, macro photography, and much more. (shrink)
A full-color, go-anywhere guide to Nikon's entire array of creative lighting possibilities Nikon's Creative Lighting System is like having a low-cost, wireless, studio lighting system that's portable enough to fit into a camera bag. Although the possibilities are endless and exciting, setting up, synchronizing the equipment, and determining lighting ratios can be a bit overwhelming. Luckily, this Digital Field Guide has been completely updated to shed some light on the situation! Beginning with the basic functions of the Nikon SB-900, the (...) SB-800, and the SB-600, the author then goes on to demystify the complexities of using multiple speedlights, adjusting flash outputs, and setting up a wireless studio. Clearly explains how to get the best results when using multiple speedlights Includes examples and unique advice on how to light specific subjects, such as weddings, wildlife, portraits, product shots, and corporate locations Covers other Creative Lighting System components, such as Nikon's wireless commander and macro speedlights With this handy, on-the-go guide, you'll no longer be in the dark on Nikon's Creative Lighting System. (shrink)
What you need to know to take amazing photos—or shoot movies!—with your Nikon D300s camera This portable, full-color guide explains all essential controls, features, and functions of the Nikon D300s camera, including the exciting new D-Movie with auto-focus feature, 3-inch LCD screen, quiet shutter release, and external microphone for movie recording. You’ll find step-by-step instructions and invaluable tips and tricks to help you take your best stills or live action, whether you’re capturing portraits, candid shots, sports or travel images, or (...) macro photography. Shows you how to get the very most out of your new Nikon D300s digital camera Discusses in detail all the essential controls, features, and functions of the Nikon D300s, including the new D-Movie feature Provides step-by-step instructions and full-color images of each menu screen Explains not only how to adjust white balance, autofocus, exposure, and other settings, it explains when and why you should adjust these settings Gives you a thorough digital photography refresher on lighting and composition Shares valuable tips and tricks to help you capture amazing shots Shows you topic-specific secrets to capturing portraits, candid shots, sports or travel photos, macro photography, and others Now that you have a Nikon D300s, make sure you have a copy of the Nikon D300s Digital Field Guide! (shrink)
Abstract This study examined the cross?cultural universality of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning development in the People's Republic of China??a culture quite different from the one out of which the theory arose. In particular, the applicability of the theory was evaluated in terms of its comprehensiveness and the validity of the moral stage model. Participants were 52 adolescents and adults, drawn from five groups: moral leaders, intellectuals, workers, college and junior high school students. In individual interviews they responded to (...) hypothetical moral dilemmas and discussed a real?life dilemma from their own experience. These interviews were scored for both moral stage and moral orientation. The findings indicated a high level of intra?individual consistency in level of moral reasoning. A wide range of moral stages was evidenced and predictable group differences in moral development were found. An analysis of moral orientations provided an additional perspective on individuals? moral reasoning, in particular, in revealing group differences. Although, in general, the universal applicability of Kohlberg's approach was supported by these data, a subjective analysis of responses revealed some indigenous concepts, fundamental to Communist Chinese morality, that are not well tapped by the approach. (shrink)
This paper begins to explore how corporate social responsibility has evolved in Mexico. It looks at Mexico's social and political history to see the values that shaped expectations about how Mexican firms should address the needs and desires of their stakeholders in various periods in the 20th century. Particular attention is given to firms in Monterrey because they pioneered a form of company paternalism that reflected early CSR initiatives. Finally the paper briefly examines some contemporary CSR practices by large Mexican (...) firms. The paper begins to fill a gap in the business-andsociety literature about CSR practices outside the U.S. and Western European countries, which have received most attention by business-and-society scholars. (shrink)
The need of reason is not inspired by the quest for truth but by the quest for meaning. And truth and meaning are not the same. The basic fallacy, taking precedence over all specific metaphysical fallacies, is to interpret meaning on the model of truth. 2 The problem of agency in liberal political thought begins when dictates of reason grounded in philosophical truth become separated from motivations premised on desires and appetites articulated in moral psychology. In the writings of (...) class='Hi'>Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and John Stuart Mill, political agency requires both reason and motive, and motive, in turn, requires narratives of meaning that enable and motivate us to act. These narratives incorporate elements of the sacred and these religious elements, in turn, become parts of their moral psychologies. Part I is a summary of the role of sacred narrative for human agency in Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and John Stuart Mill. In America, a sacred/national narrative became an essential part of Progressive political thought at the turn of the last century. Part II explores the construction of national narratives in Progressive political thought that were intended to discredit prevailing forms of constitutionalist and other static and abstract forms of rights talk. The decline of this narrative framework and the rise of fixed principles of moral neutrality in liberal public philosophy in America during the second half of the twentieth century had two effects: it downplayed the role of civic virtue and it submerged national narratives of substantive public purpose. This narrative absence runs parallel with the demise of progressive liberalism as a formative political force in America. Recently, American public intellectuals have sought to restore narrative and patriotism to principles of liberal-progressive reform. Part III concludes by returning to the moral psychology of liberalism, this time by contrasting John Rawls and Charles Taylor on human agency. (shrink)