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Ilkka Niiniluoto [142]Ilkka Maunu Niiniluoto [1]
  1. Critical Scientific Realism.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1999 - Oxford University Press.
    This book comes to the rescue of scientific realism, showing that reports of its death have been greatly exaggerated. Philosophical realism holds that the aim of a particular discourse is to make true statements about its subject matter. Ilkka Niiniluoto surveys different kinds of realism in various areas of philosophy and then sets out his own critical realist philosophy of science.
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  2.  56
    Scientific Progress as Increasing Verisimilitude.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 46:73-77.
    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper’s own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees (...)
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  3.  18
    Truthlikeness.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1989 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 54 (1):297-300.
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  4.  44
    Optimistic Realism About Scientific Progress.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2017 - Synthese 194 (9):3291-3309.
    Scientific realists use the “no miracle argument” to show that the empirical and pragmatic success of science is an indicator of the ability of scientific theories to give true or truthlike representations of unobservable reality. While antirealists define scientific progress in terms of empirical success or practical problem-solving, realists characterize progress by using some truth-related criteria. This paper defends the definition of scientific progress as increasing truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Antirealists have tried to rebut realism with the “pessimistic metainduction”, but critical (...)
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  5.  55
    Revising Beliefs Towards the Truth.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2011 - Erkenntnis 75 (2):165-181.
    Belief revision (BR) and truthlikeness (TL) emerged independently as two research programmes in formal methodology in the 1970s. A natural way of connecting BR and TL is to ask under what conditions the revision of a belief system by new input information leads the system towards the truth. It turns out that, for the AGM model of belief revision, the only safe case is the expansion of true beliefs by true input, but this is not very interesting or realistic as (...)
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  6.  85
    Scientific Progress.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2008 - Synthese.
  7. Defending Abduction.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (3):451.
    Charles S. Peirce argued that, besides deduction and induction, there is a third mode of inference which he called " hypothesis " or " abduction." He characterized abduction as reasoning " from effect to cause," and as " the operation of adopting an explanatory hypothesis." Peirce ' s ideas about abduction, which are related also to historically earlier accounts of heuristic reasoning, have been seen as providing a logic of scientific discovery. Alternatively, abduction is interpreted as giving reasons for pursuing (...)
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  8.  2
    Scientific Progress as Increasing Verisimilitude.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 46:73-77.
    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper’s own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees (...)
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  9. Verisimilitude: The Third Period.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (1):1-29.
    The modern history of verisimilitude can be divided into three periods. The first began in 1960, when Karl Popper proposed his qualitative definition of what it is for one theory to be more truthlike than another theory, and lasted until 1974, when David Miller and Pavel Trich published their refutation of Popper's definition. The second period started immediately with the attempt to explicate truthlikeness by means of relations of similarity or resemblance between states of affairs (or their linguistic representations); the (...)
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  10.  8
    Is Science Progressive?Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1988 - Noûs 22 (2):316-321.
  11.  27
    Values in Design Sciences.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 46:11-15.
    Following Herbert Simon’s idea of “the sciences of the artificial”, one may contrast descriptive sciences and design sciences: the former are concerned with “how things are”, the latter tell us “how things ought to be in order to attain goals, and to function”. Typical results of design sciences are thus expressions about means—ends relations or technical norms in G. H. von Wright’s sense. Theorizing and modeling are important methods of giving a value-free epistemic justification for such technical norms. The values (...)
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  12.  10
    Social Aspects of Scientific Knowledge.Ilkka Niiniluoto - forthcoming - Synthese:1-22.
    From its inception in 1987 social epistemology has been divided into analytic and critical approaches, represented by Alvin I. Goldman and Steve Fuller, respectively. In this paper, the agendas and some basic ideas of ASE and CSE are compared and assessed by bringing into the discussion also other participants of the debates on the social aspects of scientific knowledge—among them Raimo Tuomela, Philip Kitcher and Helen Longino. The six topics to be analyzed include individual and collective epistemic agents; the notion (...)
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  13.  3
    Values in Design Sciences.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 46:11-15.
    Following Herbert Simon’s idea of “the sciences of the artificial”, one may contrast descriptive sciences and design sciences: the former are concerned with “how things are”, the latter tell us “how things ought to be in order to attain goals, and to function”. Typical results of design sciences are thus expressions about means—ends relations or technical norms in G. H. von Wright’s sense. Theorizing and modeling are important methods of giving a value-free epistemic justification for such technical norms. The values (...)
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  14. Scientific Progress.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1980 - Synthese 45 (3):427 - 462.
  15. Truthlikeness.Ilkka Niiniluoto & David Pearce - 1990 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (2):281-290.
     
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  16. Essays on Mathematical and Philosophical Logic.Jaakko Hintikka, Ilkka Niiniluoto & Esa Saarinen - 1982 - Studia Logica 41 (4):432-433.
     
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  17. Theoretical Concepts and Hypothetico-Inductive Inference.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1973 - Boston: D. Reidel Pub. Co..
  18. Reference Invariance and Truthlikeness.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (4):546-554.
    A holistic account of the meaning of theoretical terms leads scientific realism into serious troubles. Alternative methods of reference fixing are needed by a realist who wishes to show how reference invariance is possible in spite of meaning variance. This paper argues that the similarity theory of truthlikeness and approximate truth, developed by logicians since the mid 1970s, helps to make precise the idea of charitable theoretical reference. Comparisons to the recent proposals by Kitcher and Psillos are given. This argument (...)
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  19.  8
    L. J. Cohen Versus Bayesianism.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):349-349.
  20.  5
    On the Philosophy of Applied Social Sciences.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2013 - In Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao González, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.), New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 265--274.
  21.  42
    Analogy and Inductive Logic.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1981 - Erkenntnis 16 (1):1 - 34.
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  22.  67
    Truthlikeness: Comments on Recent Discussion.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1978 - Synthese 38 (2):281 - 329.
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  23. On Explicating Verisimilitude: A Reply to Oddie.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1982 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 33 (3):290-296.
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  24.  64
    The Aim and Structure of Applied Research.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1993 - Erkenntnis 38 (1):1 - 21.
    The distinction between basic and applied research is notoriously vague, despite its frequent use in science studies and in science policy. In most cases it is based on such pragmatic factors as the knowledge and intentions of the investigator or the type of research institute. Sometimes the validity of the distinction is denied altogether. This paper suggests that there are two ways of distinguishing systematically between basic and applied research: (i) in terms of the utilities that define the aims of (...)
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  25.  15
    Truth-Seeking by Abduction.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2004 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 11:57-82.
    In a seminar with the title “Deduction and Induction in the Sciences”, it is intriguing to ask the following questions: Is there a third type of inference besides deduction and induction? Does this third type of inference play a significant role within scientific inquiry? A positive answer to both of these questions was advocated by Charles S. Peirce throughout his career, even though his opinions changed in important ways during the fifty years between 1865 and 1914. Peirce called the third (...)
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  26.  28
    Theory Change, Truthlikeness, and Belief Revision.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2010 - In M. Dorato M. Suàrez (ed.), Epsa Epistemology and Methodology of Science. Springer. pp. 189--199.
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  27.  65
    Novel Facts and Bayesianism.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1983 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 34 (4):375-379.
  28. Abduction and Truthlikeness.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2005 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):255-275.
    This paper studies the interplay between two notions which are important for the project of defending scientific realism: abduction and truthlikeness. The main focus is the generalization of abduction to cases where the conclusion states that the best theory is truthlike or approximately true. After reconstructing the recent proposals of Theo Kuipers within the framework of monadic predicate logic, I apply my own notion of truthlikeness. It turns out that a theory with higher truthlikeness does not always have greater empirical (...)
     
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  29. Goldstick and O'Neill on "Truer Than".Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (3):491-495.
    In a recent article, Goldstick and O'Neill propose a definition for the comparative "truer than" relation between rival propositions. This definition is studied here in a context where the concept of "convexity" is well defined for propositions. It turns out that the Goldstick-O'Neill definition gives a reasonable but very restricted sufficient condition for the "truer than" relation, but fails as a necessary condition.
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  30.  21
    Representation and Truthlikeness.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2014 - Foundations of Science 19 (4):375-379.
    Woosuk Park’s paper “Misrepresentation in Context” is a useful plea for a theory of representation with promising interaction between cognitive science, philosophy of science, and aesthetics. In this paper, I argue that such a unified account is provided by Charles S. Peirce’s semiotics. This theory puts Park’s criticism of Nelson Goodman and Jerry Fodor in context. Some of Park’s pertinent remarks on the problem of misrepresentation can be illuminated by the account of truthlikeness and idealization developed by philosophers of science.
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  31. Realism, Relativism, and Constructivism.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1991 - Synthese 89 (1):135 - 162.
    This paper gives a critical evaluation of the philosophical presuppositions and implications of two current schools in the sociology of knowledge: the Strong Programme of Bloor and Barnes; and the Constructivism of Latour and Knorr-Cetina. Bloor's arguments for his externalist symmetry thesis (i.e., scientific beliefs must always be explained by social factors) are found to be incoherent or inconclusive. At best, they suggest a Weak Programme of the sociology of science: when theoretical preferences in a scientific community, SC, are first (...)
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  32.  46
    10 Truthlikeness and Economic Theories.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2002 - In Uskali Mäki (ed.), Fact and Fiction in Economics: Models, Realism and Social Construction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 214.
    In a series of carefully argued and stimulating papers on realism, Usakli Maki has pointed out that economic theories typically are unrealistic in two senses: by violating "the-whole-truth" and "nothing-but-the-truth" (Maki 1989, 1992b, 1994b). He suggests that realism in economics can still be rescued by regarding theories as partially true descriptions of essences and as lawlike statements about tendencies. In this chapter, I defend realism by an alternative strategy: idealizational (or "isolational") statements are counterfactual conditional (Niiniluoto 1986), and the concepts (...)
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  33.  91
    Dretske on Laws of Nature.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1978 - Philosophy of Science 45 (3):431-439.
  34. Degrees of Truthlikeness: From Singular Sentences to Generalisations.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1979 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 30 (4):371-376.
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  35. Is Science Progressive?Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1987 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (2):272-276.
     
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  36.  10
    Theoretical Concepts. [REVIEW]Raimo Tuomela & Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1975 - Journal of Philosophy 72 (15):491-498.
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  37.  21
    The Development of the Hintikka Program.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2011 - In Dov M. Gabbay, John Woods & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Handbook of the History of Logic. Elsevier. pp. 311-356.
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  38. The Logic and Epistemology of Scientific Change.Ilkka Niiniluoto & Raimo Tuomela (eds.) - 1979 - North-Holland Pub. Co..
  39.  38
    Tarski's Definition and Truth-Makers.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2004 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 126 (1-3):57-76.
    A hallmark of correspondence theories of truth is the principle that sentences are made true by some truth-makers. A well-known objection to treating Tarski’s definition of truth as a correspondence theory has been put forward by Donald Davidson. He argued that Tarski’s approach does not relate sentences to any entities (like facts) to which true sentences might correspond. From the historical viewpoint, it is interesting to observe that Tarski’s philosophical teacher Tadeusz Kotarbinski advocated an ontological doctrine of reism which accepted (...)
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  40. Abduction and Scientific Realism.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 12:137-142.
    Many scientific realists think that the best reasons for scientific theories are abductive, i.e., must appeal to what is also called inference to the best explanation (IBE), while some anti-realists have argued that the use of abduction in defending realism is question-begging, circular, or incoherent. This paper studies the idea that abductive inference can be reformulated by taking its conclusion to concern the truthlikeness of a hypothetical theory on the basis of its success in explanation and prediction. The strength of (...)
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  41.  81
    Hintikka and Whewell on Aristotelian Induction.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1994 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 49:49-61.
    According to the standard interpretation, Aristotle has two accounts of induction (epagoge): intuitive induction (which is not an inference) and complete induction (which is not a kind of non-demonstrative inference). Hintikka has challenged the usual interpretation of Aristotle's "official account" in Analytica Priora II, 23. In this paper, Hintikka's view is compared with a similar, but in some respects perhaps even more plausible, interpretation that William Whewell gave already in 1850. Both Hintikka and Whewell argue convincingly that Aristotelean induction is (...)
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  42. On Atocha Aliseda Abductive Reasoning.Atocha Aliseda, Johan van Benthem, Lorenzo Magnani, Angel Nepomuceno-Fernandez, Fernando Soler Toscano, Joke Meheus, Dagmar Provijn, John Woods, Silvio Pinto & Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2007 - Theoria 22 (60).
     
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  43.  63
    Truthlikeness and Bayesian Estimation.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1986 - Synthese 67 (2):321 - 346.
  44. Alfred Tarski and the Vienna Circle: Austro-Polish Connections in Logical Empiricism.Jan Woleński, Ilkka Niiniluoto, Hans Sluga, Anita Burdman Feferman, Solomon Feferman & Richard Creath - 1999 - Springer Verlag.
  45.  21
    What Shall We Do with Verisimilitude?Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (2):181-197.
    Popper distinguishes the problems of theoretical and pragmatic preference between rival theories, but he claims that there is a common non-inductive solution to both of them, viz. the "best-tested theory", or the theory with the highest degree of corroboration. He further suggests that the degrees of corroboration serve as indicators of verisimilitude. One may therefore raise the question whether the recent theory of verisimilitude gives a general non-inductive solution to the problem of theoretical preference. This paper argues that this is (...)
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  46.  42
    Inductive Systematization: Definition and a Critical Survey.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1972 - Synthese 25 (1-2):25 - 81.
    In 1958, to refute the argument known as the theoretician's dilemma, Hempel suggested that theoretical terms might be logically indispensable for inductive systematization of observational statements. This thesis, in some form or another, has later been supported by Scheffler, Lehrer, and Tuomela, and opposed by Bohnert, Hooker, Stegmüller, and Cornman. In this paper, a critical survey of this discussion is given. Several different putative definitions of the crucial notion inductive systematization achieved by a theory are discussed by reference to the (...)
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  47. Theories, Approximations, and Idealizations.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1990 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 16:9-57.
  48.  43
    Statistical Explanation Reconsidered.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1981 - Synthese 48 (3):437 - 472.
  49.  53
    Hypothetical Imperatives and Conditional Obligations.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1986 - Synthese 66 (1):111 - 133.
  50.  15
    The Significance of Verisimilitude.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1984 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:591 - 613.
    The concept of verisimilitude is an indispensable tool for the fallibilist and realist epistemology. Part of the argument for this thesis consists in the important applications of this notion within the history and philosophy of science. But perhaps the harder part is to convince a sceptical reader of the existence of this concept. A general programme for defining and estimating degrees of truthlikeness for various kinds of scientific statements is outlined in some detail. Ten years after Miller's and Tichy's refutation (...)
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