Results for 'Ilkka Pyysi��inen'

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  1. True Fiction: Philosophy and Psychology of Religious Belief.Ilkka Pyysia¨Inen - 2003 - Philosophical Psychology 16 (1):109-125.
    The phenomenon of religious belief has been much discussed in philosophy of religion. However, a priori argumentation alone cannot establish what religious belief is like as a psychological attitude. Recent advances in the cognitive science of religion have paved the way for a new, naturalized philosophy of religion. Taking into account the relevant results and hypotheses presented within these disciplines, it is possible to develop a more empirically informed philosophy of religious belief. Instead of asking whether believing is rational, it (...)
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  2. J Nagarbha and the “God's-Eye View”.Ilkka Pyysi - 1996 - Asian Philosophy 6 (3):197 – 206.
     
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  3. Critical Scientific Realism.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1999 - Oxford University Press.
    This book comes to the rescue of scientific realism, showing that reports of its death have been greatly exaggerated. Philosophical realism holds that the aim of a particular discourse is to make true statements about its subject matter. Ilkka Niiniluoto surveys different kinds of realism in various areas of philosophy and then sets out his own critical realist philosophy of science.
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  4.  88
    Scientific and "Radical" Ethnomethodology: From Incompatible Paradigms to Ethnomethodological Sociology.Ilkka Arminen - 2008 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 38 (2):167-191.
    Ethnomethodology has been torn between scientific and "radical" aspirations insofar as it moves discoursive practices from resources to the topic of the study. Scientific ethnomethodology, such as conversation analysis, studies discoursive praxis as its topic and resource. Standard scientific criteria are accepted to assess the merits of its findings. "Radical" ethnomethodology addresses mundane reasoning exclusively as its topic without recourse to standardized science. I will show that insofar as "radical" ethnomethodology succeeds in bracketing everyday resources, it loses its phenomenon with (...)
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  5.  38
    Quantifying Proportionality and the Limits of Higher-Level Causation and Explanation.Alexander Gebharter & Markus Ilkka Eronen - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Supporters of the autonomy of higher-level causation (or explanation) often appeal to proportionality, arguing that higher-level causes are more proportional than their lower-level realizers. Recently, measures based on information theory and causal modeling have been proposed that allow one to shed new light on proportionality and the related notion of specificity. In this paper we apply ideas from this literature to the issue of higher vs. lower-level causation (and explanation). Surprisingly, proportionality turns out to be irrelevant for the question of (...)
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  6.  67
    The Origins of Religion : Evolved Adaptation or by-Product?Ilkka Pyysiäinen & Marc Hauser - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (3):104-109.
  7. Verisimilitude: The Third Period.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (1):1-29.
    The modern history of verisimilitude can be divided into three periods. The first began in 1960, when Karl Popper proposed his qualitative definition of what it is for one theory to be more truthlike than another theory, and lasted until 1974, when David Miller and Pavel Trich published their refutation of Popper's definition. The second period started immediately with the attempt to explicate truthlikeness by means of relations of similarity or resemblance between states of affairs (or their linguistic representations); the (...)
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  8. Scientific Progress as Increasing Verisimilitude.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 46:73-77.
    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper’s own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees (...)
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  9.  51
    Truth-Seeking by Abduction.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2018 - Springer.
    This book examines the philosophical conception of abductive reasoning as developed by Charles S. Peirce, the founder of American pragmatism. It explores the historical and systematic connections of Peirce's original ideas and debates about their interpretations. Abduction is understood in a broad sense which covers the discovery and pursuit of hypotheses and inference to the best explanation. The analysis presents fresh insights into this notion of reasoning, which derives from effects to causes or from surprising observations to explanatory theories. The (...)
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  10.  7
    Moody Habitus: Bourdieu with Existential Feelings.Keijo Räsänen & Ilkka Kauppinen - 2020 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 50 (3):282-300.
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  11. Survey Article. Verisimilitude: The Third Period.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (1):1-29.
    The modern history of verisimilitude can be divided into three periods. The first began in 1960, when Karl Popper proposed his qualitative definition of what it is for one theory to be more truthlike than another theory, and lasted until 1974, when David Miller and Pavel Trichý published their refutation of Popper's definition. The second period started immediately with the attempt to explicate truthlikeness by means of relations of similarity or resemblance between states of affairs (or their linguistic representations); the (...)
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  12.  6
    The Role of Al-Madāʾinī’s Students in the Transmission of His Material.Ilkka Lindstedt - 2014 - Der Islam: Journal of the History and Culture of the Middle East 91 (2):295-340.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Der Islam Jahrgang: 91 Heft: 2 Seiten: 295-340.
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  13.  95
    Optimistic Realism About Scientific Progress.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2017 - Synthese 194 (9):3291-3309.
    Scientific realists use the “no miracle argument” to show that the empirical and pragmatic success of science is an indicator of the ability of scientific theories to give true or truthlike representations of unobservable reality. While antirealists define scientific progress in terms of empirical success or practical problem-solving, realists characterize progress by using some truth-related criteria. This paper defends the definition of scientific progress as increasing truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Antirealists have tried to rebut realism with the “pessimistic metainduction”, but critical (...)
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  14. Defending Abduction.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (3):451.
    Charles S. Peirce argued that, besides deduction and induction, there is a third mode of inference which he called " hypothesis " or " abduction." He characterized abduction as reasoning " from effect to cause," and as " the operation of adopting an explanatory hypothesis." Peirce ' s ideas about abduction, which are related also to historically earlier accounts of heuristic reasoning, have been seen as providing a logic of scientific discovery. Alternatively, abduction is interpreted as giving reasons for pursuing (...)
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  15.  9
    Critical Scientific Realism.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (1):227-230.
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  16.  1
    Theoretical Concepts and Hypothetico-Inductive Inference.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1973 - Boston: D. Reidel Pub. Co..
    Conceptual change and its connection to the development of new seien tific theories has reeently beeome an intensively discussed topic in philo sophieal literature. Even if the inductive aspects related to conceptual change have already been discussed to some extent, there has so far existed no systematic treatment of inductive change due to conceptual enrichment. This is what we attempt to accomplish in this work, al though most of our technical results are restricted to the framework of monadic languages. We (...)
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  17. Scientific Progress.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1980 - Synthese 45 (3):427 - 462.
  18. Essays on Mathematical and Philosophical Logic.Jaakko Hintikka, Ilkka Niiniluoto & Esa Saarinen - 1982 - Studia Logica 41 (4):432-433.
     
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  19.  11
    Review: Ilkka Niiniluoto, Truthlikeness. [REVIEW]David Pearce - 1989 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 54 (1):297-300.
  20.  21
    L. J. Cohen Versus Bayesianism.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):349-349.
  21.  13
    Likeness to Truth.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1989 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 54 (1):296-297.
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  22.  93
    The Aim and Structure of Applied Research.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1993 - Erkenntnis 38 (1):1 - 21.
    The distinction between basic and applied research is notoriously vague, despite its frequent use in science studies and in science policy. In most cases it is based on such pragmatic factors as the knowledge and intentions of the investigator or the type of research institute. Sometimes the validity of the distinction is denied altogether. This paper suggests that there are two ways of distinguishing systematically between basic and applied research: (i) in terms of the utilities that define the aims of (...)
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  23.  3
    On the 'Innateness' of Religion: A Comment on Bering.Ilkka Pyysiäinen - 2003 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 3 (3):218-225.
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  24.  3
    The Logic and Epistemology of Scientific Change.Ilkka Niiniluoto & Raimo Tuomela (eds.) - 1979 - North-Holland Pub. Co..
  25.  2
    Intuitive and Explicit in Religious Thought.Ilkka Pyysiäinen - 2004 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 4 (1):123-150.
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  26.  66
    Revising Beliefs Towards the Truth.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2011 - Erkenntnis 75 (2):165-181.
    Belief revision (BR) and truthlikeness (TL) emerged independently as two research programmes in formal methodology in the 1970s. A natural way of connecting BR and TL is to ask under what conditions the revision of a belief system by new input information leads the system towards the truth. It turns out that, for the AGM model of belief revision, the only safe case is the expansion of true beliefs by true input, but this is not very interesting or realistic as (...)
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  27. Ilkka Niiniluoto, Sami Pihlström (Eds.), Reappraisals of Eino Kaila's Philosophy. [REVIEW]Thomas Mormann - 2016 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 18:281 - 285.
  28. Scientific Progress.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2008 - Synthese.
  29.  87
    Novel Facts and Bayesianism.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1983 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 34 (4):375-379.
  30.  50
    Analogy and Inductive Logic.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1981 - Erkenntnis 16 (1):1 - 34.
  31.  11
    Truthlikeness: Old and New Debates.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2020 - Synthese 197 (4):1581-1599.
    The notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude has been a topic of intensive discussion ever since the definition proposed by Karl Popper was refuted in 1974. This paper gives an analysis of old and new debates about this notion. There is a fairly large agreement about the truthlikeness ordering of conjunctive theories, but the main rival approaches differ especially about false disjunctive theories. Continuing the debate between Niiniluoto’s min-sum measure and Schurz’s relevant consequence measure, the paper also gives a critical assessment (...)
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  32.  1
    Religion, Economy, and Cooperation.Ilkka Pyysiäinen (ed.) - 2010 - De Gruyter.
    This volume addresses the issue of religion and economy in the evolution of human cooperation. Both religious practices and economic behaviour create and sustain intra-group cooperation by providing people with common goals and values. Even if individuals are selfish maximizers of utility, in the end everybody benefits from being part of a cooperative community, the market. The rules of the market are the invisible hand which turns selfishness into cooperation. In the same way, God beliefs constrain individual selfishness and ensure (...)
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  33.  40
    Mind and Miracles.Ilkka Pyysiäinen - 2002 - Zygon 37 (3):729-740.
    Miracles are real or imagined events that contradict our intuitive expectations of how entities normally behave. Miracles in the weak sense are unexplained counterintuitive events. Miracles in the strong sense are counterintuitive events we explain by referring to the counterintuitive agents and forces of various religious traditions. Such explanations result from the fact that our minds treat half–understood information by carrying out searches in the memory, trying to connect new information with something already known. This is cognitively the most economical (...)
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  34.  36
    Social Aspects of Scientific Knowledge.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2020 - Synthese 197 (1):447-468.
    From its inception in 1987 social epistemology has been divided into analytic and critical approaches, represented by Alvin I. Goldman and Steve Fuller, respectively. In this paper, the agendas and some basic ideas of ASE and CSE are compared and assessed by bringing into the discussion also other participants of the debates on the social aspects of scientific knowledge—among them Raimo Tuomela, Philip Kitcher and Helen Longino. The six topics to be analyzed include individual and collective epistemic agents; the notion (...)
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  35.  77
    Truthlikeness: Comments on Recent Discussion.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1978 - Synthese 38 (2):281 - 329.
  36.  27
    Truth-Seeking by Abduction.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2004 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 11:57-82.
    In a seminar with the title “Deduction and Induction in the Sciences”, it is intriguing to ask the following questions: Is there a third type of inference besides deduction and induction? Does this third type of inference play a significant role within scientific inquiry? A positive answer to both of these questions was advocated by Charles S. Peirce throughout his career, even though his opinions changed in important ways during the fifty years between 1865 and 1914. Peirce called the third (...)
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  37.  79
    Inductive Systematization: Definition and a Critical Survey.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1972 - Synthese 25 (1-2):25 - 81.
    In 1958, to refute the argument known as the theoretician's dilemma, Hempel suggested that theoretical terms might be logically indispensable for inductive systematization of observational statements. This thesis, in some form or another, has later been supported by Scheffler, Lehrer, and Tuomela, and opposed by Bohnert, Hooker, Stegmüller, and Cornman. In this paper, a critical survey of this discussion is given. Several different putative definitions of the crucial notion inductive systematization achieved by a theory are discussed by reference to the (...)
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  38. Theories, Approximations, and Idealizations.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1990 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 16:9-57.
  39.  57
    Imagination and Fiction.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1985 - Journal of Semantics 4 (3):209-222.
    This paper employs possible worlds semantics to develop a systematic framework for studying the syntax and the semantics of imagination sentences. Following Hintikka's treatment of prepositional attitudes like knowledge and perception, the propositional construction “a imagines that p” is taken as the basic form to which other sentences (such as “a imagines b”, “a imagines an F”, “a imagines b as an F”) are reduced through quantifiers ranging over ‘world lines’, i.e., functions picking out individuals from the relevant possible worlds (...)
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  40.  48
    Mahdollisuus.Ilkka Niiniluoto, Tuomas Tahko & Teemu Toppinen (eds.) - 2016 - Helsinki: Philosophical Society of Finland.
    Proceedings of the 2016 "one word" colloquium of the The Philosophical Society of Finland. The word was "Possibility".
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  41.  6
    Ilkka Niiniluoto Carnap on Truth.I. Carnap'S. Early Work - 2003 - In Thomas Bonk (ed.), Language, Truth and Knowledge. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 2--1.
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  42. Reference Invariance and Truthlikeness.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (4):546-554.
    A holistic account of the meaning of theoretical terms leads scientific realism into serious troubles. Alternative methods of reference fixing are needed by a realist who wishes to show how reference invariance is possible in spite of meaning variance. This paper argues that the similarity theory of truthlikeness and approximate truth, developed by logicians since the mid 1970s, helps to make precise the idea of charitable theoretical reference. Comparisons to the recent proposals by Kitcher and Psillos are given. This argument (...)
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  43.  28
    The Development of the Hintikka Program.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2011 - In Dov M. Gabbay, John Woods & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Handbook of the History of Logic. Elsevier. pp. 311-356.
  44.  73
    Truthlikeness and Bayesian Estimation.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1986 - Synthese 67 (2):321 - 346.
  45.  12
    Gods, Genes, and Passions.Ilkka Pyysiäinen - 2003 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 3 (2):175-185.
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  46.  34
    Religion is Neither Costly nor Beneficial.Ilkka Pyysiäinen - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):746-746.
    Some forms of religion may in some cases alleviate existential anxieties and help maintain morality; yet religion can also persist without serving any such functions. Atran & Norenzayan (A&N) are unclear about the importance of these functions for a theory of the recurrence of religious beliefs and behaviors.
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  47.  1
    Mobile Phone Call Openings: Tailoring Answers to Personalized Summonses.Minna Leinonen & Ilkka Arminen - 2006 - Discourse Studies 8 (3):339-368.
    Conversation analytical methodology was used to specify the new opening practices in Finnish mobile call openings, which differ systematically from Finnish landline call openings. Since the responses to a mobile call orient to the summons identifying the caller, answers have changed and diversified. A known caller is greeted. The self-identification opening that was canonical in Finnish landline calls is mainly used for answering unknown callers, while channel-opener openings involve orientation to ongoing mutual business between the speakers. Some of these changes (...)
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  48.  33
    Dual-Process Theories and Hybrid Systems.Ilkka Pyysiäinen - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):617-618.
    The distinction between such differing approaches to cognition as connectionism and rule-based models is paralleled by a distinction between two basic modes of cognition postulated in the so-called dual-process theories. Integrating these theories with insights from hybrid systems might help solve the dilemma of combining the demands of evolutionary plausibility and computational universality. No single approach alone can achieve this.
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  49.  44
    Values in Design Sciences.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 46:11-15.
    Following Herbert Simon’s idea of “the sciences of the artificial”, one may contrast descriptive sciences and design sciences: the former are concerned with “how things are”, the latter tell us “how things ought to be in order to attain goals, and to function”. Typical results of design sciences are thus expressions about means—ends relations or technical norms in G. H. von Wright’s sense. Theorizing and modeling are important methods of giving a value-free epistemic justification for such technical norms. The values (...)
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  50.  1
    Environmentally Coupled Repairs and Remedies in the Airline Cockpit: Repair Practices of Talk and Action in Interaction.Petra Auvinen & Ilkka Arminen - 2013 - Discourse Studies 15 (1):19-41.
    Our article explores the repair practices pilots use to correct various troubles during flights. The intersubjective understanding of action is a salient part of the time-critical activities of aviation. Repairs solve troubles before any accident risk emerges, thus contributing to flight safety. In repair practices, the social and technical environment is interwoven. If remedies concern faulty lines of action, they target the techno-material condition of the aircraft. Such repair practices are not repairs of talk, but remedies of action in a (...)
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