Results for 'Individual differences'

998 found
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  1. Individual Differences in Reasoning: Implications for the Rationality Debate?Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):645-665.
    Much research in the last two decades has demonstrated that human responses deviate from the performance deemed normative according to various models of decision making and rational judgment (e.g., the basic axioms of utility theory). This gap between the normative and the descriptive can be interpreted as indicating systematic irrationalities in human cognition. However, four alternative interpretations preserve the assumption that human behavior and cognition is largely rational. These posit that the gap is due to (1) performance errors, (2) computational (...)
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  2.  31
    The Fragmented Folk: More Evidence of Stable Individual Differences in Moral Judgments and Folk Intuitions.A. Feltz & E. T. Cokely - 2008 - In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1771--1776.
    In a series of five experiments, we demonstrate that moral judgments and folk intuitions are often predictably fragmented. Drawing on the domains of ethics and action theory, we illustrate ways in which judgment tends to be associated with stable individual differences such as personality traits and reflective cognitive styles. We argue that these individual differences pose several unique challenges as well as provide opportunities for further theoretical development in the emerging field of experimental philosophy. Implications are (...)
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  3.  31
    Fringe Consciousness in Sequence Learning: The Influence of Individual Differences.Elisabeth Norman, Mark C. Price & Simon C. Duff - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):723-760.
    We first describe how the concept of “fringe consciousness” can characterise gradations of consciousness between the extremes of implicit and explicit learning. We then show that the NEO-PI-R personality measure of openness to feelings, chosen to reflect the ability to introspect on fringe feelings, influences both learning and awareness in the serial reaction time task under conditions that have previously been associated with implicit learning . This provides empirical evidence for the proposed phenomenology and functional role of fringe consciousness in (...)
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  4.  51
    Characterizing Ethical Cases: A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Individual Differences, Organisational Climate, and Leadership on Ethical Decision-Making. [REVIEW]J. R. C. Kuntz, J. R. Kuntz, Detelin Elenkov & Anna Nabirukhina - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (2):317-331.
    The primary purpose of this study was to explore the unique impact of individual differences (e.g. gender, managerial experience), social culture, ethical leadership, and ethical climate on the manner in which individuals analyse and interpret an organisational scenario. Furthermore, we sought to explore whether the manner in which a scenario is initially interpreted by respondents (i.e. as a legal issue, ethical issue, and/or ethical dilemma) influenced subsequent recognition of the relevant stakeholders involved and the identification of intra- and (...)
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  5.  40
    Causes of Individual Differences in Animal Exploration and Search.Simon M. Reader - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (3):451-468.
    Numerous studies have documented individual differences in exploratory tendencies and other phenomena related to search, and these differences have been linked to fitness. Here, I discuss the origins of these differences, focusing on how experience shapes animal search and exploration. The origin of individual differences will also depend upon the alternatives to exploration that are available. Given that search and exploration frequently carry significant costs, we might expect individuals to utilize cues indicating the potential (...)
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  6.  14
    Individual Differences in Subtle Awareness and Levels of Awareness: Olfaction as a Model System.Gary E. Schwartz - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & B. Alan Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamins. pp. 209.
  7.  92
    Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: Implications for Typical and Atypical Development.B. Repacholi & V. Slaughter (eds.) - 2003 - Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press.
    This volume represents the first collection of work to address, empirically and conceptually, the topic of individual differences in theory of mind.
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  8.  10
    Individual Differences in the Consciousness of Phantom Limbs.J. M. Katz - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & B. Alan Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamins. pp. 45--97.
  9.  13
    Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations.K. Perry Lynn & R. Saffran Jenny - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):1090-1105.
    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape and color are relevant to membership in the category banana. How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In this study, toddlers viewed pairs of objects associated with prototypical colors. On some trials, objects were typically colored ; on other trials, colors were switched. On each trial, toddlers were directed to (...)
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  10. Individual Differences in Self-Conscious Source Monitoring: Theoretical, Experimental, and Clinical Considerations.Robert G. Kunzendorf - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & B. Alan Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamins.
  11.  45
    Individual Differences in Conscious Experience.Robert G. Kunzendorf & Benjamin Wallace (eds.) - 2000 - Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    Individual Differences in Subjective Experience First-Person Constraints on Theories of Consciousness, Subconsciousness, and Self-Consciousness Robert G. ...
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  12. Individual Differences in Patterns of Hypnotic Experience Across Low and High Hypnotically Susceptible Individuals.Ronald J. Pekala & V. K. Kumar - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & Benjamin Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamins. pp. 309-335.
  13. Individual Differences in Implicit Learning: Implications for the Evolution of Consciousness.Arthur S. Reber & Robert F. Allen - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & B. Alan Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamin.
  14. Individual Differences in Visual Imagination Imagery.Alan W. Richardson - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & B. Alan Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamins.
  15. Biological Rhythms and Individual Differences in Consciousness.B. Alan Wallace & Linda Fisher - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & B. Alan Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamins.
  16. Individual Differences in Moral Behaviour: A Role for Response to Risk and Uncertainty?Colin J. Palmer, Bryan Paton, Trung T. Ngo, Richard H. Thomson, Jakob Hohwy & Steven M. Miller - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (1):97-103.
    Investigation of neural and cognitive processes underlying individual variation in moral preferences is underway, with notable similarities emerging between moral- and risk-based decision-making. Here we specifically assessed moral distributive justice preferences and non-moral financial gambling preferences in the same individuals, and report an association between these seemingly disparate forms of decision-making. Moreover, we find this association between distributive justice and risky decision-making exists primarily when the latter is assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task. These findings are consistent with neuroimaging (...)
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  17.  22
    Species and Individual Differences in Communication Based on Private States.David Lubinski & Travis Thompson - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):627-642.
  18.  6
    Modeling the Covariance Structure of Complex Datasets Using Cognitive Models: An Application to Individual Differences and the Heritability of Cognitive Ability.Nathan J. Evans, Mark Steyvers & Scott D. Brown - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1925-1944.
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  19.  20
    Interactive Skills and Individual Differences in a Word Production Task.Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau & Miles Wrightman - 2010 - AI and Society 25 (4):433-439.
    In attempting to solve a wide variety of tasks, people naturally seek to modify their external environment such that the physical space in which they work is more amenable or ‘congenial’ to achieving a desired outcome. Attempts to determine the effectiveness of certain artifacts or spatial reorganizations in aiding reasoners solve problems must be relativised to the difficulty of the task and the cognitive abilities of the reasoners. These factors were examined using a simple word production task with letter tiles. (...)
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  20. Individual Differences in Unconscious Processing.Robert Balas, Aleksandra Gruszka, Błażej Szymura & Katarzyna Żyła - 2007 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 38 (1):32-39.
  21.  11
    Anagram Solution Times: A Function of Individual Differences in Stored Digram Frequencies.M. E. Tresselt & M. S. Mayzner - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (6):606.
  22.  20
    A Study of Individual Differences in Binocular Color Fusion.G. Grimsley - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (1):82.
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  23.  15
    Electroencephalographic Individual Differences and Their Constancy: II. During Waking.C. E. Henry - 1941 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (3):236.
  24.  12
    Individual Differences in Simple Auditory Reaction Times of Hands, Feet and Jaws.S. H. Seashore & R. H. Seashore - 1941 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (4):342.
  25.  17
    Pain Measurement by the Radiant Heat Method: Individual Differences in Pain Sensitivity, the Effects of Skin Temperature, and Stimulus Duration.James E. Birren, Roland C. Casperson & Jack Botwinick - 1951 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 (6):419.
  26.  16
    Electroencephalographic Individual Differences and Their Constancy: I. During Sleep.C. E. Henry - 1941 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (2):117.
  27.  15
    An Attempt to Appraise Individual Differences in Level of Muscular Tension.M. A. Wenger - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (3):213.
  28.  14
    Interaction of Lack of Sleep with Knowledge of Results, Repeated Testing, and Individual Differences.Robert T. Wilkinson - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (3):263.
  29.  10
    Individual Differences in Ease of Conditioning.A. A. Campbell & E. R. Hilgard - 1936 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 19 (5):561.
  30.  11
    Individual Differences in Learning as a Function of Shock Level.Rachel Kaplan, Stephen Kaplan & Edward L. Walker - 1960 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 60 (6):404.
  31.  9
    Individual Differences in Physiological Reactions to Stimulation and Their Relation to Other Measures of Emotionality.G. L. Freeman & E. T. Katzoff - 1942 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (6):527.
  32.  7
    Measures of Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Conditioning.A. A. Lumsdaine - 1941 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 28 (5):428.
  33.  7
    "Anagram Solution Times: A Function of Individual Differences in Stored Digram Frequencies": Errata.M. S. Mayzner & M. E. Tresselt - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (1):73-73.
  34.  8
    Individual Differences in Interference From Stimulus Similarity.Willard N. Runquist & David Blackmore - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (1):141.
  35.  8
    Individual Differences in the Autokinetic Phenomenon.A. C. Voth - 1941 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (4):306.
  36.  6
    Individual Differences in Defensive Forgetting.Charles W. Eriksen - 1952 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 44 (6):442.
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  37.  6
    The Relationship of Certain Organic Factors to Individual Differences in Human Parotid Secretory Rate.B. Korchin & A. L. Winsor - 1940 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 27 (2):192-194.
  38.  5
    Intercategory and Intracategory Discrimination for One Visual Continuum: Contributions of Identification Training and of Individual Differences.Theodore Parks, Carolyn Wall & Jarvis Bastian - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (2):241.
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  39.  5
    Free-Recall Transfer and Individual Differences in Subjective Organization.Marcia Earhard - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (6):1169.
  40.  6
    The Effect of Training on Individual Differences.H. B. Reed - 1924 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 7 (3):186.
  41.  4
    Short-Term Memory, Individual Differences, and Shift Performance in Concept Formation.Edwin Martin - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (4p1):514.
  42.  4
    A Study of Individual Differences in Motion Acuity at Scotopic Levels of Illumination.C. J. Warden, H. C. Brown & S. Ross - 1945 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 35 (1):57.
  43.  4
    Shape Constancy: Dependence Upon Angle of Rotation; Individual Differences.William H. Lichte - 1952 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (1):49.
  44.  3
    The Consistency of Individual Differences in the Pattern of Work Decrement.B. R. Bugelski - 1941 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 28 (4):326.
  45.  1
    A New Technic in Studying the Effects of Practice Upon Individual Differences.W. A. Owens Jr - 1942 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 30 (2):180.
  46. Intuitions and Individual Differences: The Knobe Effect Revisited.Shaun Nichols & Joseph Ulatowski - 2007 - Mind and Language 22 (4):346–365.
    Recent work by Joshua Knobe indicates that people’s intuition about whether an action was intentional depends on whether the outcome is good or bad. This paper argues that part of the explanation for this effect is that there are stable individual differences in how ‘intentional’ is interpreted. That is, in Knobe’s cases, different people interpret the term in different ways. This interpretive diversity of ‘intentional’ opens up a new avenue to help explain Knobe’s results. Furthermore, the paper argues (...)
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  47. Individual Differences, Judgment Biases, and Theory-of-Mind: Deconstructing the Intentional Action Side Effect Asymmetry.Edward Cokely & Adam Feltz - 2008 - Journal of Research in Personality 43:18-24.
    When the side effect of an action involves moral considerations (e.g. when a chairman’s pursuit of profits harms the environment) it tends to influence theory-of-mind judgments. On average, bad side effects are judged intentional whereas good side effects are judged unintentional. In a series of two experiments, we examined the largely uninvestigated roles of individual differences in this judgment asymmetry. Experiment 1 indicated that extraversion accounted for variations in intentionality judgments, controlling for a range of other general (...) differences (e.g. working memory, self-control). Experiment 2 indicated that extraversion’s influence was partially mediated by more specific variations in intentional action concepts. A priming manipulation also provided causal evidence of judgment instability and bias. Results suggest that the intentional action judgment asymmetry is multiply determined, reflecting the interplay of individual differences and judgment biases. Implications and the roles of individual differences in judgment and decision-making research are discussed. (shrink)
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  48.  16
    Individual Differences in the Phenomenology of Mental Time Travel: The Effect of Vivid Visual Imagery and Emotion Regulation Strategies.Arnaud D’Argembeau & Martial Van der Linden - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):342-350.
    It has been claimed that the ability to remember the past and the ability to project oneself into the future are intimately related. We sought support for this proposition by examining whether individual differences in dimensions that have been shown to affect memory for past events similarly influence the experience of projecting oneself into the future. We found that individuals with a higher capacity for visual imagery experienced more visual and other sensory details both when remembering past events (...)
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  49.  54
    Individual Differences in Theory-of-Mind Judgments: Order Effects and Side Effects.Adam Feltz & Edward T. Cokely - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (3):343 - 355.
    We explore and provide an account for a recently identified judgment anomaly, i.e., an order effect that changes the strength of intentionality ascriptions for some side effects (e.g., when a chairman's pursuit of profits has the foreseen but unintended consequence of harming the environment). Experiment 1 replicated the previously unanticipated order effect anomaly controlling for general individual differences. Experiment 2 revealed that the order effect was multiply determined and influenced by factors such as beliefs (i.e., that the same (...)
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  50.  17
    Individual Differences in the Phenomenology of Mental Time Travel: The Effect of Vivid Visual Imagery and Emotion Regulation Strategies.A. DArgembeau & M. Vanderlinden - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):342-350.
    It has been claimed that the ability to remember the past and the ability to project oneself into the future are intimately related. We sought support for this proposition by examining whether individual differences in dimensions that have been shown to affect memory for past events similarly influence the experience of projecting oneself into the future. We found that individuals with a higher capacity for visual imagery experienced more visual and other sensory details both when remembering past events (...)
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