Enhancing the environmental soundness of agricultural practices, particularly in high input systems, is of increasing concern to those involved in agricultural research and development. The Integrated Pest Management Farmer Field School, which is based on farmer participatory environmental education, is compared to the No Early Spray intervention, which is a simple rule approach. A research methodology was developed and tested in the Philippines to document farmers' pre- and post-intervention knowledge of rice field insects, insect/plant interactions, and pesticides. The (...) results indicate that increased knowledge from education is linked to better pest management behavior. It is proposed that the methodology may also be useful for documenting other areas of knowledge, in the design of educational interventions for farmers and in assessing their impact. (shrink)
This paper attempts to bridge business ethics to corporate social responsibility including the social and environmental dimensions. The objective of the paper is to suggest a conceptual methodology with which ethics of corporate environmental management tools can be considered. The method includes two stages that are required for a shift away from the current dominant unsustainable paradigm and toward a more sustainable paradigm. The first stage is paradigmatic, metaphoric and normative. The second stage is a practical stage, which (...) in turn, is analytic, descriptive and positive. The method is applied to common industrial metabolism tools of ecological footprints (EF), environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) and industrial ecology (IE). The application shows that all three tools can be used in business ethics, in particular, when the first stage of the method is applied to their use. (shrink)
Understanding the falsity of certain common beliefs helps students move toward better business ethics and a higher degree of moral management. This article explains one method for teaching moral management, by using ethical equation inequalities, and offers 10 implications and suggestions to managers.
This study examines firms that have experienced an industrial and/or environ-mental crisis and proposes that top management team characteristics will affect a firm's ability to minimize the severity of these crisis events. Specifically, heterogeneity in the TMT will exhibit a curvilinear relationship with the severity of firm crises. Our results suggest that a moderate level of age and tenure heterogeneity are positively related to a firm's ability to successfully minimize the severity of crises. Variance in educational backgrounds was (...) unrelated to crisis severity. Functional background heterogeneity exhibited a curvilinear relationship with crisis severity but was not U-shaped as hypothesized. (shrink)
This paper presents an approach to managing knowledge specific to a particular location for complex instruments. The goal is to improve the knowledge communication between experts and end-users of scientific instruments. We propose a computational framework that integrates augmented reality and augmented virtuality as interface for manipulating knowledge. The augmented virtuality-based interface can be produced and distributed without extra costs. It allows knowledge dissemination at a larger scale. The prominent feature of our model is that the knowledge representation is independent (...) from those interfaces. A preliminary version of our framework has been implemented and deployed in customers’ environments. (shrink)
Zusammenfassung Der Text zielt auf eine stadtsoziologische Fundierung aktueller urbaner Bewegungskulturen. Die gängige Annahme sportsoziologischer Befunde ist, jugendliche Bewegungskulturen als Phänomen der Großstadt oder als eine Gegenbewegung zu der Funktionalität der modernern Städte auszuweisen. Demgegenüber wird hier die These entfaltet, dass die postindustrielle Stadt für die Eventisierung und Festivalisierung der Bewegungs- und Sportkulturen erst die sozialräumlichen Bedingungen bereit gestellt hat. Zentrale Vorgänge waren hierbei die Theatralisierung und Musealisierung des öffentlichen Raumes sowie die ästhetische Umdeutung des spezifisch modernen Konzeptes einer normativen (...) Urbanität Die Argumentationsfigur wird über die Zusammenführung zweier soziologischer Diskursfelder, die Stadtsoziologie und der Bewegungs- und Sportsoziologie entfaltet. Zunächst werden die sich zum Teil ergänzenden, zum Teil widersprüchlichen jüngeren Trends der Stadtentwicklung systematisch aufgearbeitet. In einem zweiten Schritt werden sie dann ins Verhältnis zu den vorliegenden sportsoziologischen Befunden städtischer Bewegungskulturen gesetzt. (shrink)
The study examines the research methodology of more than 200 empirical investigations of ethics in personal selling and sales management between 1980 and 2010. The review discusses the sources and authorship of the sales ethics research. To better understand the drivers of empirical sales ethics research, the foundations used in business, marketing, and sales ethics are compared. The use of hypotheses, operationalization, measurement, population and sampling decisions, research design, and statistical analysis techniques were examined as part of theory (...) development and testing. The review establishes a benchmark, assesses the status and direction of the sales ethics research methodology, and helps inform researchers who need to deal with increasing amounts of empirical research. The investigation identified changing sources of publication with the Journal of Business Ethics and the Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management maintaining their position as the main conduit of high quality empirical sales ethics research. The results suggest that despite the use of theoretical models for empirical testing, a greater variety of moral frameworks and wider use of marketing exchange theory is needed. The review highlights many sound aspects about the empirical sales ethics research statistical methodology but also raises concerns about several areas. Ways in which these concerns might be addressed and recommendations for researchers are provided. (shrink)
Recently, researchers on organization theory and behavior were challenged by the introduction of cognitive machines in the list of the organization’s participants. Researchers in this field advocated that cognitive machines contribute to improve cognitive abilities in the organization by extending people’s rationality and decision-making capacity and by reducing intra-individual and group dysfunctional conflicts. This paper supports these findings and extends their results to upper layers at managerial and organizational levels of application by proposing the concept of new industrial organizations (...) with structure and processes of Computational Organization Management Networks. In such a new organization type, cognitive machines and cognitive information systems are prominent actors of governance, automation, and control of the whole enterprise. (shrink)
Management and Morality provides a comprehensive and accessible overview of the moral and ethical dimension to organizational and individual behavior, while adding an original, developmental perceptive. Management and Morality combines organizational theory and behavior with approaches to organizational and individual development. The first two sections of the book, Ethical Thinking and Management Practice, and Moral Issues in Organizations, provide a clear and thorough coverage of these areas relevant to ethical behavior in and of organizations. On this basis, (...) the third section, A Developmental Perspective, develops a new approach to ethical development of organizations and individuals concerned with the improvement of organizational structures, processes, and practices so as to allow for individual morality and individual moral behavior. Rich in its coverage of the field and variety of ideas, Management and Morality will be essential reading to students and academics in management, business and organizational ethics, organizational behavior and development, and organizational sociology. (shrink)
We live in a 'bimoral' society, in which people govern their lives by two contrasting sets of principles. On the one hand there are the principles associated with traditional morality. Although these allow a modicum of self-interest, their emphasis is on our duties and obligations to others: to treat people honestly and with respect, to treat them fairly and without prejudice, to help and are for them when needed, and ultimately, to put their needs above their own. On the other (...) hand there are the principles associated with the entrepreneurial self-interest. These also impose obligations, but of a much more limited kind. Their emphasis is competitive rather than cooperative: to advance our own interests rather than to meet the needs of others. Both sets of principles have always been present in society but in recent years, traditional moral authorities have lost much of their force and the morality of self-interest has acquired a much greater social legitimacy, over a much wider field of behavior, than ever before. The result of this is that in many situations it is no longer at all apparent which set of principles should take precedence. In this book, John Hendry traces the cultural and historical origins of the 'bimoral' society have also led to new, more flexible forms of organizing, which have released people's entrepreneurial energies and significantly enhanced the creative capacities of business. Working within these organizations, however is fraught with moral tensions as obligations and self-interest conflict and managers are pulled in all sorts of different directions. Managing them successfully poses major new challenges of leadership, and 'moral' management, as the technical problem-solving that previously characterized managerial work is increasingly accomplished by technology and market mechanisms. The key role of management becomes the political and moral one of determining purposes and priorities, reconciling divergent interests, and nurturing trust in interpersonal relationships. Exploring these tensions and challenges, Hendry identifies new issues of contemporary management and puts recognized issues into context. He also explores the challenges posed for a post-traditional society as it seeks to regulate and govern an increasingly powerful and global business sector. (shrink)
Offers managers new tools to deal with the tough problems businesses face today. Reveals how analyzing the ethical dimensions of problems actually offers competitive advantages. Offers illustrative case examples from internally recognized companies showing that high ethics and high profits go hand in hand--and identifies the factors responsible for these companies' success.
And while globalisation has ushered in many benefits for companies and consumers alike, this book posits that it is the fierce competition of global market-places which drives the largely unopposed belief that firms exist solely to enhance ...
This text provides an introduction to some of the major challenges facing anyone concerned with standards of behaviour in organizations. It starts from a consideration of the resources provided by philosophical ethics and moves on to consider the challenges inherent in working in a competitive business environment.
In order to understand the system wherein human resource management practices are determined by the interactions of a complex system of actors, it is necessary to have a conceptual framework of analysis. In this respect, the works of scholars (Mitroff, 1983, Stakeholders of the Organizational Mind, Jessey-Bass; Freeman, 1984, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach, Pitman) concerning stakeholder theory opened new perspectives in management theory. An organisation is understood as being part of a politico-economic system of stakeholders who (...) interact and influence management practices. Each stakeholder tries to optimise and protect his interests (Frooman, 1999, Academy of Management Review 24, 191–205; Savage et al., 1991, Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 61–75). The framework of stakeholder analysis enables escape from a purely instrumental approach to HRM, and avoids reducing our understanding of conflicts within companies to mere antagonism between employees and their employers. It enables us to point out the existence of other stakeholders in the relationship. Notably, it allows for the incorporation into management theory of actors from the sphere of politics (president of the republic, government, national elected representatives – deputies and senators – and locally elected representatives – mayors and regional councillors, etc.) as well as their dependent administrations. All these actors are considered to be stakeholders who define the legal framework of firm management and guarantee the application of these laws. (shrink)
Defining features of the research methodology of network management of education paradigm is the main subject of the article. First of all, we are talking about the need to adapt existing methodologies such as synergistic, systems analysis, activity approach, philosophical hermeneutic methodology. Their use requires consideration of social and cultural characteristics of network-information society and its education sector. The main reason for adaptation of methodologies is consideration of educational networking features, including horizontal interaction between actors in the (...) educational process of combining resources for joint problem solving. Methodologies should also be put in the context of socio-cultural interaction between the content of modern and postmodern management practices to identify the peculiarities of the latter. Adapted methodologies make it possible to explore network management paradigm as polyarchical alternative of directive-administrative management of education. (shrink)
The article is devoted to the scientific and methodical approach to the construction of the organizational structure of the control system of the industrial enterprise, which takes into account the current trends in the development of industry and the need for the transition of Ukrainian industrial enterprises to the sixth technological way. The main components of this approach are: 1) the identification of the primary and secondary levels of control in order to monitor the course of business processes (...) in the middle of the enterprise and in the external environment ; 2) separation of the control of aggregated business processes by directions: control of operational and tactical management and control of strategic management; 3) analysis of information flows of the organizational structure of the control system of the industrial enterprise by the defined control points, which are: a system for collecting technical information through the IoT; system of management and accounting; unstructured data monitoring system; BigData processing system; system of exchange and representation of data. Due to the definition of the main areas of environmental control to ensure the competitiveness of the industrial enterprise and the establishment of interconnections between the divisions of the industrial enterprise in the implementation of internal control, a system for controlling the development of an industrial enterprise at all levels of management can be created. (shrink)
The article presents a management mechanism that foresees basing and realization of actions aimed at sustainable development of industrial enterprise based on the probability of influence of a negative factor and extent of loss that may arise from this influence.
There has been noted that in the process of the development of economic relationship, improvement and technology integration, innovations and transformations implementation, increase in productivity and activity outcomes the principles of management, development and system functioning are changed, complemented and transformed. There has been found that to meet the goals of industrial enterprises development, encourage co-operation of all units in the system during development, make financial and economic, production and technical managerial decisions on the basis of systemic approach (...) to management, analysis of systems principles, development and management of phenomena and processes it is necessary to take into account the developed basic and additional principles of formation of the strategic management system of the industrial enterprise development. The basic principles are: flexibility, integrity, optimality, efficiency, productivity; the additional ones: rationality, correspondence, dynamism, control. The multitude of the mentioned principles has been formed according to managerial actions that correspond to the stage of the formation of the development goal (correspondence and dynamism principles), stages of development management (flexibility, integrity, optimality, rationality, control principles) and stages of development goals realization (efficiency and productivity), which ensures specification of the role and principles in the process of the industrial enterprise development. The principles are subdivided according to subsystems of inner state (production and realization - flexibility principle, financial state - integrity, resource state - flexibility principle), the subsystem of outer state (correspondence and dynamism principle). There have been determined principles that characterize the functioning of all subsystems within the system of strategic management of development during the formation of managerial decisions (optimality, rationality and control principles) and during the results of the industrial enterprise development (efficiency and productivity principles). (shrink)
The paper presents new conceptual dimensions of project management, based on innovative thinking, cognitive knowledge of the studied subjects of project methodology based on project needs and cultural and creative thinking. The aim is to explore design thinking of era of globalization and development of information society in project management as one of the most creative professions. To prove that project management requires the formation of project culture based on the innovative principles of society. Objectives of (...) research are to reveal the essence and importance of the new philosophy of project thinking, which requires a creative individual who seeks to rebuild the world according to the laws of harmony, beauty and design-based project methodology. Project thinking as the basis of innovation and culture-developing processes are aimed at transforming the world and human needs. Used methodology - constructive methodology is aimed at restructuring and knowledge of the world. Conclusion is forming of a concept of project thinking, which enables project-based consciousness and philosophy to explain the innovative tools of project management. (shrink)
How can we identify and estimate workers’ tacit knowledge? How can we design a personnel mix aimed at improving and speeding up its transfer and development? How is it possible to implement tacit knowledge sustainable projects in remote areas? In order to answer these questions, it is necessary to distinguish between types of tacit knowledge, to establish what they allow for and to consider their sources. It is also essential to find a way of managing the tacit knowledge ‘stock’ and (...) distribution within the workforce. In short, a conceptual framework is needed to manage tacit knowledge. Based on previous works and 2 years of action research, this paper introduces such a framework and describes its partial application to support the pre-operational training and hiring in a large industrial plant in Brazil. Two contributions emerge from the research. First, the concept of ‘levels of similarity’ is introduced as a means to qualify the experience of workers and estimate the associated tacit knowledge. Second, the capability of carrying out three types of judgement properly and speedily is put forward as being a core ability of those who possess what has been called ‘collective tacit knowledge’ (Collins in Organ Stud 28(2):257–262, 2007). In practical terms, the results indicate the opportunity for companies to capitalize on the experience and tacit knowledge of their workers in a systematic way and with due recognition. Ultimately, positive impacts are expected in their absorptive capacity as well as in their management and human resources systems, accident prevention, productivity and the development of sustainable projects in remote areas. (shrink)
In this study, we explore the sincerity of the rhetorical tone of 664 annual letters to shareholders (CEO letters). Prior studies adopt Impression Management theory to predict that firms obfuscate failures and emphasize successes to unfairly enhance their image and maintain organizational legitimacy. Yuthas et al. (J Bus Ethics 41:141–157, 2002) challenged such a view, showing that firms reporting earnings surprises engage in ethical discourse with shareholders. We adopt the methodology of Yuthas et al. (J Bus Ethics 41:141–157, (...) 2002) to explore the association between firm performance and the rhetorical features of CEO letters in a large sample of Fortune 500 firms in the wake of the global economic crisis. In contrast to most prior research, we find that optimistic tone is congruent with both past and future performance. We conclude that under tough macroeconomic conditions, incentives to distort public information strategically are low. Rather, firms tend to engage in communicative action aimed at dialoguing with shareholders through sincere disclosure. However, in our conclusions, we warn about the impact of accounting and rhetorical manipulation on the congruence between optimistic tone and financial performance. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to conduct an in-depth study on environmental management systems developed in the ceramic tiles sector. This study is conceived as an improvement on a previous survey related to an environmental diagnosis of the ceramic tiles sector where some incongruities between environmental explicit speeches and environmental actions were detected. Such incongruities revealed that firms assumed to be highly environmental committed while from facts this commitment was not so high proved. So, it was necessary to (...) introduce case study research methodology to clarify and to understand the reasons of these inconsistencies. The main objectives of our case study research are two. The first one consists in determining the relationship between firms and environment, analysing environmental positions in companies assumed in their environmental strategy and their environmental behaviour reflected in facts, while the second one attempts to establish the role played by the accounting information system in the environmental management systems of the companies in the sector. Our case study research reveals the elaboration of a larger amount of environmental accounting information for internal use than for external one. This fact is due not only to the inexistence of regulations about environmental disclosures in Spain, at that time, but also to the importance of environmental internal accounting information for management which supports the prevalence of decision-usefulness theory in the implementation of environmental management systems. (shrink)
South Korean industrial conglomerates (chaebols) are discussed in the context of value-based management (VBM). Recent economics and finance literature on the diversion of corporate resources from the firm to the controlling shareholders (tunneling), for which chaebols are notoriously known, is discussed. Chaebols have engaged in empire building and expropriation of minority shareholders, distorting the process of efficient resource allocation in South Korea, and became the root cause of the 1997 financial crisis. We argue that the 1997 crisis should (...) be viewed as a consequence of chaebols’ systematic deviation from the guiding principles of VBM. We use tunneling within chaebols as an example of the need to directly address prohibition of the expropriation of minority shareholders as a primary postulate of VBM. We argue that VBM should require that the value generated by the firm not be expropriated from minorities, or any stakeholders, by dominant shareholders. We also examine moral and ethical considerations and present explanations as to why the unethical practice of tunneling has been tolerated by the South Korean public. We show that public opinion on tunneling is changing and that the treatment of minority shareholders by chaebols’ controlling families is becoming increasingly unacceptable to South Koreans. (shrink)
The increasing challenges faced by organizations have led to numerous studies examining human resource management (HRM) practices, organizational ethical climates and sustainability. Despite this, little has been done to explore the possible relationships between these three topics. This study, based on a probabilistic sample of 6,000 employees from six European countries, analyses how HRM practices with the aim of developing organizational ethics influence the benevolent, principled and egoistic ethical climates that exist within organizations, while also investigating the possible moderating (...) role played by their employees’ perception of corporate sustainability. Findings demonstrate that ability-enhancing practices (i.e. recruiting, selection and training) and opportunity-enhancing practices (i.e. job design, industrial relationships and employee involvement) improve benevolent and principled organizational ethical climates, while motivation-enhancing practices (i.e. performance management, compensation and incentives) rather than being related to these organizational ethical climates, are linked to the egoistic climate. In addition, the perceptions of the company’s employees in terms of corporate sustainability moderate these relationships, by reinforcing the positive relationships of ability-enhancing and motivation-enhancing HRM practices in terms of benevolent and principled ethical climates and by reducing the positive relationships between motivation-enhancing practices and egoistic climate. Specific implications for HRM research, teaching and practice are then advanced and discussed. (shrink)
This synthesis of 5 prominent conflict management paradigms uses power differential as the single most contributing variable to their process and outcome of conflict. Efforts of scholars to integrate or synthesize conflict paradigms have been unsuccessful or clumsy by the scholars’ own assessments. The 5 selected paradigms represent an interdisciplinary set of normative and descriptive paradigms from different social contexts and intellectual frameworks. The 5 share the common traits of rival goals, three levels of socially constructed power differential, and (...) outcomes relative to the total value of the rival goal. An inverse relationship between power differential and the total value of conflict outcomes is supported by all 5 paradigms and empirical data. Explanatory metatheory is the methodology used for synthesis. An increase in power differential results in a decrease in total value of the rival goal. Power differential is constructed using Max Weber’s ideal-type method. The power differentials are abstracted from the paradigms themselves. Empirical work form secondary sources and case studies complete the analysis. (shrink)
How many companies create a fancy vision statement, hang it on the wall and never refer to it again? For all the hype, identifying company values is worthwhile only if management then refer to these values in all business -decisions and motivate employees to do the same. Values at Work seeks to help managers identify company values, coach staff to implement these values, and support staff in identifying their own personal values and comparing them to those of the company. (...) Values at Work includes interviews with company executives already -implementing values-based management techniques, and provides a prac-tical guide for managers wishing to understand values and their impact on people, performance, and profit. (shrink)
How_more open ways of thinking and operating are beginning to pervade even the largest and most complex institutions, from global corporations to government departments _ The future of business is loose-loose organizations, management styles, brands, thinking, and communications. For example,_Google breaks the traditional rules of branding by changing its logo everyday, Doritos handed over the premium advertising slot in the Superbowl to a couple of amateur filmmakers, and even Pope Benedict XVI has embraced the inclusive "Obama model" of communication (...) with YouTube broadcasts in 27 languages in an attempt to encourage debate. By building on cutting-edge case studies and conversations with the smartest business people from around the globe, this book challenges received wisdom and explains new ways of managing companies, building brands, engaging with customers, and marketing products and services._Shaking up the status quo and showing how prevailing business wisdom needs to change, this book will help_you change_their terms of business, before they are changed for you. (shrink)
Moss is right to state that management theory needs to address its epistemological foundations by considering questions in epistemology and the philosophy of science. Whether management theory needs Popper is a more tricky question. It is not clear that all theories should be falsifiable in Poppers terms. His proposed methodology for social scientific research is inherently conservative and threatens to inhibit intellectual and social progress. But Poppers philosophical realism and rationalism need to be preserved. Coherentism and associated (...) forms of anti-rationalism (including postmodernism and relativism) threaten to provide a rationale for the worst excesses of management theory. Indeed, the poverty of contemporary management theory is a symptom of a broader intellectual malaise: debate is increasingly characterised by the exchange of persuasive rhetoric, making it difficult to hold those in positions ofpower accountable for rationally justifying the positions they espouse. (shrink)
This paper sets out and examines the presuppositions and presumptions of management educators. It is based on an empirical study of 25 management educators from three UK Business Schools who are responsible for management education and development. The aim of the study is not to generalise thefindings but to adopt an interpretive methodology to identify and question the hidden and unexamined presuppositions and presumptions of management educators that underlie management programme development and design. The (...) author finds the presuppositions and presumptions problematic, inaccurate and uncritical, and they are responsible for producing and re-producing the practices of management for contemporary organisations and wider society. The author articulates these concerns in a philosophical manner in order to raise questions and challenge the embedded fads and wisdom. This paper concludes by inviting management educators to rethink management education and development and examine their own presuppositions and presumptions underpinning programme development and design. (shrink)
Like any social science, management and organization sits astride two literary and epistemic disciplines; the empirical and the conceptual. I argue that emphasizing the former to the detriment of the latter, as is often the case in management and organization research, creates a conceptual blindness that compromises progress in the field. I show how adopting a more philosophically attuned methodology buttresses the conceptual tools of management and organization research via deduction, induction, normative grounding, and overcoming the (...) illusion of unanimity. (shrink)
This paper reviews the origins of organisational economics and critically examines its influence on business-school scholarship and pedagogy in the eighties and nineties and argues three points. First, it is useful to analyse the infiltration of economic ideas about internal organisation of firms into organisational science within the context of the methodology of scientific research programmes. Second, the adoption by management theorists of organisational economics as part of a new science of organisations represented a significant change in research (...) style within business schools and may have contributed to practices that came under heavy criticism in the last decade. Third, the influence of economic ideas on management science represented not only an infusion of methods and models, but an infusion of ideology as well, raising important philosophical questions concerning the development of management science. (shrink)