Results for 'Information'

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  1. Formalizing the Dynamics of Information.Martina Faller, Stefan C. Kaufmann, Marc Pauly & Center for the Study of Language and Information S.) - 2000
     
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  2. Rethinking Informed Consent in Bioethics.Neil C. Manson - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    Informed consent is a central topic in contemporary biomedical ethics. Yet attempts to set defensible and feasible standards for consenting have led to persistent difficulties. In Rethinking Informed Consent in Bioethics Neil Manson and Onora O'Neill set debates about informed consent in medicine and research in a fresh light. They show why informed consent cannot be fully specific or fully explicit, and why more specific consent is not always ethically better. They argue that consent needs distinctive communicative transactions, by which (...)
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  3.  77
    Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics.Christopher Gordon Timpson - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Christopher G. Timpson provides the first full-length philosophical treatment of quantum information theory and the questions it raises for our understanding of the quantum world. He argues for an ontologically deflationary account of the nature of quantum information, which is grounded in a revisionary analysis of the concepts of information.
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  4.  4
    Informal Logic Referees 2011-2012.Informal Logic Editors - 2013 - Informal Logic 33 (1):80.
    The Editors express their gratitude and appreciation to the indi-viduals listed below who served as referees for Informal Logic for Volumes 31 (2011) and 32 (2012).
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  5. Quantum Information Theory & the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics.Christopher Gordon Timpson - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics is a conceptual analysis of one of the most prominent and exciting new areas of physics, providing the first full-length philosophical treatment of quantum information theory and the questions it raises for our understanding of the quantum world. -/- Beginning from a careful, revisionary, analysis of the concepts of information in the everyday and classical information-theory settings, Christopher G. Timpson argues for an ontologically deflationary account of the (...)
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  6. Information Structure and Sentence Form: Topic, Focus, and the Mental Representations of Discourse Referents.Knud Lambrecht - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    Why do speakers of all languages use different grammatical structures under different communicative circumstances to express the same idea? In this comprehensive study, Professor Lambrecht explores the relationship between the structure of sentences and the linguistic and extra-linguistic contexts in which they are used. His analysis is based on the observation that the structure of a sentence reflects a speaker's assumptions about the hearer's state of knowledge and consciousness at the time of the utterance. This relationship between speaker assumptions and (...)
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  7. Informal Logic: A Handbook for Critical Argument.Douglas Neil Walton - 1989 - Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    This is an introductory guidebook to the basic principles of how to construct good arguments and how to criticeze bad ones. It is non-technical in its approach and is based on 150 key examples, each discussed and evaluated in clear, illustrative detail. Professor Walton, a leading authority in the field of informal logic, explains how errors, fallacies, and other key failures of argument occur. He shows how correct uses of argument are based on sound strategies for reasoned persuasion and critical (...)
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  8. Science and Information Theory.Leon Brillouin - 1956 - Dover Publications.
    A classic source for understanding the connections between information theory and physics, this text was written by one of the giants of 20th-century physics and is appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include the principles of coding, coding problems and solutions, the analysis of signals, a summary of thermodynamics, thermal agitation and Brownian motion, and thermal noise in an electric circuit. A discussion of the negentropy principle of information introduces the author's renowned examination of Maxwell's demon. (...)
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  9. Informal Logic: A Handbook for Critical Argumentation.Douglas Neil Walton - 1989 - Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    This is an introductory guide to the basic principles of constructing good arguments and criticizing bad ones. It is nontechnical in its approach, and is based on 150 key examples, each discussed and evaluated in clear, illustrative detail. The author explains how errors, fallacies, and other key failures of argument occur. He shows how correct uses of argument are based on sound argument strategies for reasoned persuasion and critical questions for responding. Among the many subjects covered are: techniques of posing, (...)
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  10. Informal Logic: A Pragmatic Approach.Douglas Walton - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    Second edition of the introductory guidebook to the basic principles of constructing sound arguments and criticising bad ones. Non-technical in approach, it is based on 186 examples, which Douglas Walton, a leading authority in the field of informal logic, discusses and evaluates in clear, illustrative detail. Walton explains how errors, fallacies, and other key failures of argument occur. He shows how correct uses of argument are based on sound strategies for reasoned persuasion and critical responses. This edition takes into account (...)
     
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  11. Information Technology and Moral Philosophy.Jeroen van den Hoven & John Weckert (eds.) - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    Information technology is an integral part of the practices and institutions of post-industrial society. It is also a source of hard moral questions and thus is both a probing and relevant area for moral theory. In this volume, an international team of philosophers sheds light on many of the ethical issues arising from information technology, including informational privacy, digital divide and equal access, e-trust and tele-democracy. Collectively, these essays demonstrate how accounts of equality and justice, property and privacy (...)
     
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  12. Informal Logic a Handbook for Critical Argumentation.David N. Walton - 1989
     
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  13.  18
    Informed Consent for HIV Cure Research in South Africa: Issues to Consider.Ciara Staunton - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):3.
    South Africa has made great progress in the development of HIV/AIDS testing, treatment and prevention campaigns. Yet, it is clear that prevention and treatment campaigns alone are not enough to bring this epidemic under control.
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  14.  48
    Does Information Have a Moral Worth in Itself?Luciano Floridi - 1998 - In CEPE 1998, Computer Ethics: Philosophical Enquiry. London:
    The paper provides an axiological analysis of the concepts of respect for information and of information dignity from the vantage point provided by Information Ethics and the conceptual paradigm of object-oriented analysis (OOA). The general perspective adopted is that of an ontocentric approach to the philosophy of information ethics, according to which the latter is an expansion of environmental ethics towards a less biologically biased concept of a ‘centre of ethical worth’. The paper attempts to answer (...)
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  15. The Information Integration Theory of Consciousness.Giulio Tononi - 2007 - In Max Velmans & Susan Schneider (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Blackwell. pp. 287--299.
  16.  10
    The Information-Loss Model: A Mathematical Theory of Age-Related Cognitive Slowing.Joel Myerson, Sandra Hale, David Wagstaff & Leonard W. Poon - 1990 - Psychological Review 97 (4):475-487.
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  17.  9
    Informed Consent, Understanding, and Trust.David B. Resnik - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (5):61-63.
    Valid Informed consent to medical treatment or research participation has traditionally been viewed as consisting of the following requirements: the person has t...
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  18.  61
    Wisdom, Information, and Wonder: What is Knowledge For?Mary Midgley - 1989 - Routledge.
    InWisdom, Information and Wonder, Mary Midgley tackles the question at the root of our civilization: What is knowledge for?
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  19. The Philosophy of Information.Luciano Floridi - 2011 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Luciano Floridi presents a book that will set the agenda for the philosophy of information. PI is the philosophical field concerned with the critical investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information, including its dynamics, utilisation, and sciences, and the elaboration and application of information-theoretic and computational methodologies to philosophical problems. This book lays down, for the first time, the conceptual foundations for this new area of research. It does so systematically, by pursuing three goals. (...)
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  20.  44
    Information and Meaning in Evolutionary Processes.William F. Harms - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book is intended to help transform epistemology - the traditional study of knowledge - into a rigorous discipline by removing conceptual roadblocks and developing formal tools required for a fully naturalized epistemology. The evolutionary approach which Harms favours begins with the common observation that if our senses and reasoning were not reliable, then natural selection would have eliminated them long ago. The challenge for some time has been how to transform these informal musings about evolutionary epistemology into a rigorous (...)
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  21.  34
    Information Cultures in the Digital Age.Matthew Kelly & Jared Bielby (eds.) - 2016 - Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer VS.
    For several decades Rafael Capurro has been at the forefront of defining the relationship between information and modernity through both phenomenological and ethical formulations. In exploring both of these themes Capurro has re-vivified the transcultural and intercultural expressions of how we bring an understanding of information to bear on scientific knowledge production and intermediation. Capurro has long stressed the need to look deeply into how we contextualize the information problems that scientific society creates for us and to (...)
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  22.  20
    Informed Consent: A Matter of Aspiration Since 1966.Sarah Wieten, Jacob Blythe & David Magnus - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (5):3-5.
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  23.  4
    How Standpoint Methodology Informs.Methodology Informs - 2003 - In Stephen P. Turner & Paul Andrew Roth (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Blackwell. pp. 11--291.
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  24.  21
    Informal Fallacies: Towards a Theory of Argument Criticisms.Douglas N. Walton - 1987 - John Benjamins.
    The basic question of this monograph is: how should we go about judging arguments to be reasonable or unreasonable? Our concern will be with argument in a broad sense, with realistic arguments in natural language. The basic object will be to engage in a normative study of determining what factors, standards, or procedures should be adopted or appealed to in evaluating an argument as "good," "not-so-good," "open to criticism," "fallacious," and so forth. Hence our primary concern will be with the (...)
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  25. Informed Consent: What Must Be Disclosed and What Must Be Understood?Joseph Millum & Danielle Bromwich - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (5):46-58.
    Over the last few decades, multiple studies have examined the understanding of participants in clinical research. They show variable and often poor understanding of key elements of disclosure, such as expected risks and the experimental nature of treatments. Did the participants in these studies give valid consent? According to the standard view of informed consent they did not. The standard view holds that the recipient of consent has a duty to disclose certain information to the profferer of consent because (...)
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  26.  91
    Philosophical Conceptions of Information.Luciano Floridi - manuscript
    I love information upon all subjects that come in my way, and especially upon those that are most important. Thus boldly declares Euphranor, one of the defenders of Christian faith in Berkley’s Alciphron (Berkeley, (1732), Dialogue 1, Section 5, Paragraph 6/10). Evidently, information has been an object of philosophical desire for some time, well before the computer revolution, Internet or the dotcompandemonium (see for example Dunn (2001) and Adams (2003)). Yet what does Euphranor love, exactly? What is (...)? The question has received many answers in different fields. Unsurprisingly, several surveys do not even converge on a single, unified definition of information (see for example Braman 1989, Losee (1997), Machlup and Mansfield (1983), Debons and Cameron (1975), Larson and Debons (1983)). (shrink)
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  27.  8
    Information Density Converges in Dialogue: Towards an Information-Theoretic Model.Yang Xu & David Reitter - 2018 - Cognition 170:147-163.
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  28. The Ethics of Information.Luciano Floridi - 2013 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press UK.
    Luciano Floridi develops the first ethical framework for dealing with the new challenges posed by Information and Communication Technologies. He establishes the conceptual foundations of Information Ethics by exploring important metatheoretical and introductory issues, and answering key theoretical questions of great philosophical interest.
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  29.  22
    Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys and Capuchin Monkeys.Michael J. Beran & J. David Smith - 2011 - Cognition 120 (1):90-105.
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  30.  73
    Information Theory and Esthetic Perception.Abraham A. Moles - 1966 - Urbana, University of Illinois Press.
  31. Information Disclosure in Sales.David M. Holley - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (6):631-641.
    Moral intuitions vary with regard to how much information a salesperson needs to disclose to a potential buyer. Through an analysis of the social role of salesperson and ethical argument, it is established that there is a general obligation to disclose what a buyer would need to make a reasonable judgment about whether to purchase the product. This rule is interpreted and shown to be superior to alternatives when appropriately qualified.
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  32.  55
    Informal Logic and the Concept of Argument.David Hitchcock - 2006 - In Dale Jacquette (ed.), Philosophy of Logic. North Holland. pp. 5--101.
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  33.  1
    Ethics of Information and Communication Technologies.Adriano Fabris - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
    This book discusses key ethical and deontological problems concerning the use of the most common information and communication devices. It focuses on the challenges of the new environments we now find ourselves in thanks to these technologies, and the issues arising from the newly established relationship between the virtual sphere and the real world. Each aspect is analysed by starting from a very specific example or a case study presenting a dilemma that can only be resolved by making a (...)
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  34. Information, Physics, Quantum: The Search for Links.John Archibald Wheeler - 1989 - In Proceedings III International Symposium on Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Tokyo: pp. 354-358.
    This report reviews what quantum physics and information theory have to tell us about the age-old question, How come existence? No escape is evident from four conclusions: (1) The world cannot be a giant machine, ruled by any preestablished continuum physical law. (2) There is no such thing at the microscopic level as space or time or spacetime continuum. (3) The familiar probability function or functional, and wave equation or functional wave equation, of standard quantum theory provide mere continuum (...)
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  35.  36
    Information, structure et forme dans la pensée de Raymond Ruyer.Georges Chapouthier - 2013 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 138 (1):21-28.
    La conception épistémologique dualiste de Raymond Ruyer, où l'information n'est signifiante que par l'exercice d'une conscience relevant d'une autre dimension, a permis à l'auteur d'échapper à un dogme erroné dans ce domaine : celui qui voulait identifier information, ordre et néguentropie. Même si les conceptions philosophiques des scientifiques d'aujourd'hui, généralement matérialistes et monistes, sont différentes, leurs conséquences rejoignent les positions épistémologiques de Ruyer où information, structure, forme ou évolution des espèces ne peuvent être conçues selon un réductionnisme (...)
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  36.  9
    Logic and Visual Information.Eric Hammer - 1995 - CSLI Publications.
    This book examines the logical foundations of visual information: information presented in the form of diagrams, graphs, charts, tables, and maps. The importance of visual information is clear from its frequent presence in everyday reasoning and communication, and also in compution. Chapters of the book develop the logics of familiar systems of diagrams such as Venn diagrams and Euler circles. Other chapters develop the logic of higraphs, Pierce diagrams, and a system having both diagrams and sentences among (...)
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  37.  31
    Minimal Informationally Complete Measurements for Pure States.Steven T. Flammia, Andrew Silberfarb & Carlton M. Caves - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (12):1985-2006.
    We consider measurements, described by a positive-operator-valued measure, whose outcome probabilities determine an arbitrary pure state of a D-dimensional quantum system. We call such a measurement a pure-state informationally complete POVM. We show that a measurement with 2D−1 outcomes cannot be PS I-complete, and then we construct a POVM with 2D outcomes that suffices, thus showing that a minimal PS I-complete POVM has 2D outcomes. We also consider PS I-complete POVMs that have only rank-one POVM elements and construct an example (...)
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  38.  7
    The Logic of Information: A Theory of Philosophy as Conceptual Design.Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Luciano Floridi presents an innovative approach to philosophy, conceived as conceptual design. His starting-point is that reality provides the data which we transform into information. He explores how we make, transform, refine, and improve the objects of our knowledge, and defends the radical idea that knowledge is design.
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  39. Quantum Information Does Not Exist.Armond Duwell - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 34 (3):479-499.
    Some physicists seem to believe that quantum information theory requires a new concept of information (Jozsa, 1998, Quantum information and its properties. In: Hoi-Kwong Lo, S. Popescu, T. Spiller (Eds.), Introduction to Quantum Computation and Information, World Scientific, Singapore, (pp. 49-75); Deutsch & Hayden, 1999, Information flow in entangled quantum subsystems, preprint quant-ph/9906007). I will argue that no new concept is necessary. Shannon's concept of information is sufficient for quantum information theory. Properties that (...)
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  40.  54
    Kant on Informed Pure Judgments of Taste.Emine Hande Tuna - 2018 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 76 (2):163-174.
    Two dominant interpretations of Kant's notion of adherent beauty, the conjunctive view and the incorporation view, provide an account of how to form informed aesthetic assessments concerning artworks. According to both accounts, judgments of perfection play a crucial role in making informed, although impure, judgments of taste. These accounts only examine aesthetic responses to objects that meet or fail to meet the expectations we have regarding what they ought to be. I demonstrate that Kant's works of genius do not fall (...)
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  41.  11
    Information Ethics, Security and the Genre of Encylopedia.David E. DeCosse - 2008 - Metascience 17 (3):481-483.
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  42.  15
    Information, Semantics and Epistemology.Enrique Villanueva (ed.) - 1990 - Cambridge: Blackwell.
  43. Information Research, Practice, and Education Continue to Invite and Benefit From Philosophy.Jesse David Dinneen - 2017 - Education for Information 33 (1):1-2.
    It has become easy to make a case for the relevance, richness, and importance of philosophical thinking for information research and practice. [Introduction to a special issue].
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  44. Informational Theories of Content and Mental Representation.Marc Artiga & Miguel Ángel Sebastián - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (3):613-627.
    Informational theories of semantic content have been recently gaining prominence in the debate on the notion of mental representation. In this paper we examine new-wave informational theories which have a special focus on cognitive science. In particular, we argue that these theories face four important difficulties: they do not fully solve the problem of error, fall prey to the wrong distality attribution problem, have serious difficulties accounting for ambiguous and redundant representations and fail to deliver a metasemantic theory of representation. (...)
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  45.  1
    Informal Logic: Issues and Techniques.Wayne Grennan - 1997 - Monterey, CA, USA: Mcgill-Queen's University Press.
    In this insightful critique of informal logic and critical thinking strategies and techniques, Wayne Grennan examines argument evaluation techniques currently used in both formal and informal logic texts and, finding them lacking, proposes a new system of evaluation.
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  46.  3
    Dispersed Information and the Non-Neutrality of Money: Fifty Years After Lucas, 1972.Pierrick Clerc & Rodolphe Dos Santos Ferreira - 2022 - Journal of Economic Methodology 29 (1):86-104.
    This paper highlights the renewed interest in Lucas’s explanation of the non-neutrality of money put forward in his 1972 article – explanation based on information dispersion and signal extraction...
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  47.  93
    Information Flow: The Logic of Distributed Systems.Jon Barwise & Jerry Seligman - 1997 - Cambridge University Press.
    Presents a mathematically rigorous, philosophically sound foundation for a science of information.
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  48.  2
    The Philosophy of Information Quality.Luciano Floridi & Phyllis Illari (eds.) - 2014 - Springer International Publishing.
    This work fulfills the need for a conceptual and technical framework to improve understanding of Information Quality (IQ) and Information Quality standards. The meaning and practical implementation of IQ are addressed, as it is relevant to any field where there is a need to handle data and issues such as accessibility, accuracy, completeness, currency, integrity, reliability, timeliness, usability, the role of metrics and so forth are all a part of Information Quality. -/- In order to support the (...)
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  49.  29
    Mathematical Foundations of Information Theory: The Entropy Concept in Probability Theory. 2. On the Fundamental Theorems of Information Theory.Aleksandr I͡Akovlevich Khinchin - 1957 - New York: Dover Publications.
    Comprehensive, rigorous introduction to work of Shannon, McMillan, Feinstein and Khinchin. Translated by R. A. Silverman and M. D. Friedman.
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  50. Information: A Very Short Introduction.Luciano Floridi - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    This book helps us understand the true meaning of the concept and how it can be used to understand our world.
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