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Ingar Brinck
Lund University
  1. Understanding Social Norms and Constitutive Rules: Perspectives From Developmental Psychology and Philosophy.Ingar Brinck - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (4):699-718.
    An experimental paradigm that purports to test young children’s understanding of social norms is examined. The paradigm models norms on Searle’s notion of a constitutive rule. The experiments and the reasons provided for their design are discussed. It is argued that the experiments do not provide direct evidence about the development of social norms and that the concepts of a social norm and constitutive rule are distinct. The experimental data are re-interpreted, and suggestions for how to deal with the present (...)
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  2.  2
    Mutual Recognition in Human-Robot Interaction: a Deflationary Account.Ingar Brinck & Christian Balkenius - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (1):53-70.
    Mutually adaptive interaction involves the robot as a partner as opposed to a tool, and requires that the robot is susceptible to similar environmental cues and behavior patterns as humans are. Recognition, or the acknowledgement of the other as individual, is fundamental to mutually adaptive interaction between humans. We discuss what recognition involves and its behavioral manifestations, and describe the benefits of implementing it in HRI.
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  3. Developing an Understanding of Social Norms and Games : Emotional Engagement, Nonverbal Agreement, and Conversation.Ingar Brinck - 2014 - Theory and Psychology 24 (6):737–754.
    The first part of the article examines some recent studies on the early development of social norms that examine young children’s understanding of codified rule games. It is argued that the constitutive rules than define the games cannot be identified with social norms and therefore the studies provide limited evidence about socio-normative development. The second part reviews data on children’s play in natural settings that show that children do not understand norms as codified or rules of obligation, and that the (...)
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  4. Attention and the Evolution of Intentional Communication.Ingar Brinck - 2000 - Pragmatics and Cognition 9 (2):259-277.
    Intentional communication is perceptually based and about attentional objects. Three attention mechanisms are distinguished: scanning, attention attraction, and attention-focusing. Attention-focusing directs the subject towards attentional objects. Attention-focusing is goal-governed (controlled by stimulus) or goal-intended (under the control of the subject). Attentional objects are perceptually categorised functional entities that emerge in the interaction between subjects and environment. Joint attention allows for focusing on the same attentional object simultaneously (mutual object-focused attention), provided that the subjects have focused on each other beforehand (subject-subject (...)
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  5. Empathy, Engagement, Entrainment: The Interaction Dynamics of Aesthetic Experience.Ingar Brinck - 2018 - Cognitive Processing 2 (19):201-213.
    A recent version of the view that aesthetic experience is based in empathy as inner imitation explains aesthetic experience as the automatic simulation of actions, emotions, and bodily sensations depicted in an artwork by motor neurons in the brain. Criticizing the simulation theory for committing to an erroneous concept of empathy and failing to distinguish regular from aesthetic experiences of art, I advance an alternative, dynamic approach and claim that aesthetic experience is enacted and skillful, based in the recognition of (...)
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  6. The Primacy of the "We"?Ingar Brinck, Vasudevi Reddy & Dan Zahavi (eds.) - 2016 - MIT Press.
    The question of the relation between the collective and the individual has had a long but patchy history within both philosophy and psychology. In this chapter we consider some arguments that could be adopted for the primacy of the we, and examine their conceptual and empirical implications. We argue that the we needs to be seen as a developing and dynamic identity, not as something that exists fully fledged from the start. The concept of we thus needs more nuanced and (...)
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  7.  35
    Mutual Recognition in Human-Robot Interaction: A Deflationary Account.Ingar Brinck & Christian Balkenius - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 1.
    Mutually adaptive interaction involves the robot as a partner as opposed to a tool, and requires that the robot is susceptible to similar environmental cues and behavior patterns as humans are. Recognition, or the acknowledgement of the other as individual, is fundamental to mutually adaptive interaction between humans. We discuss what recognition involves and its behavioral manifestations, and describe the benefits of implementing it in HRI.
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  8. Co–Operation and Communication in Apes and Humans.Ingar Brinck & Peter Gärdenfors - 2003 - Mind and Language 18 (5):484–501.
    We trace the difference between the ways in which apes and humans co–operate to differences in communicative abilities, claiming that the pressure for future–directed co–operation was a major force behind the evolution of language. Competitive co–operation concerns goals that are present in the environment and have stable values. It relies on either signalling or joint attention. Future–directed co–operation concerns new goals that lack fixed values. It requires symbolic communication and context–independent representations of means and goals. We analyse these ways of (...)
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  9. Situated Cognition, Dynamic Systems, and Art: On Artistic Creativity and Aesthetic Experience.Ingar Brinck - 2007 - Janus Head 9 (2):407-431.
    It is argued that the theory of situated cognition together with dynamic systems theory can explain the core of artistic practice and aesthetic experience, and furthermore paves the way for an account of how artist and audience can meet via the artist’s work. The production and consumption of art is an embodied practice, firmly based in perception and action, and supported by features of the local, agent-centered and global, socio-cultural contexts. Artistic creativity and aesthetic experience equally result from the dynamic (...)
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  10. The Developmental Origin of Metacognition.Ingar Brinck & Rikard Liljenfors - 2013 - Infant and Child Development 22:85-101.
    We explain metacognition as a management of cognitive resources that does not necessitate algorithmic strategies or metarepresentation. When pragmatic, world-directed actions cannot reduce the distance to the goal, agents engage in epistemic action directed at cognition. Such actions often are physical and involve other people, and so are open to observation. Taking a dynamic systems approach to development, we suggest that implicit and perceptual metacognition emerges from dyadic reciprocal interaction. Early intersubjectivity allows infants to internalize and construct rudimentary strategies for (...)
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  11. Representation and Self-Awareness in Intentional Agents.Ingar Brinck & Peter Gärdenfors - 1999 - Synthese 118 (1):89 - 104.
    Several conditions for being an intrinsically intentional agent are put forward. On a first level of intentionality the agent has representations. Two kinds are described: cued and detached. An agent with both kinds is able to represent both what is prompted by the context and what is absent from it. An intermediate level of intentionality is achieved by having an inner world, that is, a coherent system of detached representations that model the world. The inner world is used, e.g., for (...)
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  12.  16
    The Role of Intersubjectivity for the Development of Intentional Communication.Ingar Brinck - 2008 - In J. Zlatev, T. Racine, C. Sinha & E. Itkonen (eds.), The Shared Mind: Perspectives on Intersubjectivity. John Benjamins. pp. 115--140.
    The present account explains (i) which elements of nonverbal reference are intersubjective, (ii) what major effects intersubjectivity has on the general development of intentional communication and at what stages, and (iii) how intersubjectivity contributes to triggering the general capacity for nonverbal reference in the second year of life. First, intersubjectivity is analysed in terms of a sharing of experiences that is either mutual or individual, and either dyadic or triadic. Then it is shown that nonverbal reference presupposes intersubjectivity in communicative (...)
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  13. Investigating the Development of Creativity : The Sahlin Hypothesis.Ingar Brinck - 2015 - Against Boredom : 17 Essays.
    How should the development of creativity be approached? Many accounts of children’s creativity focus on the relation between creativity and pretend play, placing make-believe and the mental exploration of possible scenarios about the world at the fore. Often divergent thinking and story-telling are used to measure creativity with fluency, originality, and flexibility as indicators. I will argue that the strong focus on conceptual processes and higher-order thought leaves procedural forms of creativity in the dark and hinders a proper investigation of (...)
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  14.  8
    Joint Improvisation in the Arts Practices : Entrainment, Engagement and Expert Skill.Ingar Brinck - 2018 - In Simon Penny & Kelly Donahey (eds.), Proceedings from A Body of Knowledge : Embodied Cognition and the Arts conference 8-10 Dec 2016 - Embodied Cognition and the Arts conference 8-10 Dec 2016. pp. 1-19.
    To improvise together for the pure curiosity, joy, and beauty of it constitutes a central but often neglected ability of human beings. Integrating pragmatic, practical, and technical skills with conceptual understanding, improvisation is adaptive and collaborative. It seems made to counter the challenges of living in a fleeting present, unconstrained by physical and historical boundaries, and very likely has deep evolutionary roots. I present an account of joint improvisation in the performative arts based in reviews of empirical research in the (...)
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  15. Nonconceptual Content and the Distinction Between Implicit and Explicit Knowledge.Ingar Brinck - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):760-761.
    The notion of nonconceptual content in Dienes & Perner's theory is examined. A subject may be in a state with nonconceptual content without having the concepts that would be used to describe the state. Nonconceptual content does not seem to be a clear-cut case of either implicit or explicit knowledge. It underlies a kind of practical knowledge, which is not reducible to procedural knowledge, but is accessible to the subject and under voluntary control.
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  16.  8
    Change Blindness in Higher-Order Thought: Misrepresentation or Good Enough?Ingar Brinck & Asger Kirkeby-Hinrup - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 24 (5-6):50-73.
    Abstract: To evaluate the explanation of change blindness in terms of misrepresentation and determine its role for Rosenthal’s higher-order thought theory of consciousness, we present an alternative account of change blindness that affords an independent outlook and provides a viable alternative. First we describe Rosenthal’s actualism and the notion of misrepresentation, then introduce change blindness and the explanation of it by misrepresentation. Rosenthal asserts that, in change blindness, the first-order state tracks the post-change stimulus, but the higher-order state misrepresents it. (...)
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  17.  1
    The Role of Intersubjectivity in Intentional Communication.Ingar Brinck - 2008 - In Tim Racine, Jordan Zlatev, Chris Sinha & Esa Itkonen (eds.), The Shared Mind: Perspectives on Intersubjectivity.
    The present account explains which elements of the act of nonverbal reference are intersubjective, which major effects intersubjectivity has on the development of intentional communication and at what stages, and how intersubjectivity contributes to trigger the general capacity for nonverbal reference in the second year. First, intersubjectivity is analysed in terms of a mutual or individual, dyadic or triadic, sharing of experiences. It is then shown that nonverbal reference presupposes intersubjectivity relative to communicative-intent indicating and referential behaviour, and the modification (...)
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  18.  44
    Why Metaphysicians Do Not Explain.Ingar Brinck, Göran Hermerén, Johannes Persson & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    The paper discusses the concept of explanation in metaphysics. Different types of explanation are identified and explored. Scientific explanation is compared with metaphysical explanation. The comparison illustrates the difficulties with applying the concept of explanation in metaphysics.
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  19. To the Editor of Theoria.Gustaf Arrhenius, Ingar Brinck, Kathrin Glüer-Pagin, Lena Halldenius, Anna-Sofia Maurin, Folke Tersman & Åsa Wikforss - 2011 - Theoria 77 (3):198-198.
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  20.  80
    Critical Review of John Campbell: Reference and Consciousness. [REVIEW]Ingar Brinck - 2005 - Theoria 3:266-276.
  21.  13
    Dialogue in the making: emotional engagement with materials.Ingar Brinck & Vasudevi Reddy - 2020 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 19 (1):23-45.
    Taking a psychological and philosophical outlook, we approach making as an embodied and embedded skill via the skilled artisan’s experience of having a corporeal, nonlinguistic dialogue with the material while working with it. We investigate the dynamic relation between maker and material through the lens of pottery as illustrated by wheel throwing, claiming that the experience of dialogue signals an emotional involvement with clay. The examination of Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology of habit, the skilled intentionality framework, and material engagement theory shows that (...)
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  22.  50
    Replies to Commentaries.Ingar Brinck - 2013 - Infant and Child Development 22:111-117.
    In our response, we address four themes arising from the commentaries. First, we discuss the distinction between cognition and metacognition and show how to draw it within our framework. Next, we explain how metacognition differs from social cognition. The underlying mechanisms of metacognitive development are then elucidated in terms of interaction patterns. Finally, we consider measures of metacognition and suitable methods for investigating it.
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  23. The Indexical 'I' the First Person in Thought and Language.Ingar Brinck - 1997 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    The subjct of this book is the first person in thought and language. The main question is what we mean when we say 'I'. Related to it are questions about what kinds of self-consciousness and self-knowledge are needed in order for us to have the capacity to talk about ourselves. The emphasis is on theories of meaning and reference for 'I', but a fair amount of space is devoted to 'I'-thoughts and the role of the concept of the self in (...)
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  24.  2
    An Applied Analysis of Attentional Intersubjectivity.Ingar Brinck, Jordan Zlatev & Mats Andrén - unknown
    The goal of the present deliverable is to provide a developmental analysis of attentional intersubjectivity, which, as we show below, is a more inclusive notion than the more commonly used term ‘joint attention’. The use of the term ‘joint attention’ is not consistent in the literature, sometimes referring to the general phenomenon when two or more subjects attend to the same target, sometimes to more reciprocal situations in which the subjects also are aware of attending to the same target. Most (...)
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  25. The Objects of Attention: Causes and Targets.Ingar Brinck - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (3):287-288.
    The objects of attention can be located anywhere along the causal link from the source of stimuli to the final output of the vision system. As causes, they attract and control attention, and as products, they constitute targets of analysis and explicit comments. Stimulus-driven indexing creates pointers that support fast and frugal cognition.
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  26.  19
    Procedures and Strategies: Context-Dependence in Creativity.Ingar Brinck - 1999 - Philosophica 64 (2):33-47.
    Recently, it has been suggested that at least somekinds of mental representation are strongly context-dependent. Not only what is represented, but also how, depends on the context and the subject's interaction with it. Theories about situated cognition stress the importance of the subject's bodily presence and physical activity in the environment for representing and thinking. What does this mean for creativity? Context-dependence can, it seems, both impede and support creativity. Is creativity a higher-level cognitive function, or does it mainly rely (...)
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  27.  52
    Self-Identification and Self-Reference.Ingar Brinck - 1998 - Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy 6.
    [1] To know who one is, and also know whether one's experiences really belong to oneself, do not normally present any problem. It nevertheless happens that people do not recognise themselves as they walk by a mirror or do not understand that they fit some particular description. But there are situations in which it really seems impossible to be wrong about oneself. Of that, Ludwig Wittgenstein once wrote: " It is possible that, say in an accident, I should feel pain (...)
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  28.  6
    The Gist of Creativity.Ingar Brinck - unknown
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  29.  60
    Revisionary Metaphysics An Interview with D. M. Armstrong.Anna-Sofia Maurin & Ingar Brinck - 2005 - Theoria 71 (1):3-19.
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  30.  53
    Compositionality and Other Issues in the Philosophy of Mind and Language An Interview with Jerry Fodor.Martin Jönsson & Ingar Brinck - 2005 - Theoria 71 (4):294-308.
  31.  2
    The Origin and Essence of Linguistic Reference.Ingar Brinck - unknown
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  32.  6
    Evaluation and Testing in Creativity.Ingar Brinck - 2003 - In A. Rojszczak, J. Cachro & G. Kurczewski (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of Logic and Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 331--344.
    In situations that require creative thinking, there is no well-known procedure for how to reach the goal, or the solution. Among other things, it is not clear how choices between outcomes are made, or when the search for a solution should terminate. The article focusses on the evaluation of solutions that are generated during the search. The general question concerns the standards according to which evaluation is made. Are they at all similar to those that are used in normal problem-solving? (...)
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  33.  3
    On the Evolutionary Origin of Declarative Pointing.Ingar Brinck - unknown
    Imperative and declarative pointing are distinct kinds of communicative acts that rely on different cognitive capacities in the speakers. Declarative pointing is an important precursor to language, seen from both an evolutionary and a developmental perspective. Declarative pointing is functionally independent of affective intersubjectivity, yet it is intimately related to it in development. It is argued that declarative pointing once evolved because it allows for the mutual evaluation of joint objects of attention. Interaffectivity and joint attention to a distal object (...)
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  34.  3
    Systems for Theory-Of-Mind : Taking the Second-Person Perspective.Ingar Brinck - unknown
    Apperly's and Butterfill's theory about belief reasoning is taken as a starting-point for a discussion of how we make sense of other people's actions in real time. More specifically, the focus lies on how we can understand others' actions in terms of their epistemic states on an implicit level of processing. First, the relevant parts of Apperly's and Butterfill's theory are summarized. Then, their account of implicit theory of mind in terms of registration ascription and perceptual encountering is discussed and (...)
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  35.  16
    From Intuition to Insight.Ingar Brinck - unknown
    The article discusses the role of intuition for insight. Creativity provides heuristic solutions to problems that are intractable if approached in standard, algorithmic ways. Intuition is claimed to occur during the incubation phase and to crucially depend on embodied memory and unconscious processing of memories, such as reconstruction and recreation. Two suggestions as to how memory contributes to intuition, and by which processes are analysed and compared: Barsalou & Prinz’ and Langley & Jones’.
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  36.  1
    Attention and Tool-Use in the Evolution of Language.Ingar Brinck - unknown
    It is argued that the capacity to focus attention is crucial for intentional communication. Intentional communication is goal-intended; directed at changing mental states and as a consequence behaviour; about a referential object common to sender and recipient; and about objects that may be context-and referent-independent. Three different kinds of attention is discerned: scanning, attention attraction, and attention-focusing. The focus of attention can, depending on the abilities of the subject, be on objects or subjects that either are contextual or stable, and (...)
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  37.  56
    José Luis Bermúdez, the Paradox of Self-Consciousness.Ingar Brinck - 2000 - Theoria 66 (3):299-306.
  38.  2
    An Outline of a Theory of Person-Consciousness: Three Kinds of Self-Awareness.Ingar Brinck - unknown
    1. Introduction; 2. Indexical self-awareness; 3. Detached self-awareness; 4. Social self-awareness; 5. Basic social self-awareness; 6. Developed social self-awareness; 7. Person-consciousness.
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  39.  2
    Bare Demonstratives, Joint Attention and Speakers' Intentions.Ingar Brinck - unknown
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  40.  2
    Minimal Approaches to Joint Action.Ingar Brinck - unknown
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  41.  2
    Objects of Attention.Ingar Brinck - unknown
    The starting-point of this talk is the question which are the objects of attention? The answer simply is that there are no objects of attention as such, i.e., no generic objects of attention. Instead several kinds of object of attention can be discerned troughout the attention process. Which kind will constitute the actual object of attention in a certain situation depends on the task that the subject is performing and on the level of analysis. I will substantiate this claim by (...)
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  42.  25
    Review of Time and Memory: Hoerl and McCormack. [REVIEW]Ingar Brinck - 2003 - Theoria 69 (3):249-253.
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  43.  16
    Review of Fred Dretske's Perception, Knowledge and Belief. [REVIEW]Ingar Brinck - 2001 - Theoria 67 (3):264-267.
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  44.  1
    From Parity and Complex Imitation to Pantomime. Comment on Arbib.Ingar Brinck - 2004 - In Peter Dominey, Gloria Origgi & A. Reboul (eds.), Interdisciplines.
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  45.  1
    From Similarity to Uniqueness: Method and Theory in Comparative Psychology.Ingar Brinck - 2008 - In Louise Röska-Hardy & Eva M. Neumann-Held (eds.), Learning from Animals? Examining the Nature of Human Uniqueness. Psychology Press.
    Comparative psychology is a strongly interdisciplinary field that shares many of its experimental methods and observational techniques with ethology and developmental psychology. The great variety of theories that comparative psychology evokes to explain behavior generates a wide array of exciting and potentially fruitful accounts, but is also problematic. It increases the risk of error in the forms of inconsistent background assumptions, conceptual misunderstandings, unfalsifiable hypotheses and incoherent explanations, which in spite of perhaps being minor by themselves will impede scientific progress (...)
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  46.  1
    Joint Attention and Simulation. On Susan Hurley's Shared Circuits Model.Ingar Brinck - 2005 - In Gloria Origgi & Dan Sperber (eds.), Interdisciplines.
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  47.  1
    Metacognitive Development in Early Infancy.Ingar Brinck & Rikard Liljenfors - 2009 - In A. Carazza, F. Morganti & G. Riva (eds.), Enacting Intersubjectivity: Paving the way for a Dialogue between Cognitive Science, Social Cognition and Neuroscience.
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  48.  1
    Towards an Explanation of the Evolution of Language. Comment on Origgi & Sperber.Ingar Brinck - 2004 - In Peter Dominey, Gloria Origgi & A. Reboule (eds.), Interdisciplines.
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  49.  1
    Value Uncertainty and Value Instability in Decision-Making.Göran Hermerén, Ingar Brinck, Johannes Persson & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2014 - In Julien Dutant, Davide Fassio & Anne Meylan (eds.), Liber Amicorum Pascal Engel. pp. 100-110.
    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the role of value uncertainty and value instability in decision-making that concerns morally controversial issues. Value uncertainty and value instability are distinguished from moral uncertainty, and several types of value uncertainty and value instability are defined and discussed. The relations between value uncertainty and value instability are explored, and value uncertainty is illustrated with examples drawn from the social sciences, medicine and everyday life. Several types of factor producing value uncertainty and/or value (...)
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  50.  8
    Simulation of Individual and Social Action. Reply to Hurley.Ingar Brinck - unknown
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