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Inmaculada de Melo-Martin
Weill Cornell Medicine--Cornell University
  1. When the Milk of Human Kindness Becomes a Luxury Good.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (1):159-165.
    A new reprogenetic technology, mitochondrial replacement, is making its appearance and, unsurprisingly given its promise to wash off our earthly stains --or at least the scourges of sexual reproduction--, John Harris finds only reasons to celebrate this new scientific feat.1 In fact, he finds mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) so “unreservedly welcome” that he believes those who reject them suffer from “a large degree of desperation and not a little callousness.”2 Believing myself to be neither desperate nor callous, but finding myself (...)
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  2.  24
    Moral Bioenhancement: Much Ado About Nothing?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Arleen Salles - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (4):223-232.
    Recently, some have proposed moral bioenhancement as a solution to the serious moral evils that humans face. Seemingly disillusioned with traditional methods of moral education, proponents of bioenhancement believe that we should pursue and apply biotechnological means to morally enhance human beings. Such proposal has generated a lively debate about the permissibility of moral bioenhancement. We argue here that such debate is specious. The claim that moral bioenhancement is a solution - whether permissible or not - to the serious moral (...)
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  3. Beyond Informed Consent: The Therapeutic Misconception and Trust.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & A. Ho - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):202-205.
    The therapeutic misconception has been seen as presenting an ethical problem because failure to distinguish the aims of research participation from those receiving ordinary treatment may seriously undermine the informed consent of research subjects. Hence, most theoretical and empirical work on the problems of the therapeutic misconception has been directed to evaluate whether, and to what degree, this confusion invalidates the consent of subjects. We argue here that this focus on the understanding component of informed consent, while important, might be (...)
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  4.  5
    We Don’T Need Unilateral DNRs: Taking Informed Non-Dissent One Step Further.Diego Real de Asúa, Katarina Lee, Peter Koch, Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Trevor Bibler - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (5):314-317.
    Although shared decision-making is a standard in medical care, unilateral decisions through process-based conflict resolution policies have been defended in certain cases. In patients who do not stand to receive proportional clinical benefits, the harms involved in interventions such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation seem to run contrary to the principle of non-maleficence, and provision of such interventions may cause clinicians significant moral distress. However, because the application of these policies involves taking choices out of the domain of shared decision-making, they face (...)
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  5.  96
    Social Values and Scientific Evidence: The Case of the HPV Vaccines.Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):203-213.
    Several have argued that the aims of scientific research are not always independent of social and ethical values. Yet this is often assumed only to have implications for decisions about what is studied, or which research projects are funded, and not for methodological decisions or standards of evidence. Using the case of the recently developed HPV vaccines, we argue that the social aims of research can also play important roles in justifying decisions about (1) how research problems are defined in (...)
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  6.  53
    The Trouble With Moral Enhancement.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2018 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83:19-33.
    Proponents of moral enhancement believe that we should pursue and apply biotechnological means to morally enhance human beings, as failing to do so is likely to lead to humanity's demise. Unsurprisingly, these proposals have generated a substantial amount of debate about the moral permissibility of using such interventions. Here I put aside concerns about the permissibility of moral enhancement and focus on the conceptual and evidentiary grounds for the moral enhancement project. I argue that such grounds are quite precarious.
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  7.  22
    The Risk of Using Inductive Risk to Challenge the Value-Free Ideal.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Kristen Intemann - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (4):500-520.
    The argument from inductive risk has been embraced by many as a successful account of the role of values in science that challenges the value-free ideal. We argue that it is not obvious that the argument from inductive risk actually undermines the value-free ideal. This is because the inductive risk argument endorses an assumption held by proponents of the value-free ideal: that contextual values never play an appropriate role in determining evidence. We show that challenging the value-free ideal ultimately requires (...)
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  8.  13
    A Duty to Participate in Research: Does Social Context Matter?Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (10):28-36.
    Because of the important benefits that biomedical research offers to humans, some have argued that people have a general moral obligation to participate in research. Although the defense of such a putative moral duty has raised controversy, few scholars, on either side of the debate, have attended to the social context in which research takes place and where such an obligation will be discharged. By reflecting on the social context in which a presumed duty to participate in research will obtain, (...)
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  9.  43
    Defending Human Enhancement Technologies: Unveiling Normativity.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (8):483-487.
    Recent advances in biotechnologies have led to speculations about enhancing human beings. Many of the moral arguments presented to defend human enhancement technologies have been limited to discussions of their risks and benefits. The author argues that in so far as ethical arguments focus primarily on risks and benefits of human enhancement technologies, these arguments will be insufficient to provide a robust defence of these technologies. This is so because the belief that an assessment of risks and benefits is a (...)
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  10. How Do Disclosure Policies Fail? Let Us Count the Ways.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2009 - FASEB Journal 23 (6):1638-42.
  11.  47
    Are There Limits to Scientists' Obligations to Seek and Engage Dissenters?Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2014 - Synthese 191 (12):2751-2765.
    Dissent is thought to play a valuable role in science, so that scientific communities ought to create opportunities for receiving critical feedback and take dissenting views seriously. There is concern, however, that some dissent does more harm than good. Dissent on climate change and evolutionary theory, for example, has confused the public, created doubt about existing consensus, derailed public policy, and forced scientists to devote resources to respond. Are there limits to the extent to which scientific communities have obligations to (...)
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  12.  59
    Interpreting Evidence: Why Values Can Matter As Much As Science.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Kristen Intemann - 2012 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 55 (1):59-70.
    Despite increasing recognition of the ways in which ethical and social values play a role in science (Kitcher 2001; Longino 1990, 2002), scientists are often still reluctant to acknowledge or discuss ethical and social values at stake in their research. Even when research is closely connected to developing public policy, it is generally held that it should be empirical data, and not the values of scientists, that inform policy. According to this view, scientists need not, and should not, endorse non-epistemic (...)
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  13.  91
    On Our Obligation to Select the Best Children: A Reply to Savulescu.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2004 - Bioethics 18 (1):72–83.
  14. Sex Selection and the Procreative Liberty Framework.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2013 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 23 (1):1-18.
    Although surprising to some proponents of sex selection for non-medical reasons (Dahl 2005), a considerable amount of critical debate has been raised by this practice (Blyth, Frith, and Crawshaw 2008; Dawson and Trounson 1996; Dickens 2002; Harris 2005; Heyd 2003; Holm 2004; Macklin 2010; Malpani 2002; McDougall 2005; Purdy 2007; Seavilleklein and Sherwin 2007; Steinbock 2002; Strange and Chadwick 2010; Wilkinson 2008). While abortion or infanticide has long been used as means of sex selection, a new technology—preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)—has (...)
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  15.  86
    Addressing Problems in Profit-Driven Research: How Can Feminist Conceptions of Objectivity Help?Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 4 (2):135-151.
    Although there is increased recognition of the inevitable--and perhaps sometimes beneficial-- role of values in scientific inquiry, there are also growing concerns about the potential for commercial values to lead to bias. This is particularly evident in biomedical research. There is a concern that conflicts of interest created by commercialization may lead to biased reasoning or methodological choices in testing drugs and medical interventions. In addition, such interests may lead research in directions that are unresponsive to pressing social needs, when (...)
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  16.  29
    Who's Afraid of Dissent?: Addressing Concerns About Undermining Scientific Consensus in Public Policy Developments.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Kristen Intemann - 2014 - Perspectives on Science 22 (4):593-615.
    Many have argued that allowing and encouraging public avenues for dissent and critical evaluation of scientific research is a necessary condition for promoting the objectivity of scientific communities and advancing scientific knowledge . The history of science reveals many cases where an existing scientific consensus was later shown to be wrong . Dissent plays a crucial role in uncovering potential problems and limitations of consensus views. Thus, many have argued that scientific communities ought to increase opportunities for dissenting views to (...)
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  17. Viewpoint: Developing a Research Ethics Consultation Service to Foster Responsive and Responsible Clinical Research.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin, Li Palmer & Jj Fins - 2007 - Academic Medicine 82 (9):900-4.
     
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  18.  65
    Chimeras and Human Dignity.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2008 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (4):pp. 331-346.
    Discussions about whether new biomedical technologies threaten or violate human dignity are now common. Indeed, appeals to human dignity have played a central role in national and international debates about whether to allow particular kinds of biomedical investigations. The focus of this paper is on chimera research. I argue here that both those who claim that particular types of human-nonhuman chimera research threaten human dignity and those who argue that such threat does not exist fail to make their case. I (...)
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  19.  4
    Current Controversies in Values and Science Ed. By Kevin C. Elliott, Daniel Steel.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2019 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 29 (1):5-10.
    As a general claim, most philosophers of science accept that science is not value-free. The disagreements lie in the proverbial details. The essays in Current Controversies in Values and Science, edited by Kevin Elliott and Daniel Steel focus on such details. Like other volumes in the Routledge Current Controversies in Philosophy’s series, this one asks ten well-known philosophers of science to engage with various questions. Each question receives roughly positive and negative responses, though the authors’ nuanced answers make clear that (...)
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  20. Scientific Dissent and Public Policy. Is Targeting Dissent a Reasonable Way to Protect Sound Policy Decisions?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Kristen Intemann - 2013 - EMBO Reports 14 (4):231-35.
     
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  21.  79
    Feminist Resources for Biomedical Research: Lessons From the HPV Vaccines.Inmaculada de Melo-martín & Kristen Intemann - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (1):79 - 101.
    Several feminist philosophers of science have argued that social and political values are compatible with, and may even enhance, scientific objectivity. A variety of normative recommendations have emerged regarding how to identify, manage, and critically evaluate social values in science. In particular, several feminist theorists have argued that scientific communities ought to: 1) include researchers with diverse experiences, interests, and values, with equal opportunity and authority to scrutinize research; 2) investigate or "study up" scientific phenomena from the perspectives, interests, and (...)
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  22.  5
    Lack of Access to Genetic-Relative Family Health History: A Health Disparity for Adoptees?Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (12):43-45.
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  23. Regulating Scientific Research: Should Scientists Be Left Alone?Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2008 - FASEB Journal 22 (3):654-58.
     
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  24.  36
    An Undignified Bioethics: There is No Method in This Madness.Inmaculada de Melo-martín - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (4):224-230.
    In a recent article, Alasdair Cochrane argues for the need to have an undignified bioethics. His is not, of course, a call to transform bioethics into an inelegant, pathetic discipline, or one failing to meet appropriate disciplinary standards. His is a call to simply eliminate the concept of human dignity from bioethical discourse. Here I argue that he fails to make his case. I first show that several of the flaws that Cochrane identifies are not flaws of the conceptions of (...)
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  25.  80
    Creating Reflective Spaces: Interactions Between Philosophers and Biomedical Scientists.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2009 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (1):39-47.
  26.  24
    On Disgust and Human Dignity.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Arleen Salles - 2011 - Journal of Value Inquiry 45 (2):159-168.
  27.  29
    Furthering Injustices Against Women: Genetic Information, Moral Obligations, and Gender.Inmaculada de Melo-martín - 2006 - Bioethics 20 (6):301–307.
  28. Biological Explanations and Social Responsibility.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (2):345-358.
    The aim of this paper is to show that critics of biological explanations of human nature may be granting too much to those who propose such explanations when they argue that the truth of genetic determinism implies an end to critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. This is the case because when we argue that biological determinism exempts us from social critique we are erroneously presupposing that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing to do with what (...)
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  29.  26
    Human Dignity, Transhuman Dignity, and All That Jazz.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):53-55.
  30.  9
    “I Want Us to Be a Normal Family”: Toward an Understanding of the Functions of Anonymity Among U.S. Oocyte Donors and Recipients.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín, Lisa R. Rubin & Ina N. Cholst - forthcoming - Ajob Empirical Bioethics:1-17.
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Anonymity remains the more common practice in gamete donations, but legislation prohibiting anonymity with a goal of protecting donor-conceived children's right to know their genetic origins is becoming more common. However, given the dearth of research investigating the function of anonymity for donors and recipients, it is unclear whether these policies will accomplish their goals. The aim of this study was to explore experiences with anonymity among oocyte donors and recipients who participated in an anonymous donor oocyte program (...)
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  31.  35
    Disgust in Bioethics.Arleen Salles & Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (2):267-280.
    edited by Tuija Takala and Matti Häyry, welcomes contributions on the conceptual and theoretical dimensions of bioethics.
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  32.  31
    Firing Up the Nature/Nurture Controversy: Bioethics and Genetic Determinism.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (9):526-530.
    It is argued here that bioethicists might inadvertently be promoting genetic determinism: the idea that genes alone determine human traits and behaviours. Discussions about genetic testing are used to exemplify how they might be doing so. Quite often bioethicists use clinical cases to support particular moral obligations or rights as if these cases were representative of the kind of information we can acquire about human diseases through genetic testing, when they are not. On other occasions, the clinical cases are presented (...)
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  33.  10
    Should Professional Associations Sanction Conscientious Refusals?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (6):23 – 24.
  34.  58
    On Cloning Human Beings.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2002 - Bioethics 16 (3):246–265.
  35.  46
    Human Dignity in International Policy Documents: A Useful Criterion for Public Policy?Inmaculada de Melo-martín - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (1):37-45.
    Current developments in biomedicine are presenting us with difficult ethical decisions and raising complex policy questions about how to regulate these new developments. Particularly vexing for governments have been issues related to human embryo experimentation. Because some of the most promising biomedical developments, such as stem cell research and nuclear somatic transfer, involve such experimentation, several international bodies have drafted documents aimed to provide guidance to governments when developing biomedical science policy. Here I focus on two such documents: the Council (...)
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  36.  5
    Not All Means Are Created Equal and Some Other Problems.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 1 (1):17-18.
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  37.  12
    More Clarifications: On the Goals of Conflict of Interest Policies.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (1):35-37.
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  38. Beyond Risk. A More Realistic Risk-Benefit Analysis of Agricultural Biotechnologies.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Z. Meghani - 2008 - EMBO Reports 9 (4):302-06.
     
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  39.  8
    Review of Françoise Baylis and Carolyn McLeod, Eds.: Family-Making: Contemporary Ethical Challenges. [REVIEW]Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2017 - Monash Bioethics Review 34 (3-4):239-242.
  40.  15
    Strangers No More: Genuine Interdisciplinarity.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Joseph J. Fins - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (3):16 – 17.
  41. Can Ethical Reasoning Contribute to Better Epidemiology? A Case Study in Research on Racial Health Disparities.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Kristen Intemann - 2007 - European Journal of Epidemiology 22 (4):215-21.
     
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  42. Vulnerability and Ethics: Considering Our Cartesian Hangover.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2009 - Lancet 373 (9671):1244-5.
     
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  43.  7
    Ethics, Embryos, and Eggs: The Need for More Than Epistemic Values.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (12):38-40.
  44. When is Biology Destiny? Biological Determinism and Social Responsibility.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1184-1194.
    I argue here that critics of biological explanations of human nature are mistaken when they maintain that the truth of genetic determinism implies the end of critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. Such a claim erroneously presupposes that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing to do with what makes biological explanations troublesome. What constitutes a problem for those who are concerned with social justice is not the fact that particular behaviors might be genetically determined, but the (...)
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  45.  22
    Book Symposium on Human Nature in an Age of Biotechnology: The Case for Mediated Posthumanism By Tamar Sharon Springer, Dordrecht, 2014.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín, Michael Hauskeller, Sandra Braman, Xavier Guchet & Tamar Sharon - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (4):581-599.
  46.  54
    Genetic Testing: The Appropriate Means for a Desired Goal?Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2006 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (3):167-177.
    Scientists, the medical profession, philosophers, social scientists, policy makers, and the public at large have been quick to embrace the accomplishments of genetic science. The enthusiasm for the new biotechnologies is not unrelated to their worthy goal. The belief that the new genetic technologies will help to decrease human suffering by improving the public’s health has been a significant influence in the acceptance of technologies such as genetic testing and screening. But accepting this end should not blind us to the (...)
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  47.  33
    A Parental Duty to Use PGD: More Than We Bargained For?Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (4):14-15.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 4, Page 14-15, April 2012.
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  48.  3
    How Best to Protect the Vital Interests of Donor-Conceived Individuals: Prohibiting or Mandating Anonymity in Gamete Donations?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2017 - Reproductive Biomedicine and Society Online:100-108.
    Anonymous gamete donation continues to be practised in most jurisdictions around the world, but this practice has come under increased scrutiny. Thus, several countries now mandate that donors be identifiable to their genetic offspring. Critics contend that anonymous gamete donation harms the interests of donor-conceived individuals and that protection of these interests calls for legal prohibition of anonymous donations. Among the vital interests that critics claim are thwarted by anonymous donation are an interest in having a strong family relationship, health (...)
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  49.  33
    Assisted Reproductive Technology in Spain: Considering Women's Interests.Inmaculada de Melo-martín - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (3):228.
    It might come as a surprise to many that Spain, a country with a strong Catholic tradition that officially banned contraceptive technologies until 1978, has some of the most liberal regulations in assisted reproduction in the world. Law No. 35/1988 was one of the first and most detailed acts of legislation undertaken on the subject of assisted-conception procedures. Indeed, not only did the law permit research on nonviable embryos, it made assisted reproductive technologies available to any woman, whether married or (...)
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  50.  18
    By Author.David M. Craig, Robert I. Field, Ar Caplan, John P. Gluck, Mark T. Holdsworth, Bert Gordijn, L. Norbert, Henk A. M. J. ten Have, Norbert L. Steinkamp & Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2008 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (4):405-407.
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