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Inmaculada de Melo-Martin
Weill Cornell Medicine--Cornell University
  1.  62
    The Flight Against Doubt.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Kristen Intemann - 2018 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    The lack of public support for climate change policies and refusals to vaccinate children are just two alarming illustrations of the impacts of dissent about scientific claims. Dissent can lead to confusion, false beliefs, and widespread public doubt about highly justified scientific evidence. Even more dangerously, it has begun to corrode the very authority of scientific consensus and knowledge. Deployed aggressively and to political ends, some dissent can intimidate scientists, stymie research, and lead both the public and policymakers to oppose (...)
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  2.  31
    Rethinking Reprogenetics: Enhancing Ethical Analyses of Reprogenetic Technologies.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2016 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    Reprogenetic technologies, which combine the power of reproductive techniques with the tools of genetic science and technology, promise prospective parents a remarkable degree of control to pick and choose the likely characteristics of their offspring. Not only can they select embryos with or without particular genetically-related diseases and disabilities but also choose embryos with non-disease related traits such as sex. -/- Prominent authors such as Agar, Buchanan, DeGrazia, Green, Harris, Robertson, Savulescu, and Silver have flocked to the banner of reprogenetics. (...)
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  3.  77
    The Risk of Using Inductive Risk to Challenge the Value-Free Ideal.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Kristen Intemann - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (4):500-520.
    The argument from inductive risk has been embraced by many as a successful account of the role of values in science that challenges the value-free ideal. We argue that it is not obvious that the argument from inductive risk actually undermines the value-free ideal. This is because the inductive risk argument endorses an assumption held by proponents of the value-free ideal: that contextual values never play an appropriate role in determining evidence. We show that challenging the value-free ideal ultimately requires (...)
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  4. Beyond Informed Consent: The Therapeutic Misconception and Trust.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & A. Ho - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):202-205.
    The therapeutic misconception has been seen as presenting an ethical problem because failure to distinguish the aims of research participation from those receiving ordinary treatment may seriously undermine the informed consent of research subjects. Hence, most theoretical and empirical work on the problems of the therapeutic misconception has been directed to evaluate whether, and to what degree, this confusion invalidates the consent of subjects. We argue here that this focus on the understanding component of informed consent, while important, might be (...)
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  5.  36
    Moral Bioenhancement: Much Ado About Nothing?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Arleen Salles - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (4):223-232.
    Recently, some have proposed moral bioenhancement as a solution to the serious moral evils that humans face. Seemingly disillusioned with traditional methods of moral education, proponents of bioenhancement believe that we should pursue and apply biotechnological means to morally enhance human beings. Such proposal has generated a lively debate about the permissibility of moral bioenhancement. We argue here that such debate is specious. The claim that moral bioenhancement is a solution - whether permissible or not - to the serious moral (...)
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  6. When the Milk of Human Kindness Becomes a Luxury Good.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (1):159-165.
    A new reprogenetic technology, mitochondrial replacement, is making its appearance and, unsurprisingly given its promise to wash off our earthly stains --or at least the scourges of sexual reproduction--, John Harris finds only reasons to celebrate this new scientific feat.1 In fact, he finds mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) so “unreservedly welcome” that he believes those who reject them suffer from “a large degree of desperation and not a little callousness.”2 Believing myself to be neither desperate nor callous, but finding myself (...)
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  7. Social Values and Scientific Evidence: The Case of the HPV Vaccines.Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):203-213.
    Several have argued that the aims of scientific research are not always independent of social and ethical values. Yet this is often assumed only to have implications for decisions about what is studied, or which research projects are funded, and not for methodological decisions or standards of evidence. Using the case of the recently developed HPV vaccines, we argue that the social aims of research can also play important roles in justifying decisions about (1) how research problems are defined in (...)
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  8.  85
    Are There Limits to Scientists' Obligations to Seek and Engage Dissenters?Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2014 - Synthese 191 (12):2751-2765.
    Dissent is thought to play a valuable role in science, so that scientific communities ought to create opportunities for receiving critical feedback and take dissenting views seriously. There is concern, however, that some dissent does more harm than good. Dissent on climate change and evolutionary theory, for example, has confused the public, created doubt about existing consensus, derailed public policy, and forced scientists to devote resources to respond. Are there limits to the extent to which scientific communities have obligations to (...)
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  9.  56
    Who's Afraid of Dissent? Addressing Concerns About Undermining Scientific Consensus in Public Policy Developments.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Kristen Intemann - 2014 - Perspectives on Science 22 (4):593-615.
    Many have argued that allowing and encouraging public avenues for dissent and critical evaluation of scientific research is a necessary condition for promoting the objectivity of scientific communities and advancing scientific knowledge . The history of science reveals many cases where an existing scientific consensus was later shown to be wrong . Dissent plays a crucial role in uncovering potential problems and limitations of consensus views. Thus, many have argued that scientific communities ought to increase opportunities for dissenting views to (...)
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  10. How Do Disclosure Policies Fail? Let Us Count the Ways.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2009 - FASEB Journal 23 (6):1638-42.
    The disclosure policies of scientific journals now require that investigators provide information about financial interests relevant to their research. The main goals of these policies are to prevent bias from occurring, to help identify bias when it occurs, and to avoid the appearance of bias. We argue here that such policies do little to help achieve these goals, and we suggest more effective alternatives.
     
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  11. Reproductive Embryo Editing: Attending to Justice.Inmaculada De Melo-Martín - 2022 - Hastings Center Report 52 (4):26-33.
    The use of genome embryo editing tools in reproduction is often touted as a way to ensure the birth of healthy and genetically related children. Many would agree that this is a worthy goal. The purpose of this paper is to argue that, if we are concerned with justice, accepting such goal as morally appropriate commits one to rejecting the development of embryo editing for reproductive purposes. This is so because safer and more effective means exist that can allow many (...)
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  12. Addressing Problems in Profit-Driven Research: How Can Feminist Conceptions of Objectivity Help?Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 4 (2):135-151.
    Although there is increased recognition of the inevitable--and perhaps sometimes beneficial-- role of values in scientific inquiry, there are also growing concerns about the potential for commercial values to lead to bias. This is particularly evident in biomedical research. There is a concern that conflicts of interest created by commercialization may lead to biased reasoning or methodological choices in testing drugs and medical interventions. In addition, such interests may lead research in directions that are unresponsive to pressing social needs, when (...)
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  13. The Trouble With Moral Enhancement.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2018 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83:19-33.
    Proponents of moral enhancement believe that we should pursue and apply biotechnological means to morally enhance human beings, as failing to do so is likely to lead to humanity's demise. Unsurprisingly, these proposals have generated a substantial amount of debate about the moral permissibility of using such interventions. Here I put aside concerns about the permissibility of moral enhancement and focus on the conceptual and evidentiary grounds for the moral enhancement project. I argue that such grounds are quite precarious.
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  14. Sex Selection and the Procreative Liberty Framework.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2013 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 23 (1):1-18.
    Although surprising to some proponents of sex selection for non-medical reasons (Dahl 2005), a considerable amount of critical debate has been raised by this practice (Blyth, Frith, and Crawshaw 2008; Dawson and Trounson 1996; Dickens 2002; Harris 2005; Heyd 2003; Holm 2004; Macklin 2010; Malpani 2002; McDougall 2005; Purdy 2007; Seavilleklein and Sherwin 2007; Steinbock 2002; Strange and Chadwick 2010; Wilkinson 2008). While abortion or infanticide has long been used as means of sex selection, a new technology—preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)—has (...)
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  15.  26
    A Duty to Participate in Research: Does Social Context Matter?Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (10):28-36.
    Because of the important benefits that biomedical research offers to humans, some have argued that people have a general moral obligation to participate in research. Although the defense of such a putative moral duty has raised controversy, few scholars, on either side of the debate, have attended to the social context in which research takes place and where such an obligation will be discharged. By reflecting on the social context in which a presumed duty to participate in research will obtain, (...)
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  16. On Our Obligation to Select the Best Children: A Reply to Savulescu.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2004 - Bioethics 18 (1):72–83.
  17.  54
    Defending Human Enhancement Technologies: Unveiling Normativity.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (8):483-487.
    Recent advances in biotechnologies have led to speculations about enhancing human beings. Many of the moral arguments presented to defend human enhancement technologies have been limited to discussions of their risks and benefits. The author argues that in so far as ethical arguments focus primarily on risks and benefits of human enhancement technologies, these arguments will be insufficient to provide a robust defence of these technologies. This is so because the belief that an assessment of risks and benefits is a (...)
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  18. The Ethics of Anonymous Gamete Donation: Is There a Right to Know One's Genetic Origins?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (2).
    A growing number of jurisdictions hold that gamete donors must be identifiable to the children born with their eggs or sperm, on grounds that being able to know about one's genetic origins is a fundamental moral right. But the argument for that belief has not yet been adequately made.
     
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  19. Scientific Dissent and Public Policy. Is Targeting Dissent a Reasonable Way to Protect Sound Policy Decisions?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Kristen Intemann - 2013 - EMBO Reports 14 (4):231-35.
     
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  20.  27
    Germline Gene Editing: Minding the Past and the Future.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (8):36-38.
    Volume 20, Issue 8, August 2020, Page 36-38.
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  21.  13
    We Don’T Need Unilateral DNRs: Taking Informed Non-Dissent One Step Further.Diego Real de Asúa, Katarina Lee, Peter Koch, Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Trevor Bibler - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (5):314-317.
    Although shared decision-making is a standard in medical care, unilateral decisions through process-based conflict resolution policies have been defended in certain cases. In patients who do not stand to receive proportional clinical benefits, the harms involved in interventions such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation seem to run contrary to the principle of non-maleficence, and provision of such interventions may cause clinicians significant moral distress. However, because the application of these policies involves taking choices out of the domain of shared decision-making, they face (...)
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  22.  97
    Interpreting Evidence: Why Values Can Matter As Much As Science.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Kristen Intemann - 2012 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 55 (1):59-70.
    Despite increasing recognition of the ways in which ethical and social values play a role in science (Kitcher 2001; Longino 1990, 2002), scientists are often still reluctant to acknowledge or discuss ethical and social values at stake in their research. Even when research is closely connected to developing public policy, it is generally held that it should be empirical data, and not the values of scientists, that inform policy. According to this view, scientists need not, and should not, endorse non-epistemic (...)
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  23.  95
    Feminist Resources for Biomedical Research: Lessons From the HPV Vaccines.Inmaculada De Melo-Martín & Kristen Intemann - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (1):79 - 101.
    Several feminist philosophers of science have argued that social and political values are compatible with, and may even enhance, scientific objectivity. A variety of normative recommendations have emerged regarding how to identify, manage, and critically evaluate social values in science. In particular, several feminist theorists have argued that scientific communities ought to: 1) include researchers with diverse experiences, interests, and values, with equal opportunity and authority to scrutinize research; 2) investigate or "study up" scientific phenomena from the perspectives, interests, and (...)
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  24.  4
    Conducting Epigenetics Research with Refugees and Asylum Seekers: Attending to the Ethical Challenges.Faten Taki & Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2021 - Clinical Epigenetics 13 (1):105-.
    An increase in global violence has forced the displacement of more than 70 million people, including 26 million refugees and 3.5 asylum seekers. Refugees and asylum seekers face serious socioeconomic and healthcare barriers and are therefore particularly vulnerable to physical and mental health risks, which are sometimes exacerbated by immigration policies and local social discriminations. Calls for a strong evidence base for humanitarian action have encouraged conducting research to address the barriers and needs of refugees and asylum seekers. Given the (...)
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  25.  3
    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Evaluation of the Safety of Animal Clones: A Failure to Recognize the Normativity of Risk Assessment Projects.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Zahra Meghani - 2009 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 29 (1):9-17.
    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced recently that food products derived from some animal clones and their offspring are safe for human consumption. In response to criticism that it had failed to engage with ethical, social, and economic concerns raised by livestock cloning, the FDA argued that addressing normative issues prior to issuing a final ruling on animal cloning is not part of its mission. In this article, the authors reject the FDA's claim that its mission to protect and (...)
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  26.  50
    Firing Up the Nature/Nurture Controversy: Bioethics and Genetic Determinism.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (9):526-530.
    It is argued here that bioethicists might inadvertently be promoting genetic determinism: the idea that genes alone determine human traits and behaviours. Discussions about genetic testing are used to exemplify how they might be doing so. Quite often bioethicists use clinical cases to support particular moral obligations or rights as if these cases were representative of the kind of information we can acquire about human diseases through genetic testing, when they are not. On other occasions, the clinical cases are presented (...)
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  27.  1
    Vaccine Hesitancy by Maya J. Goldenberg.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2021 - Philosophy of Medicine 2 (2).
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  28.  24
    The Challenge for Medical Ethicists: Weighing Pros and Cons of Advanced Reproductive Technologies to Screen Human Embryos During IVF.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2019 - In E. Scott Sills & Gianpiero D. Palermo (eds.), Human Embryos and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies. San Diego, CA, USA: Elsevier. pp. 1-10.
    Embryo screening technologies offer important benefits to individuals who use them and society. These techniques can expand the reproductive options of many prospective parents and can contribute to reducing the burdens of disease and disability. Nonetheless, embryo screening techniques present individuals and societies with important ethical challenges. Here, I explore some of them. In particular, I discuss the costs for prospective parents of increased reproductive choices, as well as concerns about sanctioning problematic social norms, increasing social injustice, limiting the ways (...)
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  29.  78
    Chimeras and Human Dignity.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2008 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (4):pp. 331-346.
    Discussions about whether new biomedical technologies threaten or violate human dignity are now common. Indeed, appeals to human dignity have played a central role in national and international debates about whether to allow particular kinds of biomedical investigations. The focus of this paper is on chimera research. I argue here that both those who claim that particular types of human-nonhuman chimera research threaten human dignity and those who argue that such threat does not exist fail to make their case. I (...)
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  30.  21
    The Commercialization of the Biomedical Sciences: (Mis)Understanding Bias.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (3):34.
    The growing commercialization of scientific research has raised important concerns about industry bias. According to some evidence, so-called industry bias can affect the integrity of the science as well as the direction of the research agenda. I argue that conceptualizing industry’s influence in scientific research in terms of bias is unhelpful. Insofar as industry sponsorship negatively affects the integrity of the research, it does so through biasing mechanisms that can affect any research independently of the source of funding. Talk about (...)
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  31. Viewpoint: Developing a Research Ethics Consultation Service to Foster Responsive and Responsible Clinical Research.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin, Li Palmer & Jj Fins - 2007 - Academic Medicine 82 (9):900-4.
     
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  32.  4
    Rethinking Human Embryo Research Policies.Kirstin R. W. Matthews, Ana S. Iltis, Nuria Gallego Marquez, Daniel S. Wagner, Jason Scott Robert, Inmaculada de Melo-Martín, Marieke Bigg, Sarah Franklin, Soren Holm, Ingrid Metzler, Matteo A. Molè, Jochen Taupitz, Giuseppe Testa & Jeremy Sugarman - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (1):47-51.
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  33. Regulating Scientific Research: Should Scientists Be Left Alone?Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2008 - FASEB Journal 22 (3):654-58.
     
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  34.  63
    On Cloning Human Beings.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2002 - Bioethics 16 (3):246–265.
  35.  45
    An Undignified Bioethics: There is No Method in This Madness.Inmaculada de Melo-martín - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (4):224-230.
    In a recent article, Alasdair Cochrane argues for the need to have an undignified bioethics. His is not, of course, a call to transform bioethics into an inelegant, pathetic discipline, or one failing to meet appropriate disciplinary standards. His is a call to simply eliminate the concept of human dignity from bioethical discourse. Here I argue that he fails to make his case. I first show that several of the flaws that Cochrane identifies are not flaws of the conceptions of (...)
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  36.  5
    Being and Becoming Pregnant: Valuing Risks.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2022 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 65 (2):327-336.
    Pregnant women are insistently urged to limit or eliminate risks to their fetuses. This is done even when the risks to fetuses are only theoretical or minimal, and the health and well-being of the pregnant woman is at stake. When using reproductive and reprogenetic technologies, however, evaluations about what risks are acceptable to impose on embryos change radically. In the context of these technologies, women are not only allowed to impose risks on embryos, but actively encouraged to do so-insofar as (...)
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  37.  11
    Moral Distress: What Are We Measuring?Laura Kolbe & Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-13.
    While various definitions of moral distress have been proposed, some agreement exists that it results from illegitimate constraints in clinical practice affecting healthcare professionals’ moral agency. If we are to reduce moral distress, instruments measuring it should provide relevant information about such illegitimate constraints. Unfortunately, existing instruments fail to do so. We discuss here several shortcomings of major instruments in use: their inability to determine whether reports of moral distress involve an accurate assessment of the requisite clinical and logistical facts (...)
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  38.  59
    Human Dignity in International Policy Documents: A Useful Criterion for Public Policy?Inmaculada de Melo-martín - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (1):37-45.
    Current developments in biomedicine are presenting us with difficult ethical decisions and raising complex policy questions about how to regulate these new developments. Particularly vexing for governments have been issues related to human embryo experimentation. Because some of the most promising biomedical developments, such as stem cell research and nuclear somatic transfer, involve such experimentation, several international bodies have drafted documents aimed to provide guidance to governments when developing biomedical science policy. Here I focus on two such documents: the Council (...)
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  39. Human Embryo Genetic Editing: Hope or Pipe Dream?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Zev Rosenwaks - 2021 - Fertility and Sterility 116 (1):25-26.
    Ethically sound analyses of embryo genetic editing require more than simple assessments of safety considerations. After all, we as humans care deeply not only about our health, but also care profoundly about the kinds of societies we construct, the injustices that our actions produce, the responsibilities that we have toward others and ourselves, our self-understanding, the characters that we develop, our family relationships, and the world that we leave to our children and grandchildren.
     
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  40.  86
    Creating Reflective Spaces: Interactions Between Philosophers and Biomedical Scientists.Inmaculada De Melo-Martin - 2008 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (1):39-47.
  41.  34
    Furthering Injustices Against Women: Genetic Information, Moral Obligations, and Gender.Inmaculada de Melo-martín - 2006 - Bioethics 20 (6):301–307.
  42.  31
    On Disgust and Human Dignity.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Arleen Salles - 2011 - Journal of Value Inquiry 45 (2):159-168.
  43. Biological Explanations and Social Responsibility.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 34 (2):345-358.
    The aim of this paper is to show that critics of biological explanations of human nature may be granting too much to those who propose such explanations when they argue that the truth of genetic determinism implies an end to critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. This is the case because when we argue that biological determinism exempts us from social critique we are erroneously presupposing that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing to do with what (...)
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  44.  16
    Lack of Access to Genetic-Relative Family Health History: A Health Disparity for Adoptees?Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (12):43-45.
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  45.  33
    Human Dignity, Transhuman Dignity, and All That Jazz.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):53-55.
  46.  3
    Vaccine Hesitancy: Some Concerns About Values and Trust, Comments on Vaccine Hesitancy by Maya J. Goldenberg.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2022 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 15 (2):108-115.
    A significant amount of scientific evidence shows that childhood vaccination constitutes one of the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions of the last century. It has saved millions of lives. Nonetheless, many parents are reluctant or outright hostile to having their children vaccinated. Similarly, in spite of the fact that vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, are highly effective in protecting people against death and serious illness, about a third of adults in the United States are still (...)
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  47.  1
    Beyond Risk. A More Realistic Risk-Benefit Analysis of Agricultural Biotechnologies.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Zahra Meghani - 2008 - EMBO Reports 9 (4):302-06.
  48.  49
    Disgust in Bioethics.Arleen Salles & Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (2):267-280.
    edited by Tuija Takala and Matti Häyry, welcomes contributions on the conceptual and theoretical dimensions of bioethics.
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  49.  12
    Should Professional Associations Sanction Conscientious Refusals?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (6):23 – 24.
  50. Vulnerability and Ethics: Considering Our Cartesian Hangover.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2009 - Lancet 373 (9671):1244-5.
     
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