Results for 'Instance'

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  1.  31
    Induction From a Single Instance: Incomplete Frames. [REVIEW]Rafal Urbaniak & Frederik Van De Putte - 2013 - Foundations of Science 18 (4):641-653.
    In this paper we argue that an existing theory of concepts called dynamic frame theory, although not developed with that purpose in mind, allows for the precise formulation of a number of problems associated with induction from a single instance. A key role is played by the distinction we introduce between complete and incomplete dynamic frames, for incomplete frames seem to be very elegant candidates for the format of the background knowledge used in induction from a single instance. (...)
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  2.  14
    An Instance Vs. The Instance.Kumiko Tanaka-Ishii - 2009 - Minds and Machines 19 (1):117-128.
    This article argues how one problem of computing lies in realizing a significant instance given a class or type. Analysis of a case study on digital narrative suggests two general processes for instantiating significant instances: interaction and optimization. The article then explains how the problem of universals needs to be deconstructed when trying to understand what type of entities significant instances are and what the process for obtaining them is.
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  3.  31
    Instance‐Based Models of Metacognition in the Prisoner's Dilemma.Christopher A. Stevens, Niels A. Taatgen & Fokie Cnossen - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):322-334.
    In this article, we examine the advantages of simple metacognitive capabilities in a repeated social dilemma. Two types of metacognitive agent were developed and compared with a non-metacognitive agent and two fixed-strategy agents. The first type of metacognitive agent takes the perspective of the opponent to anticipate the opponent's future actions and respond accordingly. The other metacognitive agent predicts the opponent's next move based on the previous moves of the agent and the opponent. The modeler agent achieves better individual outcomes (...)
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  4.  15
    Instance‐Based Learning in Dynamic Decision Making.Cleotilde Gonzalez, Javier F. Lerch & Christian Lebiere - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (4):591-635.
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  5.  58
    The Logic of Instance Ontology.D. W. Mertz - 1999 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 28 (1):81-111.
    An ontology's theory of ontic predication has implications for the concomitant predicate logic. Remarkable in its analytic power for both ontology and logic is the here developed Particularized Predicate Logic (PPL), the logic inherent in the realist version of the doctrine of unit or individuated predicates. PPL, as axiomatized and proven consistent below, is a three-sorted impredicative intensional logic with identity, having variables ranging over individuals x, intensions R, and instances of intensions $R_{i}$ . The power of PPL is illustrated (...)
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  6.  2
    Category Dominance, Instance Dominance, and Categorization Time.Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):70.
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  7.  14
    Instance Contiguity in Disjunctive Concept Learning.Robert C. Haygood, Jean Sandlin, Delmar J. Yoder & David H. Dodd - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (3):605.
  8.  3
    Effect of Initial Instance on Attribute Identification of Concepts Using a Selection Procedure.John E. Taplin - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (2):177.
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  9.  3
    Concept Attainment as a Function of Instance Contiguity and Number of Irrelevant Dimensions.Roger L. Dominowski - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (3):573.
  10.  36
    This is Not an Instance of (E).Teresa Marques - 2018 - Synthese 195 (3):1035–1063.
    Semantic paradoxes like the liar are notorious challenges to truth theories. A paradox can be phrased with minimal resources and minimal assumptions. It is not surprising, then, that the liar is also a challenge to minimalism about truth. Horwich (1990) deals swiftly with the paradox, after discriminating between other strategies for avoiding it without compromising minimalism. He dismisses the denial of classical logic, the denial that the concept of truth can coherently be applied to propositions, and the denial that the (...)
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  11.  4
    Towards a New Procreation Ethic: The Exemplary Instance of Cleft Lip and Palate. [REVIEW]Gaëlle Le Dref, Bruno Grollemund, Anne Danion-Grilliat & Jean-Christophe Weber - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):365-375.
    The improvement of ultrasound scan techniques is enabling ever earlier prenatal diagnosis of developmental anomalies. In France, apart from cases where the mother’s life is endangered, the detection of “particularly serious” conditions, and conditions that are “incurable at the time of diagnosis” are the only instances in which a therapeutic abortion can be performed, this applying up to the 9th month of pregnancy. Thus numerous conditions, despite the fact that they cause distress or pain or are socially disabling, do not (...)
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  12.  27
    Information Science as a Paradigmatic Instance of a Problem-Based Theory.Antonino Drago & Emanuele Drago - 1997 - World Futures 49 (3):251-273.
    (1997). Information science as a paradigmatic instance of a problem‐based theory. World Futures: Vol. 49, The Quest for a Unified Theory of Information, pp. 251-273.
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  13.  55
    Process Structural Realism, Instance Ontology, and Societal Order.Joseph Earley - 2008 - In Franz Riffert and Hans-Joachim Sander (ed.), Rearching with Whitehead: System and Adventure. Berlin: Alber. pp. 190-211.
    Whitehead’s cosmology centers on the self-creation of actual occasions that perish as they come to be, but somehow do combine to constitute societies that are persistent agents and/or patients. “Instance Ontology” developed by D.W. Mertz concerns unification of relata into facts of relatedness by specific intensions. These two conceptual systems are similar in that they both avoid the substance-property distinction: they differ in their understanding of how basic units combine to constitute complex unities. “Process Structural Realism” (PSR) draws from (...)
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  14.  18
    When is It Legitimate to Use Images in Moral Arguments? The Use of Foetal Imagery in Anti-Abortion Campaigns as an Exemplar of an Illegitimate Instance of a Legitimate Practice.Lindsay Kelland & Catriona Macleod - 2015 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 41 (2):179-195.
    We aim to interrogate when the use of images in moral persuasion is legitimate. First, we put forward a number of accounts which purport to show that we can use tools other than logical argumentation to convince others, that such tools evoke affective responses and that these responses have authority in the moral domain. Second, we turn to Sarah McGrath’s account, which focuses on the use of imagery as a means to morally persuade. McGrath discusses 4 objections to the use (...)
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  15.  4
    Instance Based Classification for Decision Making in Network Data.Amarjit Singh, Parag Kulkarni & Shankar Lal - 2012 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 21 (2):167-193.
    . Network data analysis helps in capturing node usage behavior. Existing algorithms use reduced feature set to manage high runtime complexity. Ignoring features may increase classification errors. This paper presents a model, allowing classification of network traffic, while considering all the relevant features. Learning phase partitions training sample on values of the respective features. This creates equivalence classes related to m features. During classification, each feature value of the test instance results in picking one set from equivalence class generated (...)
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  16.  7
    Against Norström’s Argument for Technological Knowing How Not Being an Instance of Knowing That.Morgan Luck - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (4):573-579.
    In this paper, I evaluate an argument offered by Per Norström in section 8 of his paper Knowing how, knowing that, knowing technology. The argument is for the proposition that some instance of knowing how is not an instance of knowing that; the instance in question being one of technological know-how. This conclusion contradicts Stanley and Williamson’s proposal that all instances of knowing how are instances of knowing that. I provide reason to think that there are problems (...)
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  17.  5
    Instance-Based Manifesto?Márk Jelasity - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):482-483.
    Page's definition of localism is inspired by the instance-based paradigm. However, the locality of representations is not necessary for a model to be instance-based and, on the other hand, explicit featural representations are generally considered local. The important distinction is between instance-based and noninstance-based paradigms and not between distributed and local representations as Page claims.
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  18.  2
    From Instance-Level Constraints to Space-Level Constraints: Making the Most of Prior Knowledge in Data Clustering.Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    We present an improved method for clustering in the presence of very limited supervisory information, given as pairwise instance constraints. By allowing instance-level constraints to have spacelevel inductive implications, we are able to successfully incorporate constraints for a wide range of data set types. Our method greatly improves on the previously studied constrained -means algorithm, generally requiring less than half as many constraints to achieve a given accuracy on a range of real-world data, while also being more robust (...)
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  19.  1
    6 The Logic of Instance Ontology.Donald W. Mertz - 2006 - In Essays on Realist Instance Ontology and its Logic. De Gruyter. pp. 183-214.
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  20.  4
    Toward an Instance Theory of Automatization.Gordon D. Logan - 1988 - Psychological Review 95 (4):492-527.
  21. Toward an Instance Theory of Automatization.G. D. Logan - 1987 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (5):342-342.
  22.  1
    Instance-Based Learning: Integrating Sampling and Repeated Decisions From Experience.Cleotilde Gonzalez & Varun Dutt - 2011 - Psychological Review 118 (4):523-551.
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  23.  3
    An Instance Theory of Attention and Memory.Gordon D. Logan - 2002 - Psychological Review 109 (2):376-400.
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  24.  69
    Individuation and Instance Ontology.D. W. Mertz - 2001 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 79 (1):45 – 61.
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  25.  21
    Informed Consent Hong Kong Style: An Instance of Moderate Familism.Ho Mun Chan - 2004 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (2):195 – 206.
    This paper examines the practice of informed consent in Hong Kong by drawing on structured interviews conducted with eleven physicians, three patients, and four family members primarily at a well-established public hospital in Hong Kong. The findings of this study show that the Hong Kong approach to medical decision-making lies somewhere between that of America on the one hand, and mainland China on the other. It is argued that the practice of medical decision-making in Hong Kong can be modeled by (...)
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  26.  1
    Refuting Data Aggregation Arguments and How the Instance-Based Learning Model Stands Criticism: A Reply to Hills and Hertwig.Cleotilde Gonzalez & Varun Dutt - 2012 - Psychological Review 119 (4):893-898.
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  27.  11
    Contamination in Reasoning About False Belief: An Instance of Realist Bias in Adults but Not Children.P. Mitchell, E. J. Robinson, J. E. Isaacs & R. M. Nye - 1996 - Cognition 59 (1):1-21.
  28.  42
    Set as an Instance of a Real-World Visual-Cognitive Task.Enkhbold Nyamsuren & Niels A. Taatgen - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (1):146-175.
    Complex problem solving is often an integration of perceptual processing and deliberate planning. But what balances these two processes, and how do novices differ from experts? We investigate the interplay between these two in the game of SET. This article investigates how people combine bottom-up visual processes and top-down planning to succeed in this game. Using combinatorial and mixed-effect regression analysis of eye-movement protocols and a cognitive model of a human player, we show that SET players deploy both bottom-up and (...)
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  29.  7
    Trust as an Instance of Asymmetrical Reciprocity: An Ethics Perspective on Corporate Brand Management.Clara Gustafsson - 2005 - Business Ethics: A European Review 14 (2):142-150.
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  30.  8
    Trust as an Instance of Asymmetrical Reciprocity: An Ethics Perspective on Corporate Brand Management.Clara Gustafsson - 2005 - Business Ethics 14 (2):142–150.
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  31.  42
    Role Morality as a Complex Instance of Ordinary Morality.Judith Andre - 1991 - American Philosophical Quarterly 28 (1):73 - 80.
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  32.  7
    Essays on Realist Instance Ontology and its Logic.Donald W. Mertz - 2006 - De Gruyter.
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  33.  6
    The SNARC Effect: An Instance of the Simon Effect?Daniela Mapelli, Elena Rusconi & Carlo Umiltà - 2003 - Cognition 88 (3):B1-B10.
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  34.  34
    Puzzling About State Excuses as an Instance of Group Excuses.François Tanguay-Renaud - forthcoming - In R. A. Duff, L. Farmer, S. Marshall & V. Tadros (eds.), The Constitution of Criminal Law. Oxford University Press.
    Can the state, as opposed to its individual human members in their personal capacity, intelligibly seek to avoid blame for unjustified wrongdoing by invoking excuses (as opposed to justifications)? Insofar as it can, should such claims ever be given moral and legal recognition? While a number of theorists have denied it in passing, the question remains radically underexplored. -/- In this article (in its penultimate draft version), I seek to identify the main metaphysical and moral objections to state excuses, and (...)
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  35.  11
    The Instance Theory of Explanation.John Forge - 1986 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (2):127 – 142.
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  36.  24
    Simulation, Theory-Theory and Cognitive Penetration: No 'Instance of the Fingerpost'.John D. Greenwood - 1999 - Mind and Language 14 (1):32-56.
  37.  8
    Age of Acquisition in Face Categorisation: Is There an Instance-Based Account?Michael B. Lewis - 1999 - Cognition 71 (1):B23-B39.
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  38.  10
    Instance-Based Policy Learning by Real-Coded Genetic Algorithms and Its Application to Control of Nonholonomic Systems.Atsushi Miyamae, Jun Sakuma, Isao Ono & Shigenobu Kobayashi - 2009 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 24:104-115.
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  39.  9
    Reversing Kristeva’s First Instance of Abjection: The Formation of Self Reconsidered.Janet L. McCabe & Dave Holmes - 2011 - Nursing Inquiry 18 (1):77-83.
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  40.  12
    Experiencing Level: An Instance of Developing a Variable From a First Person Process so It Can Be Reliably Measured and Taught.Marion Hendricks - 2009 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 16 (10-12):10-12.
    The concept 'Experiencing Level' points to the manner in which what a person says relates to felt experience. The manner is a first person process which is quantitatively measurable. Examples of low, middle and high Experiencing are given. In a high experiencing manner a person attends directly to a bodily sense of what is implicit and allows words to emerge from that sense. The Experiencing Scale which measures the manner of process is a third person rating of a first person (...)
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  41.  1
    Hayek’s Theory of the Market Order as an Instance of the Theory of Complex, Adaptive Systems.Karen I. Vaughn - 1999 - Journal des Economistes Et des Etudes Humaines 9 (2-3).
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  42.  60
    What Do We Mean by an "Instance"?J. R. Jones - 1950 - Analysis 11 (1):11 - 18.
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  43.  12
    An Instance Ontology for Structures: Their Definition, Identity, and Indiscernibility.Donald W. Mertz - 2003 - Metaphysica: International Journal for Ontology and Metaphysics 4 (1):127-64.
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  44.  7
    Part-Set Cuing Inhibition in Category-Instance and Reason Generation.Steven A. Sloman - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (2):136-138.
  45.  1
    L'otage ou l'instance théologique du littéraire. En marge du débat : Habermas, Rorty, Lyotard.François Nault - 2004 - Revue des Sciences Religieuses 78 (2):253-276.
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  46.  7
    The Display of Recipiency: An Instance of a Sequential Relationship in Speech and Body Movement.Christian C. Heath - 1982 - Semiotica 42 (2-4).
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  47.  1
    Mathemes Avant la Lettre: Lacan's Language Functions in ‘The Instance of the Letter’ as Triggers for Formalization.Tobias Kuehne - 2017 - Paragraph 40 (2):193-210.
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  48.  19
    ?Heroines in the Making?: The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie as an Instance of Amour-Propre in Education.Leigh Campbell Garrison - 1990 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 10 (3):195-209.
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  49.  17
    Instance Is the Converse of Aspect.Boris Hennig - 2015 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 93 (1):3-20.
    According to the aspect theory of instantiation, a particular A instantiates a universal B if and only if an aspect of A is cross-count identical with an aspect of B. This involves the assumption that both particulars and universals have aspects, and that aspects can mediate between different ways of counting things. I will ask what is new about this account of instantiation and, more importantly, whether it is an improvement on its older relatives. It will turn out that the (...)
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  50.  18
    Gestalt Switches in Poincaré׳s Prize Paper: An Inspiration for, but Not an Instance of, Chaos.Lena Christine Zuchowski - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 47:1-14.
    I analyse in detail the construction of asymptotic surfaces in Sections 16–19 of Poincaré , also known as the prize paper. There are two prime reasons for doing so. Firstly, this part of the prize paper contains an interesting argumentative strategy, which I call Poincaré׳s gestalt switch. Secondly, it has been claimed that the prize paper contains one of the first descriptions of chaotic motion. I will argue that the latter claim is false, although both the gestalt switches and the (...)
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