Results for 'Intelligence'

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  1. clearly sacrifice precision and resolution in their predic-tion to achieve more generality and robustness in fore-casting. The State-Transition Paradigm. The state-transition paradigm is a powerful approach to.G. I. S. Intelligent - forthcoming - Fourth Annual Conference on Ai, Simulation and Planning in High Autonomy Systems.
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  2. Evolutionary and religious perspectives on morality.Artificial Intelligence - forthcoming - Zygon.
  3. Otto Neumaier.Artificial Intelligence - 1987 - In Rainer P. Born (ed.), Artificial Intelligence: The Case Against. St Martin's Press. pp. 132.
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  4. Keith S. Decker.Intelligence Testbeds - 1996 - In N. Jennings & G. O'Hare (eds.), Foundations of Distributed Artificial Intelligence. Wiley. pp. 9--119.
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  5. Marcel VOISIN.des Fleurs Selon Maeterlinck L'intelligence - 2007 - Cahiers Internationaux de Symbolisme 116:209.
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  6.  1
    Consciousness and the synaisthison in regard to the concept of "Soul": an investigation into Prânavichâra's proposition that consciousness is a positioning of existence. Atmasavichara & Intelligence Gate Enterprises - 2012 - [Japan?]: Intelligence Gate Enterprises.
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  7. Reconnaissance de Formes.B. Dubuisson & Intelligence Artificielle Diagnostic - forthcoming - Hermes.
     
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  8.  19
    (Hard ernst) corrigendum Van Brakel, J., philosophy of chemistry (u. klein).Hallvard Lillehammer, Moral Realism, Normative Reasons, Rational Intelligibility, Wlodek Rabinowicz, Does Practical Deliberation, Crowd Out Self-Prediction & Peter McLaughlin - 2002 - Erkenntnis 57 (1):91-122.
    It is a popular view thatpractical deliberation excludes foreknowledge of one's choice. Wolfgang Spohn and Isaac Levi have argued that not even a purely probabilistic self-predictionis available to thedeliberator, if one takes subjective probabilities to be conceptually linked to betting rates. It makes no sense to have a betting rate for an option, for one's willingness to bet on the option depends on the net gain from the bet, in combination with the option's antecedent utility, rather than on the offered (...)
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  9. Part II. A walk around the emerging new world. Russia in an emerging world / excerpt: from "Russia and the solecism of power" by David Holloway ; China in an emerging world.Constraints Excerpt: From "China'S. Demographic Prospects Toopportunities, Excerpt: From "China'S. Rise in Artificial Intelligence: Ingredientsand Economic Implications" by Kai-Fu Lee, Matt Sheehan, Latin America in an Emerging Worldsidebar: Governance Lessons From the Emerging New World: India, Excerpt: From "Latin America: Opportunities, Challenges for the Governance of A. Fragile Continent" by Ernesto Silva, Excerpt: From "Digital Transformation in Central America: Marginalization or Empowerment?" by Richard Aitkenhead, Benjamin Sywulka, the Middle East in an Emerging World Excerpt: From "the Islamic Republic of Iran in an Age of Global Transitions: Challenges for A. Theocratic Iran" by Abbas Milani, Roya Pakzad, Europe in an Emerging World Sidebar: Governance Lessons From the Emerging New World: Japan, Excerpt: From "Europe in the Global Race for Technological Leadership" by Jens Suedekum & Africa in an Emerging World Sidebar: Governance Lessons From the Emerging New Wo Bangladesh - 2020 - In George P. Shultz (ed.), A hinge of history: governance in an emerging new world. Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University.
     
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  10.  36
    Descartes on sensible qualities, Jill Vance Buroker.Was Schopenhauer an Idealist, Dale Snow & R. E. X. Intelligibility - 1991 - The Monist 74 (2).
  11.  3
    Proceedings of the 1986 Conference on Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning about Knowledge: March 19-22, 1988, Monterey, California.Joseph Y. Halpern, International Business Machines Corporation, American Association of Artificial Intelligence, United States & Association for Computing Machinery - 1986
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  12. Kevin A. Aho. Heidegger's Neglect of the Body (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2009), xv+ 176 pp. $65.00 cloth. Kathleen Ahrens, ed. Politics, Gender and Conceptual Metaphors (Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), xii+ 275 pp. Ł50. 00 cloth. George A. Akerlof and Robert J. Shiller. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives. [REVIEW]Christopher Andrew, Richard J. Aldrich, Wesley K. Wark Secret Intelligence & A. Reader - 2011 - The European Legacy 16 (2):295-297.
     
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  13. Mandevillian Intelligence: From Individual Vice to Collective Virtue.Paul Smart - 2018 - In Carter Joseph Adam, Clark Andy, Kallestrup Jesper, Palermos Spyridon Orestis & Pritchard Duncan (eds.), Socially-Extended Knowledge. Oxford University Press. pp. 253–274.
    Mandevillian intelligence is a specific form of collective intelligence in which individual cognitive shortcomings, limitations and biases play a positive functional role in yielding various forms of collective cognitive success. When this idea is transposed to the epistemological domain, mandevillian intelligence emerges as the idea that individual forms of intellectual vice may, on occasion, support the epistemic performance of some form of multi-agent ensemble, such as a socio-epistemic system, a collective doxastic agent, or an epistemic group agent. (...)
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  14. Intelligent capacities in artificial systems.Atoosa Kasirzadeh & Victoria McGeer - 2023 - In William A. Bauer & Anna Marmodoro (eds.), Artificial Dispositions: Investigating Ethical and Metaphysical Issues. Bloomsbury.
    This paper investigates the nature of dispositional properties in the context of artificial intelligence systems. We start by examining the distinctive features of natural dispositions according to criteria introduced by McGeer (2018) for distinguishing between object-centered dispositions (i.e., properties like ‘fragility’) and agent-based abilities, including both ‘habits’ and ‘skills’ (a.k.a. ‘intelligent capacities’, Ryle 1949). We then explore to what extent the distinction applies to artificial dispositions in the context of two very different kinds of artificial systems, one based on (...)
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  15.  64
    Artificial intelligence with American values and Chinese characteristics: a comparative analysis of American and Chinese governmental AI policies.Emmie Hine & Luciano Floridi - 2024 - AI and Society 39 (1):257-278.
    As China and the United States strive to be the primary global leader in AI, their visions are coming into conflict. This is frequently painted as a fundamental clash of civilisations, with evidence based primarily around each country’s current political system and present geopolitical tensions. However, such a narrow view claims to extrapolate into the future from an analysis of a momentary situation, ignoring a wealth of historical factors that influence each country’s prevailing philosophy of technology and thus their overarching (...)
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  16. Intelligent Design and the Nature of Science: Philosophical and Pedagogical Points.Ingo Brigandt - 2013 - In Kostas Kampourakis (ed.), Philosophical Issues in Biology Education. Springer (under contract). pp. 205-238.
    This chapter offers a critique of intelligent design arguments against evolution and a philosophical discussion of the nature of science, drawing several lessons for the teaching of evolution and for science education in general. I discuss why Behe’s irreducible complexity argument fails, and why his portrayal of organismal systems as machines is detrimental to biology education and any under-standing of how organismal evolution is possible. The idea that the evolution of complex organismal features is too unlikely to have occurred by (...)
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  17.  16
    Creative intelligence: essays in the pragmatic attitude.John Dewey, Harold Chapman Brown, George Herbert Mead, Horace Meyer Kallen & Addison Webster Moore (eds.) - 2020 - New York: Nova Science Publishers.
    Creative Intelligence: Essays in the Pragmatic Attitude represents an attempt at intellectual cooperation. No effort has been made, however, to attain unanimity of belief nor to proffer a platform of "planks" on which there is agreement. The consensus represented lies primarily in outlook, in conviction of what is most likely to be fruitful in method of approach. As the title page suggests, the volume presents a unity in attitude rather than a uniformity in results. Consequently each writer is definitively (...)
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  18. Computing machinery and intelligence.Alan M. Turing - 1950 - Mind 59 (October):433-60.
    I propose to consider the question, "Can machines think?" This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms "machine" and "think." The definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude is dangerous, If the meaning of the words "machine" and "think" are to be found by examining how they are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the meaning and the answer to (...)
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  19. Embedding Values in Artificial Intelligence (AI) Systems.Ibo van de Poel - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (3):385-409.
    Organizations such as the EU High-Level Expert Group on AI and the IEEE have recently formulated ethical principles and (moral) values that should be adhered to in the design and deployment of artificial intelligence (AI). These include respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, fairness, transparency, explainability, and accountability. But how can we ensure and verify that an AI system actually respects these values? To help answer this question, I propose an account for determining when an AI system can be said to (...)
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  20.  35
    Artificial intelligence and music ecosystem.Martin Clancy (ed.) - 2022 - New York: Routledge.
    Artificial Intelligence and Music Ecosystem highlights the opportunities and rewards associated with the application of AI in the creative arts. Featuring an array of voices, including interviews with Jacques Attali, Holly Herndon and Scott Cohen, this book offers interdisciplinary approaches to pressing ethical and technical questions associated with AI. Considering the perspectives of developers, students and artists, as well as the wider themes of law, ethics and philosophy, Artificial Intelligence and Music Ecosystem is an essential introduction for anyone (...)
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  21. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching Grammar English Tenses.Mohammed I. Alhabbash, Ali O. Mahdi & Samy S. Abu Naser - 2016 - European Academic Research 4 (9):1-15.
    The evolution of Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) is the result of the amount of research in the field of education and artificial intelligence in recent years. English is the third most common languages in the world and also is the internationally dominant in the telecommunications, science and trade, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomatic language as most of the areas of work now taught in English. Therefore, the demand for learning English has increased. In this paper, we describe the design (...)
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  22. Artificial Intelligence: Its Scope and Limits.James H. Fetzer - 1990 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    1. WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE? One of the fascinating aspects of the field of artificial intelligence (AI) is that the precise nature of its subject ..
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  23. May Artificial Intelligence take health and sustainability on a honeymoon? Towards green technologies for multidimensional health and environmental justice.Cristian Moyano-Fernández, Jon Rueda, Janet Delgado & Txetxu Ausín - 2024 - Global Bioethics 35 (1).
    The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in healthcare and epidemiology undoubtedly has many benefits for the population. However, due to its environmental impact, the use of AI can produce social inequalities and long-term environmental damages that may not be thoroughly contemplated. In this paper, we propose to consider the impacts of AI applications in medical care from the One Health paradigm and long-term global health. From health and environmental justice, rather than settling for a short and fleeting green honeymoon (...)
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  24.  6
    Intelligence in the flesh: why your mind needs your body much more than it thinks.Guy Claxton - 2015 - New Haven: Yale University Press.
    If you think that intelligence emanates from the mind and that reasoning necessitates the suppression of emotion, you'd better think again--or rather not "think" at all. In his provocative new book, Guy Claxton draws on the latest findings in neuroscience and psychology to reveal how our bodies--long dismissed as mere conveyances--actually constitute the core of our intelligent life. From the endocrinal means by which our organs communicate to the instantaneous decision-making prompted by external phenomena, our bodies are able to (...)
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  25. L'intelligence artificielle n'est pas une question technologique: échanges entre le philosophe et l'informaticien.Laurent Bibard - 2023 - La Tour-d'Aigues: Éditions de l'Aube. Edited by Nicolas Sabouret.
    Les auteurs de ce livre partent d'un constat clair : il n'y a pas de problème d'intelligence artificielle, il n'y a que le problème de nos attentes à l'égard de ce que nous avons nous-mêmes créé. L'ouvrage étudie donc un enjeu sociétal actuel décisif : notre rapport aux technologies. Mené à deux voix, il interroge notre vision de l'intelligence artificielle en tant que technologie. Il présente l'intérêt du double éclairage de la philosophie et de l'informatique. L'informaticien sait ce (...)
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  26.  3
    The intelligent nation: how to organise a country.John Beckford - 2021 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    The Intelligent Nation proposes a systemic and radical transformation of the organisation, management, ownership and performance of the services of the state by capitalising on the potential offered by contemporary information capability and fulfilling the rights and obligations both to and of citizens. In this book, John Beckford shows how, by adopting the principles of an intelligent organisation, the state can thrive and meet the needs of its citizens. He proposes a complete rethink of the state as the enabler or (...)
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  27. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Learning Introduction to Computer Science.Ahmad Marouf, Mohammed K. Abu Yousef, Mohammed N. Mukhaimer & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2018 - International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR) 2 (2):1-8.
    The paper describes the design of an intelligent tutoring system for teaching Introduction to Computer Science-a compulsory curriculum in Al-Azhar University of Gaza to students who attend the university. The basic idea of this system is a systematic introduction into computer science. The system presents topics with examples. The system is dynamically checks student's individual progress. An initial evaluation study was done to investigate the effect of using the intelligent tutoring system on the performance of students enrolled in computer science (...)
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  28. Artificial Intelligence for the Internal Democracy of Political Parties.Claudio Novelli, Giuliano Formisano, Prathm Juneja, Sandri Giulia & Luciano Floridi - manuscript
    The article argues that AI can enhance the measurement and implementation of democratic processes within political parties, known as Intra-Party Democracy (IPD). It identifies the limitations of traditional methods for measuring IPD, which often rely on formal parameters, self-reported data, and tools like surveys. Such limitations lead to the collection of partial data, rare updates, and significant demands on resources. To address these issues, the article suggests that specific data management and Machine Learning (ML) techniques, such as natural language processing (...)
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  29.  49
    Natural and Artificial Intelligence: A Comparative Analysis of Cognitive Aspects.Francesco Abbate - 2023 - Minds and Machines 33 (4):791-815.
    Moving from a behavioral definition of intelligence, which describes it as the ability to adapt to the surrounding environment and deal effectively with new situations (Anastasi, 1986), this paper explains to what extent the performance obtained by ChatGPT in the linguistic domain can be considered as intelligent behavior and to what extent they cannot. It also explains in what sense the hypothesis of decoupling between cognitive and problem-solving abilities, proposed by Floridi (2017) and Floridi and Chiriatti (2020) should be (...)
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  30. Intelligence without representation.Rodney A. Brooks - 1991 - Artificial Intelligence 47 (1--3):139-159.
    Artificial intelligence research has foundered on the issue of representation. When intelligence is approached in an incremental manner, with strict reliance on interfacing to the real world through perception and action, reliance on representation disappears. In this paper we outline our approach to incrementally building complete intelligent Creatures. The fundamental decomposition of the intelligent system is not into independent information processing units which must interface with each other via representations. Instead, the intelligent system is decomposed into independent and (...)
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  31.  1
    Life, Intelligence, and the Selection of Universes.Rüdiger Vaas - 2019 - In Yordanov Georgi Georgiev, John M. Smart & Claudio L. Flores Martinez (eds.), Evolution, Development and Complexity. Springer. pp. 93-133.
    Complexity and life as we know it depend crucially on the laws and constants of nature as well as the boundary conditions, which seem at least partly “fine-tuned.” That deserves an explanation: Why are they the way they are? This essay discusses and systematizes the main options for answering these foundational questions. Fine-tuning might just be an illusion, or a result of irreducible chance, or nonexistent because nature could not have been otherwise (which might be shown within a fundamental theory (...)
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  32. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Cloud Computing.Hasan Abdulla Abu Hasanein & Samy S. Abu Naser - 2017 - International Journal of Academic Research and Development 2 (1):76-80.
    Intelligent tutoring system (ITS) is a computer system which aims to provide immediate and customized or reactions to learners, usually without the intervention of human teacher's instructions. Secretariats professional to have the common goal of learning a meaningful and effective manner through the use of a variety of computing technologies enabled. There are many examples of professional Secretariats used in both formal education and in professional settings that have proven their capabilities. There is a close relationship between private lessons intelligent, (...)
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  33. Artificial intelligence and the ‘Good Society’: the US, EU, and UK approach.Corinne Cath, Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (2):505-528.
    In October 2016, the White House, the European Parliament, and the UK House of Commons each issued a report outlining their visions on how to prepare society for the widespread use of artificial intelligence. In this article, we provide a comparative assessment of these three reports in order to facilitate the design of policies favourable to the development of a ‘good AI society’. To do so, we examine how each report addresses the following three topics: the development of a (...)
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  34.  2
    Is intelligence an algorithm?Antonin Tuynman - 2018 - Washington, USA: IFF Books.
    How do we understand the world around us? How do we solve problems? Often the answer to these questions follows a certain pattern, an algorithm if you wish. This is the case when our analytical left-brain side is at work. However, there are also elements in our behaviour where intelligence appears to follow a more elusive path, which cannot easily be characterised as a specific sequence of steps. Is Intelligence an Algorithm? offers an insight into intelligence as (...)
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  35. Intelligence Socialism.Carlotta Pavese - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Mind.
    From artistic performances in the visual arts and in music to motor control in gymnastics, from tool use to chess and language, humans excel in a variety of skills. On the plausible assumption that skillful behavior is a visible manifestation of intelligence, a theory of intelligence—whether human or not—should be informed by a theory of skills. More controversial is the question as to whether, in order to theorize about intelligence, we should study certain skills in particular. My (...)
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  36.  16
    THE INTELLIGIBILITY OF EXTRALEGAL STATE ACTION: A General Lesson for Debates on Public Emergencies and Legality.François Tanguay-Renaud - 2010 - Legal Theory 16 (3):161-189.
    Some legal theorists deny that states can conceivably act extralegally in the sense of acting contrary to domestic law. This position finds its most robust articulation in the writings of Hans Kelsen and has more recently been taken up by David Dyzenhaus in the context of his work on emergencies and legality. This paper seeks to demystify their arguments and ultimately contend that we can intelligibly speak of the state as a legal wrongdoer or a legally unauthorized actor.
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  37. Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea.John Haugeland - 1985 - Cambridge: MIT Press.
    The idea that human thinking and machine computing are "radically the same" provides the central theme for this marvelously lucid and witty book on...
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  38. Instruments, agents, and artificial intelligence: novel epistemic categories of reliability.Eamon Duede - 2022 - Synthese 200 (6):1-20.
    Deep learning (DL) has become increasingly central to science, primarily due to its capacity to quickly, efficiently, and accurately predict and classify phenomena of scientific interest. This paper seeks to understand the principles that underwrite scientists’ epistemic entitlement to rely on DL in the first place and argues that these principles are philosophically novel. The question of this paper is not whether scientists can be justified in trusting in the reliability of DL. While today’s artificial intelligence exhibits characteristics common (...)
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  39. Artificial intelligence meets natural stupidity.Drew McDermott - 1981 - In J. Haugel (ed.), Mind Design. MIT Press. pp. 5-18.
  40. The intelligent use of space.David Kirsh - 1995 - Artificial Intelligence 73 (1--2):31-68.
    The objective of this essay is to provide the beginning of a principled classification of some of the ways space is intelligently used. Studies of planning have typically focused on the temporal ordering of action, leaving as unaddressed questions of where to lay down instruments, ingredients, work-in-progress, and the like. But, in having a body, we are spatially located creatures: we must always be facing some direction, have only certain objects in view, be within reach of certain others. How we (...)
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  41. Mathematics Intelligent Tutoring System.Nour N. AbuEloun & Samy S. Abu Naser - 2017 - International Journal of Advanced Scientific Research 2 (1):11-16.
    In these days, there is an increasing technological development in intelligent tutoring systems. This field has become interesting to many researchers. In this paper, we present an intelligent tutoring system for teaching mathematics that help students understand the basics of math and that helps a lot of students of all ages to understand the topic because it's important for students of adding and subtracting. Through which the student will be able to study the course and solve related problems. An evaluation (...)
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  42. Artificial intelligence, transparency, and public decision-making.Karl de Fine Licht & Jenny de Fine Licht - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (4):917-926.
    The increasing use of Artificial Intelligence for making decisions in public affairs has sparked a lively debate on the benefits and potential harms of self-learning technologies, ranging from the hopes of fully informed and objectively taken decisions to fear for the destruction of mankind. To prevent the negative outcomes and to achieve accountable systems, many have argued that we need to open up the “black box” of AI decision-making and make it more transparent. Whereas this debate has primarily focused (...)
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  43.  4
    The intelligent mind: on the genesis and constitution of discursive thought.Richard Dien Winfield - 2015 - New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The Intelligent Mind conceives the psychological reality of thought and language, explaining how intelligence develops from intuition to representation and then to linguistic interaction and thinking. Overcoming the prevailing dogmas regarding how discursive reason emerges, this book secures the psychological possibility of the philosophy of mind.
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  44.  36
    Criminal Justice and Artificial Intelligence: How Should we Assess the Performance of Sentencing Algorithms?Jesper Ryberg - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-15.
    Artificial intelligence is increasingly permeating many types of high-stake societal decision-making such as the work at the criminal courts. Various types of algorithmic tools have already been introduced into sentencing. This article concerns the use of algorithms designed to deliver sentence recommendations. More precisely, it is considered how one should determine whether one type of sentencing algorithm (e.g., a model based on machine learning) would be ethically preferable to another type of sentencing algorithm (e.g., a model based on old-fashioned (...)
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  45. Intelligent Virtue.Julia Annas - 2011 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    Julia Annas offers a new account of virtue and happiness as central ethical ideas. She argues that exercising a virtue involves practical reasoning of the kind we find in someone exercising an everyday practical skill, such as farming, building, or playing the piano. This helps us to see virtue as part of an agent's happiness or flourishing.
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  46. Intelligence without representation – Merleau-ponty's critique of mental representation the relevance of phenomenology to scientific explanation.Hubert L. Dreyfus - 2002 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 1 (4):367-383.
    Existential phenomenologists hold that the two most basic forms of intelligent behavior, learning, and skillful action, can be described and explained without recourse to mind or brain representations. This claim is expressed in two central notions in Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception: the intentional arc and the tendency to achieve a maximal grip. The intentional arc names the tight connection between body and world, such that, as the active body acquires skills, those skills are stored, not as representations in the mind, (...)
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  47. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies - 1996 - Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
    Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method examines the remarkable advances made in the field of AI over the past twenty years, discussing their profound implications for philosophy. Taking a clear, non-technical approach, Donald Gillies shows how current views on scientific method are challenged by this recent research, and suggests a new framework for the study of logic. Finally, he draws on work by such seminal thinkers as Bacon, Gdel, Popper, Penrose, and Lucas, to address the hotly-contested question of whether computers (...)
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  48. Reward-Punishment Symmetric Universal Intelligence.Samuel Allen Alexander & Marcus Hutter - 2021 - In AGI.
    Can an agent's intelligence level be negative? We extend the Legg-Hutter agent-environment framework to include punishments and argue for an affirmative answer to that question. We show that if the background encodings and Universal Turing Machine (UTM) admit certain Kolmogorov complexity symmetries, then the resulting Legg-Hutter intelligence measure is symmetric about the origin. In particular, this implies reward-ignoring agents have Legg-Hutter intelligence 0 according to such UTMs.
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  49.  1
    Competitive intelligence ethics: navigating the gray zone.Dale Fehringer & Bonnie Hohhof (eds.) - 2006 - Alexandria, Virginia: Competitive Intelligence Foundation.
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  50. Intelligence Vs. Wisdom: The Love of Money, Machiavellianism, and Unethical Behavior across College Major and Gender.Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Yuh-Jia Chen - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):1-26.
    This research investigates the efficacy of business ethics intervention, tests a theoretical model that the love of money is directly or indirectly related to propensity to engage in unethical behavior (PUB), and treats college major (business vs. psychology) and gender (male vs. female) as moderators in multi-group analyses. Results suggested that business students who received business ethics intervention significantly changed their conceptions of unethical behavior and reduced their propensity to engage in theft; while psychology students without intervention had no such (...)
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