Results for 'Intrinsic worth'

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  1. The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy.Jean Hampton (ed.) - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    Contractarianism in some form has been at the center of recent debates in moral and political philosophy. Jean Hampton was one of the most gifted philosophers involved in these debates and provided both important criticisms of prominent contractarian theories plus powerful defenses and applications of the core ideas of contractarianism. In these essays, she brought her distinctive approach, animated by concern for the intrinsic worth of persons, to bear on topics such as guilt, punishment, self-respect, family relations, and (...)
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  2.  2
    The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy.Daniel Farnham (ed.) - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    Contractarianism in some form has been at the center of recent debates in moral and political philosophy. Jean Hampton was one of the most gifted philosophers involved in these debates and provided both important criticisms of prominent contractarian theories plus powerful defenses and applications of the core ideas of contractarianism. In these essays, she brought her distinctive approach, animated by concern for the intrinsic worth of persons, to bear on topics such as guilt, punishment, self-respect, family relations, and (...)
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    The intrinsic worth of persons: Contractarianism in moral and political philosophy. By Jean Hampton. Edited by Daniel Farnham.Carole Pateman - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):188-191.
  4.  3
    Transcendental Ground of Intrinsic Worth in Russian Literature.Algis Mickunas - 2021 - Investigaciones Fenomenológicas 7:477.
    The essay is a phenomenological study of Russian literature as a point of critique of two lifeworlds: the traditional Russian Feudalism with its “decadent” aristocracy, and the modern Western Enlightenment with its values, specifically the “subjective” construction of val-uations of all environment and human activities. Russian writers, from Turgenev all the way to Gogol found themselves between those two worlds and sought an answer which of them answers the existential question of human self-worth as an “eidetic” criterion of all (...)
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    Vedantism, Its Intrinsic Worth and Its Vagaries.Paul Carus - 1916 - The Monist 26 (2):298-307.
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    Book ReviewsJean Hampton,. The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy. Edited by Daniel Farnham.New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Pp. 223. $74.00 ; $27.99. [REVIEW]Sibyl A. Schwarzenbach - 2008 - Ethics 119 (1):180-184.
  7. Jean Hampton, The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy Reviewed by.Jon Mahoney - 2008 - Philosophy in Review 28 (2):120-122.
  8. Kant's concept of the "intrinsic worth" of every "rational being".R. F. Alfred Hoernlé - 1943 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 24 (2):130.
     
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    Review of Jean Hampton, The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy[REVIEW]Matt Matravers - 2008 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (9).
  10.  28
    Intrinsic and equal human worth in a secular worldview. Fictionalism in human rights discourse.Patrick Loobuyck - 2004 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 3 (9):58-77.
    One of the most central ideas of secular, humanistic morality is the thesis of intrinsic and equal human worth. Paradoxically, it is very hard to place this thesis in a secular worldview, because an indifferent universe can not make room for intrinsic values and a priori human rights. Nevertheless, it would not be a good solution to jettison the whole human rights discourse. Therefore, this paper proposes the stance of moral fictionalism: to believe that the discourse entails (...)
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    Intrinsic Value and Individual Worth.M. J. Zimmerman - 2005 - In Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen & Michael J. Zimmerman (eds.), Recent Work on Intrinsic Value. Springer. pp. 191--205.
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    Human Worth: Intrinsic, Divinely Conferred, or Contingent Value Commitment? A Review Essay. [REVIEW]Christopher Kaczor, Hans Joas, David Gushee & Darlene Weaver - 2015 - Studies in Christian Ethics 28 (2):224-235.
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    On the idea of intrinsic human worth.Geoffrey Hinchliffe - 2020 - Ethics and Education 15 (3):300-314.
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    The Worth of Persons: The Foundation of Ethics.James Franklin - 2022 - New York: Encounter Books.
    The death of a person is a tragedy while the explosion of a lifeless galaxy is a mere firework. The moral difference is grounded in the nature of humans: humans have intrinsic worth, a worth that makes their fate really matter. This is the worth proposed as the foundation of ethics. Ethics in the usual sense of right and wrong actions, rights and virtues, and how to live a good life, is founded on something more basic (...)
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    Tom Regan’s Philosophy of Animal Rights: Subjects-of-a-Life in the Context of Discussions of Intrinsic and Inherent Worth.Erwin Lengauer - 2020 - Problemos 97.
    Modern animal rights debates began in the 1970s, mainly as part of the budding field of applied ethics in Anglo-American philosophy. In just a short time, these animal rights discourses received international academic respect, especially through analytically trained philosophers. Central for this development was the analysis that rights language can be principally used species neutrally. This paper’s contribution is to examine the central terms of Tom Regan’s still widely discussed theory for their actuality and usefulness. Hence strengthening these arguments for (...)
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  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic value and valuation.Rem B. Edwards - 1979 - Journal of Value Inquiry 13 (2):133-143.
    This article critically examines the several definitions of, or elements of a single definition of, Robert S. Hartman's understanding of “intrinsic values,” “intrinsic evaluations,” “extrinsic values,” and “extrinsic valuations”. [I have since changed my mind about what is said in the last few sentences. I now think, with Hartman, that only unique, non-repeatable, conscious individuals have intrinsic worth. Repeatable qualities like pleasure and knowledge are “good for us” properties, but not “good in, to, and for themselves” (...)
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  17. A life not worth living?Craig Paterson - 2003 - Studies in Christian Ethics 16 (2):1-20.
    The work of Dan Brock and Helga Kuhse is typical of the current stream of thought rejecting the validity of sanctity of life appeals to instill objective inviolable worth in human life regardless of the quality of life of the patient. The context of a person's life is supremely important. In their systems life can have high value, yet the value of life can be outweighed by the force of other disvalues. The notion of quality of life has increasingly (...)
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  18. On the intrinsic value of information objects and the infosphere.Luciano Floridi - 2002 - Ethics and Information Technology 4 (4):287–304.
    What is the most general common set of attributes that characterises something as intrinsically valuable and hence as subject to some moral respect, and without which something would rightly be considered intrinsically worthless or even positively unworthy and therefore rightly to be disrespected in itself? This paper develops and supports the thesis that the minimal condition of possibility of an entity's least intrinsic value is to be identified with its ontological status as an information object. All entities, even when (...)
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  19. Between intrinsic and extrinsic value.James Harold - 2005 - Journal of Social Philosophy 36 (1):85–105.
    Moral philosophers who differ from one another on a wide range of questions tend to agree on at least one general point. Most believe that things are worth valuing either because of their relationship to something else worth valuing, or because they are simply (in themselves) worth valuing. I value my car, because I value getting to work; I value getting to work, because I value making money and spending time productively; and I value those things because (...)
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  20.  32
    Are market norms and intrinsic valuation mutually exclusive?A. Walsh - 2001 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 79 (4):525 – 543.
    Are market norms and intrinsic valuation mutually exclusive? Many philosophers have endorsed the thought that market institutions necessarily evacuate non-instrumental value and hence the market and the realm of intrinsic worth are mutually exclusive. Indeed the evacuation of value by the market has been a recurrent theme of much moral and political thinking about the morality of commercial exchange. Consider the following passage from Marx: "Money debases all the gods of man and turns them into commodities. Money (...)
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  21. Moral Worth and Severe Intellectual Disability – A Hybrid View.Benjamin L. Curtis & Simo Vehmas - 2013 - In Jerome E. Bickenbach, Franziska Felder & Barbara Schmitz (eds.), Disability and the Good Human Life. Cambridge University Press. pp. 19-49.
    Consider: You can save either a human or a normal adult dog from a burning building (with no risk to yourself and at little cost), but not both. However, the human is a human with a severe intellectually disability (or, as we shall say, a “SID”). -/- Which one should you save? There is disagreement in the literature about which this issue. Two opposing camps exist, which we call “the intrinsic property camp ” and “the special relations camp.” Those (...)
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  22.  22
    Intrinsic values in science.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2001 - Revista Patagónica de Filosofía 2 (2):5-25.
    In the early 20th century, science was supposed to be “value free”. In 1953 Richard Rudner claimed that “the scientist qua scientist makes value judgments”, and later philosophers discussed the relations between science and values. From the 60’s onward Michael Scriven and other authors came to the conclusion that non-moral values (intrinsic or epistemic values) are required to evaluate scientific works. This paper supports this general view. However, it stresses that there are several independent scientific values, corresponding to a (...)
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  23.  35
    Is explainable artificial intelligence intrinsically valuable?Nathan Colaner - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):231-238.
    There is general consensus that explainable artificial intelligence is valuable, but there is significant divergence when we try to articulate why, exactly, it is desirable. This question must be distinguished from two other kinds of questions asked in the XAI literature that are sometimes asked and addressed simultaneously. The first and most obvious is the ‘how’ question—some version of: ‘how do we develop technical strategies to achieve XAI?’ Another question is specifying what kind of explanation is worth having in (...)
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  24. Not Always Worth the Effort: Difficulty and the Value of Achievement.Sukaina Hirji - 2019 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 100 (2):525-548.
    Recent literature has argued that what makes certain activities ranging from curing cancer to running a marathon count as achievements, and what makes achievements intrinsically valuable is, centrally, that they involve great effort. Although there is much the difficulty-based view gets right, I argue that it generates the wrong results about some central cases of achievement, and this is because it is too narrowly focused on only one perfectionist capacity, the will. I propose a revised perfectionist account on which an (...)
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  25.  69
    Education without Moral Worth? Kantian Moral Theory and the Obligation to Educate Others.Christopher Martin - 2011 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 45 (3):475-492.
    This article examines the possibility of a Kantian justification of the intrinsic moral worth of education. The author critiques a recent attempt to secure such justification via Kant's notion of the Kingdom of Ends. He gives four reasons why such an account would deny any intrinsic moral worth to education. He concludes with a tentative justification of his own and a call for a more comprehensive engagement between Kant's moral theory and the philosophy of education for (...)
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  26.  41
    Does the Failure of Utilitarianism Justify a Belief in Intrinsic Value?: Ross’ and Moore's Default Arguments.Imtiaz Moosa - 2002 - Philo 5 (2):123-142.
    Intrinsic goodness is a non-Ielational property, in that the worth of an intrinsically good thing does not consist in it standing in a beneficial relationship to anyone. Except for the non-relational intrinsic goodness, which if it exists must be acknowledged by all beings, the only relational good we humans can logically and plausibly deem good is the “human-related” good. Thus, only these two options exist: from our human viewpoint, either all good things are human-related goods, or some (...)
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  27. People and Their Worth: Uniting Process and Axiology.Rem B. Edwards - 2009 - Process Studies 38 (1):43-68.
    This article argues that process philosophy and Hartmanian formal axiology are natural allies that can contribute much to each other. Hartmanian axiology can bring much needed order and clarity to process thought about the definitions of “good,” “better,” and “best,” about what things are intrinsically good, and about the nature and value of unique, enduring, individual persons. Process thought can bring to axiology greater clarity about and emphasis on the relational and temporal features of human selfhood. The nature and significance (...)
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  28.  50
    Autonomy, life as an intrinsic value, and the right to die in dignity.Dr Raphael Cohen-Almagor - 1995 - Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (3):261-272.
    This paper examines two models of thinking relating to the issue of the right to die in dignity: one takes into consideration the rights and interests of the individual; the other supposes that human life is inherently valuable. I contend that preference should be given to the first model, and further assert that the second model may be justified in moral terms only as long as it does not resort to paternalism. The view that holds that certain patients are not (...)
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  29.  91
    Does Information Have a Moral Worth in Itself?Luciano Floridi - 1998 - In CEPE 1998, Computer Ethics: Philosophical Enquiry. London:
    The paper provides an axiological analysis of the concepts of respect for information and of information dignity from the vantage point provided by Information Ethics and the conceptual paradigm of object-oriented analysis (OOA). The general perspective adopted is that of an ontocentric approach to the philosophy of information ethics, according to which the latter is an expansion of environmental ethics towards a less biologically biased concept of a ‘centre of ethical worth’. The paper attempts to answer the following question: (...)
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  30.  18
    Chronic vegetative states: Intrinsic value of biological process.Jack P. Freer - 1984 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 9 (4):395-408.
    has been put forth by Rolston, which leads to respect for the irreversibly comatose by virtue of the residual biological (objective) life. By comparing objective and subjective life, he develops a naturalistic principle which he contrasts with the humanistic norm of contemporary medical ethics. He claims there are clinical applications which would necessarily follow. A critique of this viewpoint is presented here, which begins with an analysis of what might be of value in spontaneous objective life. A measure of the (...)
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  31. Autonomy, life as an intrinsic value, and the right to die in dignity.Raphael Cohen-Almagor - 1995 - Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (3):261-272.
    This paper examines two models of thinking relating to the issue of the right to die in dignity: one takes into consideration the rights and interests of the individual; the other supposes that human life is inherently valuable. I contend that preference should be given to the first model, and further assert that the second model may be justified in moral terms only as long as it does not resort to paternalism. The view that holds that certain patients are not (...)
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  32. The Dignity of Human Life: Sketching Out an 'Equal Worth' Approach.Helen Watt - 2020 - Ethics and Medicine 36 (1):7-17.
    The term “value of life” can refer to life’s intrinsic dignity: something nonincremental and time-unaffected in contrast to the fluctuating, incremental “value” of our lives, as they are longer or shorter and more or less flourishing. Human beings are equal in their basic moral importance: the moral indignities we condemn in the treatment of e.g. those with dementia reflect the ongoing human dignity that is being violated. Indignities licensed by the person in advance remain indignities, as when people might (...)
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  33.  19
    A Liberal Defence of the Intrinsic Value of Cultures.Stéphane Courtois - 2008 - Contemporary Political Theory 7 (1):31-52.
    Over the past 15 years, a great deal of efforts have been done by political philosophers to make liberal political theory more sensitive to the importance culture has for individuals, and to think about how to translate this importance into laws and policies, in particular those affecting cultural and national minorities. However, one of the outstanding issues is whether and how an appropriate account of the worth of culture can be provided from a liberal point of view. The most (...)
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  34.  20
    A Liberal Defence of the Intrinsic Value of Cultures.Slavoj Žižek - 2008 - Contemporary Political Theory 7 (1):31-52.
    Over the past 15 years, a great deal of efforts have been done by political philosophers to make liberal political theory more sensitive to the importance culture has for individuals, and to think about how to translate this importance into laws and policies, in particular those affecting cultural and national minorities. However, one of the outstanding issues is whether and how an appropriate account of the worth of culture can be provided from a liberal point of view. The most (...)
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  35.  17
    Why is the history of philosophy worth our study? Ryannichols - 2006 - Metaphilosophy 37 (1):34–52.
    Assume for the sake of argument that doing philosophy is intrinsically valuable, where "doing philosophy" refers to the practice of forging arguments for and against the truth of theses in the domains of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and so on. The practice of the history of philosophy is devoted instead to discovering arguments for and against the truth of "authorial" propositions, that is, propositions that state the belief of some historical figure about a philosophical proposition. I explore arguments for thinking that (...)
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  36.  20
    Genetic Integrity, Authenticity, and Aesthetic Worth.Shlomo Cohen - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (3):271-274.
    After rightly rejecting the view that all change to the integrity of genomes is intrinsically bad, Rohwer and Marris proceed to contest the view that...
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  37.  47
    Recognition and personhood: A critique of Bernstein's account of the wrongfulness of torture.Johnny Brennan - 2019 - European Journal of Philosophy 27 (1):211-226.
    J. M. Bernstein argues that to capture the depths of the harm of torture, we need to do away with the idea that we possess intrinsic and inviolable worth. If personhood is inviolable, then torture can inflict only apparent harm on our standing as persons. Bernstein claims that torture is a paradigm of moral injury because it causes what he calls “devastation”: The victim experiences an actual degradation of his or her personhood. Bernstein argues that our value is (...)
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  38. Toward an Axiological Virtue Ethics.Rem B. Edwards - 2013 - Ethical Research 3 (3):21-48.
    This article introduces Formal Axiology, first developed by Robert S. Hartman, and explains its essential features—a formal definition of “good” (the “Form of the Good”), three basic kinds of value and evaluation—systemic, extrinsic, and intrinsic, and the hierarchy of value according to which good things having the richest quantity and quality of good-making properties are better than those having less. Formal Axiology is extended into moral philosophy by applying the Form of the Good to persons and showing how this (...)
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  39. Human Dignity and Human Rights as a Common Ground for a Global Bioethics.R. Andorno - 2009 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (3):223-240.
    The principle of respect for human dignity plays a crucial role in the emerging global norms relating to bioethics, in particular in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. This instrument, which is a legal, not merely an ethical document, can be regarded as an extension of international human rights law into the field of biomedicine. Although the Declaration does not explicitly define human dignity, it would be a mistake to see the emphasis put on this notion as (...)
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  40.  32
    A Critique of Information Ethics.Tony Doyle - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):163-175.
    Luciano Floridi presents Information Ethics (IE) as an alternative to traditional moral theories. IE consists of two tenets. First, reality can be interpreted at numerous, mutually consistent levels of abstraction, the highest of which is information. This level, unlike the others, applies to all of reality. Second, everything, insofar as it is an information object, has some degree of intrinsic value and hence moral dignity. I criticize IE, arguing that Floridi fails to show that the moral community should be (...)
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  41. Responding with dao : Early daoist ethics and the environment.Eric Sean Nelson - 2009 - Philosophy East and West 59 (3):pp. 294-316.
    Early Daoism, as articulated in the Daodejing and the Zhuangzi, indirectly addresses environmental issues by intimating a non-reductive naturalistic ethics calling on humans to be open and responsive to the specificities and interconnections of the world and environment to which they belong. "Dao" is not a substantial immanent or transcendent entity but the lived enactment of the intrinsic worth of the "myriad things" and the natural world occurring through how humans address and are addressed by them. Early Daoism (...)
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  42. Calibrating QALYs to Respect Equality of Persons.Donald Franklin - 2016 - Utilitas 29 (1):1-23.
    Comparative valuation of different policy interventions often requires interpersonal comparability of benefit. In the field of health economics, the metric commonly used for such comparison, quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, has been criticized for failing to respect the equality of all persons’ intrinsic worth, including particularly those with disabilities. A methodology is proposed that interprets ‘full quality of life’ as the best health prospect that is achievable for the particular individual within the relevant budget constraint. This calibration (...)
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  43. Autonomy and the authority of personal commitments: From internal coherence to social normativity.Joel Anderson - 2003 - Philosophical Explorations 6 (2):90 – 108.
    It has been argued - most prominently in Harry Frankfurt's recent work - that the normative authority of personal commitments derives not from their intrinsic worth but from the way in which one's will is invested in what one cares about. In this essay, I argue that even if this approach is construed broadly and supplemented in various ways, its intrasubjective character leaves it ill-prepared to explain the normative grip of commitments in cases of purported self-betrayal. As an (...)
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  44.  75
    Permissible Use and Interdependence: Against Principled Veganism.Katherine Wayne - 2013 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (2):160-175.
    Are animals not ours to use? According to proponents of veganism such as Gary Francione, any and all use of animals by humans is exploitative and wrong. It is wrong because animals have intrinsic worth and humans' use of animals fails to respect that worth. Contra Francione, I argue that that there are conditions under which it may be morally appropriate to collect, consume, sell, or otherwise use animal products. Francione is mistaken in his belief that assigning (...)
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  45. Deep Ecology and Language: The Curtailed Journey of the Atlantic Salmon.Arran Stibbe - 2006 - Society and Animals 14 (1):61-77.
    This article explores the representation of fish in ecological discourse through analysis of the recently published Millennium Ecosystem Assessment synthesis report. The analysis utilizes an ecological framework based on "deep ecology" , examining how the discourse of the MA asserts or denies the intrinsic worth of fish. The discursive construction of fish is particularly relevant given the massive expansion of the aquaculture industry, which is having a negative impact on ecosystems and the fish themselves, particularly the Atlantic salmon. (...)
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  46.  70
    Capacities, Potentialities, and Rights.Anna-Karin Margareta Andersson - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (4):653-665.
    IntroductionRights-ethicists intensely debate what properties of an individual are necessary and sufficient in order for that individual to have moral rights. At the heart of this important debate is the issue of whether individuals such as human foetuses, infants, and unconscious adults have moral rights, and if so, what these rights are. This paper focuses on the moral status of unconscious adults, as well as human foetuses, which are potential agents in the sense that they follow a “normal” path of (...)
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  47. Multi-Dimensional Utility and the Index Number Problem: Jeremy Bentham, J. S. Mill, and Qualitative Hedonism: Tom Warke.Tom Warke - 2000 - Utilitas 12 (2):176-203.
    This article develops an unconventional perspective on the utilitarianism of Bentham and Mill in at least four areas. First, it is shown that both authors conceived of utility as irreducibly multi-dimensional, and that Bentham in particular was very much aware of the ambiguity that multi-dimensionality imposes upon optimal choice under the greatest happiness principle. Secondly, I argue that any attribution of intrinsic worth to any form of human behaviour violates the first principles of Bentham's and Mill's utilitarianism, and (...)
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  48.  43
    Value as richness: Toward a value theory for the expanded naturalism in environmental ethics.Peter Miller - 1982 - Environmental Ethics 4 (2):101-114.
    There is a widespread conviction amongst nature lovers, environmental activists, and many writers on environmental ethics that the value of the natural world is not restricted to its utility to humankind, but contains an independent intrinsic worth as weIl. Most contemporary value theories, however, are psychologically based and thus ill-suited to characterize such natural intrinsic value. The theory of “value asrichness” presented in this paper attempts to articulate a plausible nonpsychological theory of value that accomodates environmentalist convictions (...)
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  49. Doing Unto Others: A Phenomenological Search for the Ground of Ethics.Richard Oxenberg - manuscript
    Can we find a phenomenological basis for the ethical 'ought'? This essay addresses this question through a reflection on Husserl's fifth Meditation. In the fifth Meditation Husserl endeavors to show the manner in which I constitute the other through an associative pairing of the other with my own subjectivity. This essay argues that this same associative pairing forces me to acknowledge the other as a person of intrinsic worth insofar as I recognize myself as one. Having acknowledged the (...)
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  50.  16
    Value as Richness: Toward a Value Theory for the Expanded Naturalism in Environmental Ethics.Peter Miller - 1982 - Environmental Ethics 4 (2):101-114.
    There is a widespread conviction amongst nature lovers, environmental activists, and many writers on environmental ethics that the value of the natural world is not restricted to its utility to humankind, but contains an independent intrinsic worth as weIl. Most contemporary value theories, however, are psychologically based and thus ill-suited to characterize such natural intrinsic value. The theory of “value asrichness” presented in this paper attempts to articulate a plausible nonpsychological theory of value that accomodates environmentalist convictions (...)
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