During the period before the Greek revolution of 1821, and especially during the years between 1750 and 1821, there were two ways in which European scientific thought was propagated in Greece. The first is traditional. It comes from ancient Greece and, through Byzantium, reaches the period before the Greek revolution. It makes known the thought of Aristotle, Democrititus, and others on ‘natural philosophy’. The second way comes from Europe. The Greek scholars of the period before the Greek revolution, and especially (...) at the end of the eighteenth century, tried to bring to and propagate in Greece the spirit ofthe European Enlightenment, They tried to make known to the Greek people the scientific achievements of Newton, Descartes, Lavoisier, and Laplace. Scientific knowledge is an important weapon against superstition, and Greek students had to learn about science to become free persons in an independent Greek state. (shrink)
Bergson Remembered: A Roundtable Curated by Mark William Westmoreland with Brien Karas Featuring Jimena Canales, Stephen Crocker, Charlotte De Mille, Souleymane Bachir Diagne, Michael Foley, Hisashi Fujita, Suzanne Guerlac, Melissa McMahon, Paulina Ochoa Espejo, and Frédéric Worms.
The compact and, with \ M\, very massive object located at the center of the Milky Way is currently the very best candidate for a supermassive black hole in our immediate vicinity. The strongest evidence for this is provided by measurements of stellar orbits, variable X-ray emission, and strongly variable polarized near-infrared emission from the location of the radio source Sagittarius A* in the middle of the central stellar cluster. Simultaneous near-infrared and X-ray observations of SgrA* have revealed insights into (...) the emission mechanisms responsible for the powerful near-infrared and X-ray flares from within a few tens to one hundred Schwarzschild radii of such a putative SMBH. If SgrA* is indeed a SMBH it will, in projection onto the sky, have the largest event horizon and will certainly be the first and most important target for very long baseline interferometry observations currently being prepared by the event horizon telescope. These observations in combination with the infrared interferometry experiment GRAVITY at the very large telescope interferometer and other experiments across the electromagnetic spectrum might yield proof for the presence of a black hole at the center of the Milky Way. The large body of evidence continues to discriminate the identification of SgrA* as a SMBH from alternative possibilities. It is, however, unclear when the ever mounting evidence for SgrA* being associated with a SMBH will suffice as a convincing proof. Additional compelling evidence may come from future gravitational wave observatories. This manuscript reviews the observational facts, theoretical grounds and conceptual aspects for the case of SgrA* being a black hole. We treat theory and observations in the framework of the philosophical discussions about “realism and underdetermination”, as this line of arguments allows us to describe the situation in observational astrophysics with respect to supermassive black holes. Questions concerning the existence of supermassive black holes and in particular SgrA* are discussed using causation as an indispensable element. We show that the results of our investigation are convincingly mapped out by this combination of concepts. (shrink)
This study aimed to verify the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Grit-S questionnaire. Grit is understood here as the perseverance and passion for long-term goals, and it encompasses two dimensions: Consistency of Interest and Perseverance of Effort. The sample comprised N = 270 participants aged 18-34. We performed confirmatory factor analyses to verify the dimensional structure of grit, multi-group confirmatory factor analysis to compare the structure across gender, and correlation analysis to examine external validity. Findings showed satisfactory (...) parameters for Grit-S including: reliability, structural and external validity, and measurement invariance across gender groups. The results support the possibility of using the Grit-S questionnaire in research exploring the predictors of success. (shrink)
In this article I am applying the anthropological term of "cosmology" to the study of Christianity in order to place plural Christian settings under a wider methodological perspective. I am drawing on the findings of my fieldwork in Southwestern Ghana, where I met twelve different Christian denominations and five traditional healers operating in one village. I am sketching a concise image of the local Nzema cosmology and then I am launching an attempt to present its Christian equivalent. Informed by the (...) situation in the field, by general history of Christianity, as well as by my personal understanding of it, my cosmological investigation yields three different Christian cosmologies, which all coincide side by side in African contexts. I see, thus, pluralism as inherent to Christianity itself, rather than as an outcome of cultural encounter between Christianity and local pre-Christian religion. (shrink)
The Second Vatican Council, taking into account the modern needs of mankind, called for the mutual tolerance of denominations, reforms and compromise in church traditions and practices. This was a response to the practical life of the Ukrainian church in the diaspora. For the Eastern Churches, the Council adopted a separate Decree "The Constitution for the Eastern Churches" 1, on the basis of which a conference of the UCP bishopric, led by the Supreme Archbishop Joseph Slipy, was convened on December (...) 14, 1966 in Rome. It discussed a number of issues, including the case of Divine Liturgy, the liturgical language, the introduction of the Ukrainian spoken language, some reductions in the Service of God, and the reformation of church singing. It was for this purpose that the dioceses established Liturgical Commissions, in particular at the Chicago Department in the United States, which included the musicologist, composer, and musical culture activist of the Diaspora Myron Fedorov. One of the tasks of the commission was to preserve the traditional self-made singing, so that he "did not disappear, but he lived and developed under different kinds: single-handed, double-voiced or in choral works, which most would be out of the richness and beauty of our rite". (shrink)
The Earth as Part of the Universe in Saint Thomas Aquinas’ Cosmology (Sum.) . 68 The present article aims at presenting the place the Earth takes in the universe in Saint Thomas Aquinas\' cosmology. The author of the article is of the opinion that Aquinas\' writings, exceeding Aristotle\'s commentary, were a comprehensive attempt at answering the question about the real structure of the universe. In the Dominican scholar\'s methodology a creative aspect can be seen of the critical assessment of the (...) knowledge available in those times. Such an attitude facilitated a further development of cosmology and is the basis of the value of Saint Thomas\' considerations. He still remained within the system of a geocentric world, but he prepared the data for building a new model of the universe. (shrink)
The subject of the article is the question of the nature of heavenly bodies in St Thomas Aquinas\' approach. The Dominican thinker, using Aristotle\'s cosmology, tries to present his understanding of the Stagirite\'s theory concerning natural indestructibility of heavenly bodies, which he treats as relatively perfect beings built of ether and indestructible in the world of nature, although they are contingent and created by God. The issue proves the Angelic Doctor\'s independence and self-reliance; studying the universe he not only used (...) Aristotle\'s cosmology but he verified it with theological knowledge basing his considerations on the ancient and medieval commentators of the Greek philosopher. In St Thomas\' studies his conviction about relative formal and material perfection of metaphysical components of heavenly bodies is of significant importance. The conception of indestructibility of heavenly bodies also presents methodological assumptions of the metaphysics developed by the Dominican thinker who made the rules of Aristotle\'s philosophy relative. (shrink)
The present article focuses on the notion of intertextuality as put into practice on the Russian stage by the Podval generation . The author documents the aesthetic complexity of the stage imagery employed by this generation in an analysis of performances staged by the most important dramatist and theatre maker of Russian alternative theatre, Klim.
The perspectives of Ukraine which are outlined by the notion of the “Ukrainian project”, and determined by potential of development of civil society, as congruent with perspectives of steady international development for the sake of collaboration and peace, are examined in the article. Determination of such basic analytical notions as discursive practices of “prevailing” and “understanding” is offered with this purpose. Discourse is considered as reason for choice and giving the advantage to one meaning over the others that is set (...) in the certain modes of signification. Discourse of understanding – is the process of creation of such knowledge, the nominative function of which stops being the function of power, and becomes the instrument of the renewed perception and understanding at new level of communicative space. As discursive reality is reflected not only on the methods of thinking, but also on the practical behaviour of people, we have warrants to speak about its ethical conditionality and the corresponding discursive‐ethical practices of “freedom and authenticity”, “paternalism and clientism” and “nihilism and anarchy”. Last two discursive-ethical practices are examined as obstacles on the way to realization of the “Ukrainian project” in relation to itsdemocratic development in direction to the civilization values common with the European Union. (shrink)
Ioannis Spatharakis has produced a book about the iconography of seventy-three painted churches of Crete. Given the lack of an exhaustive photographic publication of the Byzantine wall paintings of the island and the relatively few monographs on individual churches, in the past forty years scholars have attempted to compile synthetic works with mixed results. Three other volumes have dealt with Cretan frescoes prior to Spatharakis's book reviewed here: K. D. Kalokyris, The Byzantine Wall Paintings of Crete ; Manfred Bissinger, (...) Kreta. Byzantinische Wandmalerei. Münchener Arbeiten zur Kunstgeschichte und Archäologie 4 ; and to a lesser degree Klaus Gallas, Klaus Wessel, and Manolis Borboudakis, Byzantinisches Kreta. Studium und Reise. which is a learned, comprehensive travel guide. (shrink)
San Agustín hace posible el uso de la retórica en la predicación cristiana, tanto en la teoría como en la práctica. Los mismos recursos, pero usados de otra manera. Esto puede analizarse mediante el uso y función de los "signa" en su propia predicación. Los "In Ioannis euangelium tractatus" proporcionan una base sólida para el estudio de los "signa", según los utiliza Agustín.
C'est un témoignage jusque-là inconnu de l'influence des Tractatus in Evangelium Ioannis d'Augustin que cet abrégé de l'ouvrage trouvé dans un fragment du manuscrit Paris lat. 10399 et dans trois manuscrits du IXe s. . Plusieurs passages de cet abrégé sont publiés ici pour la première fois. Les Tractatus in Evangelium Ioannis ont dominé les tentatives de commenter l'Évangile de Jean, faites au début du Moyen Age ; les commentaires, alors publiés, sont ici brièvement discutés.
As the final volumes of John Duns Scotus's Opera Omnia are published by the International Scotistic Commission, this volume of the Subtle Doctor's Oxford Collationes are a welcome addition to all the texts we now have at our disposal. Indeed, we can enumerate the corpus of critical works now available: the Opera Philosophica along with the 'safe' texts of the Reportatio IA and, at this writing, the first seventeen distinctions of Reportatio IV. The Oxford and Parisian Collationes offer the remaining (...) pieces to the scholarly puzzle around Scotus, and a clearer portrait of his development as philosopher and theologian is slowly coming into view.The scholarly... (shrink)
Does the concept of “race” ﬁnd support in contemporary science, particularly in biology? No, says Naomi Zack, together with so many others who nowadays argue that human races lack biological reality. This claim is widely accepted in a number of ﬁelds (philosophy, biology, anthropology, and psychology), and Zack’s book represents only the latest defense of social constructivism in this context. There are several reasons why she fails to make a convincing case. Zack starts by arbitrarily ascribing an anachronistically essentialist connotation (...) to the concept of race. After having made that everyday notion semantically so crude and outdated there is no wonder that she ﬁnds it quite easy to conclude that such an awkward category has no place in science. Her main rationale for seeing our race distinctions as being poorly matched to biological characteristics (e.g., population differences in gene frequencies) is that these biological characteristics do not fall into discrete and mutually exclusive categories as “required” by the common-sense taxonomy. This opposition between the continuity of variation found in biology and the alleged discreteness of common-sense “races” is repeated throughout the book, and it is presented as creating an unbridgeable gap between biology and the colloquial concept of race. Contrary to what Zack says, however, today’s common-sense ideas about race are not so radically disconnected from contemporary science. Rather, “race” in ordinary usage is informed by biological knowledge to a considerable extent. Most people no longer think about race in terms of pre-Darwinian racial “essences” and “mutually exclusive” ideal types. In fact, as pointed out by Anthony Appiah (whom Zack quotes on this matter but without taking him seriously enough), the discourse on race has long been characterized by a practice of “semantic deference,” according to which people tend to use the word “race” assuming that the biologists could say more precisely than they could what it meant.. (shrink)
Der einzige aus Byzanz erhaltene vollständig illustrierte Historikertext ist nun endlich durch eine Facsimile-Ausgabe in Originalgröße der Forschung zugänglich, während das Original leider für immer dem Tresor anvertraut wurde. So war es dem Rezensenten auch nicht möglich, die farbliche Qualität der Ausgabe mit dem Original zu vergleichen. Auf diese Weise stehen nun auch alle Textteile und die verschiedenen Randscholien der paläographischen und kodikologischen Forschung zur Verfügung. Ein Rückgriff auf die Illustrationen bei S. Cirac Estopañan und A. Grabar – M. Manoussacas (...) und die in der Literatur fast gänzlich vergessene Teilausgabe von A. Božkov sind nicht mehr nötig, sofern die mehr als 400 € teure Ausgabe erreichbar ist. (shrink)
Leo Choirosphaktes' didactic poem Thousand-Line Theology survives in only one manuscript, Vat. gr. 1257 , which contains a number of rather unusual poetic texts. The subtitle of Vassis' edition, editio princeps, is – strictly speaking – not entirely correct: the whole text was already edited by Rhoby, and parts of it were published by Magdalino. But Rhoby's dissertation has not been published and Magdalino calls his own edition an “imperfect working transcription”. Moreover, these two editions are hardly as good as (...) that of V. Choirosphaktes' poem is not always easy to understand and the only surviving manuscript renders the comprehension of the text even more difficult, because it offers so many incorrect readings. In a number of manuscripts we find a small excerpt of the poem: if one compares the six verses offered by these manuscripts with the text of Vat. gr. 1257, one notices no less than five corruptions, and most of them very serious ones. For the remaining 1153 verses of the poem, we do not possess another manuscript to check the readings of Vat. gr. 1257, but there can be little doubt that there must be hundreds of errors in the text as transmitted by our only manuscript. Some of these errors are easy to spot for reasons of grammar, metrics and meaning, but other errors may escape our notice, because at first sight there does not seem to be anything wrong with the text. As Choirosphaktes is an accomplished poet who knows very well what he is doing, an editor is obliged to change the text by means of divination and emendation whenever the text is not satisfactory. Lately there has been a tendency among editors to be as conservative as possible, but it remains to be seen whether this in itself laudable conservatism is the right method for all texts. V. rightly follows a less cautious method of editing and corrects the text wherever the text needs correcting. One cannot but admire V.'s courage and assiduity in solving the textual problems and unravelling the many mysteries of the Thousand-Line Theology. This is really an excellent edition. (shrink)