Based on a dual process view of ethical judgment, we examine the role of empathic concern and perspective taking on the acceptability of lying to protect the company. We hypothesize that these traits will matter to a different extent under conditions of high and low perceived time hurriedness. Our research hypotheses are tested in a survey of 134 US workers. Results show that empathic concern reduces the acceptability of lying to protect the company for individuals who tend to do things (...) quickly and feel in a hurry at work. On the other hand, perspective taking reduces the acceptability of lying for individuals who experience low levels of time hurriedness. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. (shrink)
We suggest that understanding unethical behavior in organizations involves understanding how people view themselves and their relationships with others, a concept known as self-construal. Across multiple studies, employing both field and laboratory settings, we examine the impact of three dimensions of self-construal (independent, relational, and collective) on unethical behavior. Our results show that higher levels of relational self-construal relate negatively to unethical behavior. We also find that differences in levels of relational self for men and women mediate gender differences in (...) unethical behavior. We discuss both the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. (shrink)
The question of whether object recognition is orientation-invariant or orientation-dependent was investigated using a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm. In RB, the second occurrence of a repeated stimulus is less likely to be reported, compared to the occurrence of a different stimulus, if it occurs within a short time of the first presentation. This failure is usually interpreted as a difficulty in assigning two separate episodic tokens to the same visual type. Thus, RB can provide useful information about which representations are (...) treated as the same by the visual system. Two experiments tested whether RB occurs for repeated objects that were either in identical orientations, or differed by 30, 60, 90, or 180°. Significant RB was found for all orientation differences, consistent with the existence of orientation-invariant object representations. However, under some circumstances, RB was reduced or even eliminated when the repeated object was rotated by 180°, suggesting easier individuation of the repeated objects in this case. A third experiment confirmed that the upside-down orientation is processed more easily than other rotated orientations. The results indicate that, although object identity can be determined independently of orientation, orientation plays an important role in establishing distinct episodic representations of a repeated object, thus enabling one to report them as separate events. (shrink)
This paper investigates the role of pictures in mathematics in the particular case of Cayley graphs—the graphic representations of groups. I shall argue that their principal function in that theory—to provide insight into the abstract structure of groups—is performed employing their visual aspect. I suggest that the application of a visual graph theory in the purely non-visual theory of groups resulted in a new effective approach in which pictures have an essential role. Cayley graphs were initially developed as exact mathematical (...) constructions. Therefore, they are legitimate components of the theory (combinatorial and geometric group theory) and the pictures of Cayley graphs are a part of practical mathematical procedures. (shrink)
Behandlungsfehler in der Psychotherapie sind bisher kaum erforscht. Eine empirisch gestützte Kategorisierung von Behandlungsfehlern stellt einen ersten Schritt dar, sich evidenzbasierten ethischen Empfehlungen zum Umgang mit solchen Fehlern zu nähern. Zielsetzung dieser Arbeit ist es, dafür erste Grundlagen zu erarbeiten, die auf Erfahrungen von Praktikern Bezug nehmen. Nach einer systematischen Literaturrecherche wurden 30 semistrukturierte Interviews mit approbierten Psychotherapeuten unterschiedlicher Ausrichtungen (Schulen) geführt und anhand der qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse nach Mayring ausgewertet. Die beschriebenen, alltäglich auftretenden Behandlungsfehler konnten in technische, normative, Einschätzungs- und (...) Systemfehler klassifiziert werden. Viele der technischen und Einschätzungsfehler wurden als reversibel angesehen; sie könnten sogar konstruktiv für die Behandlung nutzbar gemacht werden. Das Versäumnis, einen Fehler zu korrigieren, wurde als Hauptfehler betrachtet. Bei normativen Fehlern sei mit rechtlichen oder berufspolitischen Konsequenzen, aber auch mit Vertrauensverlust und Therapieabbruch zu rechnen. Für Systemfehler fühlten sich die befragten Therapeuten nicht verantwortlich; hier seien berufspolitische Änderungen nötig. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Befragten zu der Empfehlung tendieren, Psychotherapiepatienten in passender Form über Behandlungsfehler aufzuklären und in die entstehenden Konsequenzen einzubeziehen. Fazit: Psychotherapeuten äußern sich aufgeschlossen gegenüber einer transparenten, konstruktiven Fehlerkultur – eine wesentliche Voraussetzung für Fehlerprävention. Häufig resultiert erst durch die fehlende Korrektur eines (alltäglichen) Fehlers ein Behandlungsfehler, der Konsequenzen hat (z. B. Scheitern der Therapie). Um diesem entgegenzuwirken, zeichnet sich eine Befürwortung für eine passende Form der Patientenaufklärung über Fehler ab. (shrink)
Parallels between cancer and ecological systems have been increasingly recognized and extensively reviewed. However, a more unified framework of understanding cancer as an evolving dynamical system that undergoes a sequence of interconnected changes over time, from a dormant microtumor to disseminated metastatic disease, still needs to be developed. Here, we focus on several examples of such mechanisms, namely, how in cancer niche construction a metabolic adaptation and consequent change to the tumor microenvironment becomes an important factor in evasion of the (...) predator, facilitating disease progression; how tumor establishment and propagation is driven by the tumor’s own keystone species, the cancer stem cells; and how the succession of stages of metastatic dissemination can be informed by ergodic theory and forest ecology. (shrink)
Invertebrate animals are frequently lumped into a single category and denied welfare protections despite their considerable cognitive, behavioral, and evolutionary diversity. Some ethical and policy inroads have been made for cephalopod molluscs and crustaceans, but the vast majority of arthropods, including the insects, remain excluded from moral consideration. We argue that this exclusion is unwarranted given the existing evidence. Anachronistic readings of evolution, which view invertebrates as lower in the scala naturae, continue to influence public policy and common morality. The (...) assumption that small brains are unlikely to support cognition or sentience likewise persists, despite growing evidence that arthropods have converged on cognitive functions comparable to those found in vertebrates. The exclusion of invertebrates is also motivated by cognitive-affective biases that covertly influence moral judgment, as well as a flawed balancing of scientific uncertainty against moral risk. All these factors shape moral attitudes toward basal vertebrates too, but they are particularly acute in the arthropod context. Moral consistency dictates that the same standards of evidence and risk management that justify policy protections for vertebrates also support extending moral consideration to certain invertebrates. Moving beyond a vertebrate-centered conception of welfare can also clarify foundational moral concepts in their own right. (shrink)
We apply the “wisdom of the crowd” idea to human category learning, using a simple approach that combines people's categorization decisions by taking the majority decision. We first show that the aggregated crowd category learning behavior found by this method performs well, learning categories more quickly than most or all individuals for 28 previously collected datasets. We then extend the approach so that it does not require people to categorize every stimulus. We do this using a model-based method that predicts (...) the categorization behavior people would produce for new stimuli, based on their behavior with observed stimuli, and uses the majority of these predicted decisions. We demonstrate and evaluate the model-based approach in two case studies. In the first, we use the general recognition theory decision-bound model of categorization to infer each person's decision boundary for two categories of perceptual stimuli, and we use these inferences to make aggregated predictions about new stimuli. In the second, we use the generalized context model exemplar model of categorization to infer each person's selective attention for face stimuli, and we use these inferences to make aggregated predictions about withheld stimuli. In both case studies, we show that our method successfully predicts the category of unobserved stimuli, and we emphasize that the aggregated crowd decisions arise from psychologically interpretable processes and parameters. We conclude by discussing extensions and potential real-world applications of the approach. (shrink)
When Johannes Hevelius’ Selenographia, sive Lunae descriptio (Selenography, or A Description of The Moon) was printed in 1647, its rich paratext featured a portrait epigram and a collection of nine Neo-Latin poems praising the first book of the Danzig (Gdańsk) astronomer. The present article examines these ten poems as a place where Hevelius’ authority as an author and astronomer is being constructed, focusing on the fictionalized and fictional relationships between Hevelius and other authorities depicted in the text. In a sort (...) of kaleidoscope, the poems relate Hevelius to prominent astronomers like Galileo and Copernicus, to Columbus, the paragon of the discoverer, to figures from ancient myth, and even, in the form of anagrams, to his own name. Moreover, they highlight Hevelius’ personal qualities as an astronomer, as a member of the realm of literature, and as a citizen of Danzig. The image of the author that emerges from the poems asserts Hevelius’ place in the public space of literature and fashions him into an authoritative figure at the threshold of his text. (shrink)
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Transcendence and SensibilityAffection, Sensation, and Nonintentional ConsciousnessIrina Poleshchuk (bio)Over the years, the question of sensibility has largely been discussed in a variety of discourses developed in the humanities and has gained attention in psychology and the cognitive sciences. Sensibility has been seen as a constituent part of subjectivity, endowing subjectivity with meanings developed in different layers of subjective and inter-subjective life, but also as setting new horizons of ethical (...) becoming. In this context, Emmanuel Levinas represents a unique philosophical approach: sensibility reveals the core of the ethical encounter with the other person, including traumatic experience and ethical gift of this intersubjective encounter. The ethical event starts from sensibility and from the radicality on which the face-to-face relation is built, but it also results from the sensible life of subjectivity. I address here a famous line in Levinas’s Otherwise than Being, or Beyond Essence: “Only a subject that eats can be for-the-other” (OB 74). In its hunger, and in its constant search for the means of feeding itself, subjectivity is for the first time disclosed as a vulnerable and affected self. This vulnerability [End Page 1] is different in its nature from the vulnerability provoked by the appeal of the other. The satisfaction of needs, the ability to enjoy food, to enjoy laboring to acquire it, but also the memory of the pain caused by hunger all indicate fundamental levels of vulnerability whereby the self is exposed to the affection of the otherness. In the following sections of Otherwise than Being, Levinas moves further toward disclosing a sensible subjectivity endowed with transcendence. Sensibility becomes structured as the other-in-the-same, where the trace of the other is exactly transcendence impregnating subjectivity. Here, being affected by the other, the vulnerable and the sensible self takes its crucial forms: it is pure passivity, it is an ultimate exposure, and it is nonintentional. These modalities of sensibility are to indicate ethical mapping of subjectivity where responsibility for the other eventually becomes irreversible.To approach the novelty of sensibility as the central component of the face-to-face relation, I elucidate the function and meaning of mechanisms enabling subjectivity to be structured as the other-in-the-same. The face-to-face relation is, first of all, an experience of the affective trace left by the appeal of the other. Thus, my goal is to explicate how this affection, manifested as the address of the other, is embedded in Levinas’s reading of sensuous intuition and how the affection enlightens an ethical sensibility at the level of nonintentional consciousness and passivity. Beginning with Husserl’s view of hyletic data, I discuss the work of affection and sensation in intentional consciousness and how these feelings participate in constructing sensibility. I analyze the importance of Levinas’s innovative idea of nonintentional consciousness, leading up to the concept of passivity, which acts as the host of transcendence or, in other words, of the other-in-the-same. Finally, I turn to the phenomenon of two sensibilities and provide an interpretation of their structures and their role in building face-to-face relations.Sensation and AffectionThe first step toward unraveling sensibility is to address Urhyle. Urhyle plays an essential role in the dimension of affection, sensation, [End Page 2] and sensibility. In his earlier works, Levinas addresses hyle and, to some extent, follows Husserl’s reflections on Urhyle and affection. A discussion of Urhyle will help to elucidate Levinasian logic.For Husserl, Urhyle is “a foreign core in me” (Ichfremdekern).1 Being something foreign within consciousness, Urhyle indicates a core within consciousness, which leads to a constitutive bifurcation of the self and of the nonself. The appearance of Urhyle is indirect: it is not constitutive, it does not constitute itself, but rather Urhyle structures the constitution of the self. How can Urhyle be shown? Affected consciousness or sensible data is the first strange or alien content within the self, affecting and exciting the self as nonconsciousness (Unbewüßtsein) on the level of original hyletic (Urhyle) preconsciousness and allowing primary sensibility to grow, which apparently becomes a content of the self.2 Consciousness is, first of all... (shrink)
Dealing with errors in psychotherapy is challenging, both ethically and practically. There is almost no empirical research on this topic. We aimed (1) to explore psychotherapists’ self-reported ways of dealing with an error made by themselves or by colleagues, and (2) to reconstruct their reasoning according to the two principle-based ethical approaches that are dominant in the ethics discourse of psychotherapy, Beauchamp & Childress (B&C) and Lindsay et al. (L).
[Translated by Google] The article touches upon one of the most important problems of criminal - procedural law. It examines the procedural position of the defense in the criminal - procedural production in terms of its role and importance. In the above legal literature expressed views on this issue. Based on the analysis of opinion identified three positions: 1.zaschitnik - representative of the accused; 2.zaschitnik - an independent participant in the process and at the same time representative of the accused; (...) 3.zaschitnik - assistant justice. Expressed about the legal status of the defense of equal rights representative of the accused as an independent subject of Procedure, the defender is why procedural independent entity and to what extent is defined by its independence, in which case the defender is representative of the accused and whether the defender of justice and the assistant. etc. On the basis of comparative analysis examined opinions on the issues of the theory of procedural law in Russia, Poland and Germany. Analyzed the mismatch position and the defense of the accused in relation to the fact of the crime, the ratio of public and private interests, and other questions, suggestions, and opinions. The work refers one of the important problem of the trial theory. A judicial procedure of protector is scrutinized from the standpoint of protector's role in the trial. Opinions expressed about this matter, in Law Literature, are given in this work. It follows that there are three positions: 1. Protector as a representative of the accused; 2. Protector as an independent part of a court trial and simultaneously representative of the accused; 3. Protector as an assistant of court. There are also given opinions about a judicial status of protector, why is it an independent element and etc. The conceptions existed in Russian, German, Polish trial theory about the above-named matter are discussed too. It is analyzed a relationship between the accused and protector, an incompatibility of positions about the fact, correlation of private and common interests and other issues. (shrink)
This article explores the kinds of response John Dewey received in Russia between 1900 and 1930, and the impact he had on the educational debate there. The study’s main findings are: Both before and after the Socialist October Revolution of 1917, Dewey had a significant impact on the development of the Russian school system. The ultimate rejection of Dewey’s pedagogy towards the end of the 20s was not due to educational but to political and ideological reasons.
Like Socrates, Aspasia did not leave any writings. We know about her from secondary sources. In this paper, I will show a number of things in the reports of what Aspasia said and did that are philosophically interesting, especially in what they show about dealing with various kinds of crises, from marital to political ones. First, I will argue for the most probable reconstruction of her life. Second, I will elucidate what kind of method Aspasia employed when considering marital issues. (...) Third, I will endeavor to prove that Plato’s representation of Aspasia was not a mockery, as some authors argue. Furthermore, the most significant philosophical points of Aspasia’s Funeral Speech will be highlighted and assessed. Eventually, I will attempt to figure out what Plato’s reasons might have been to ascribe this speech to a woman. (shrink)
"Drawing on letters, correspondence, oral histories, and interviews, Baronova's daughter, the actress Victoria Tennant,... recounts Baronova's dramatic life, from her earliest aspirations to her grueling time on tour to her later years in Australia as a pioneer of the art"--Dust jacket flap.
The work highlights the problems of economic risk management in a territorial context. The purpose of the study is to substantiate the strategic management of economic risks in a territorial context, based on the development of a mechanism of criteria that can give a generalized assessment of the results of risk situations, based on consideration of the variability of the development of the territorial economy. When assessing risks, special attention is paid to the economic results of the consequences of their (...) occurrence for the objectivity of strategic planning. The materials studied on various approaches to risk assessment show the economic category, while there is a functional connection between social and economic processes. The calculation technology itself requires improvement, which consists in creating a mechanism for generalizing indicators, concentrating them in a territorial context. Most likely, when developing a strategy for the development of the economy of a territory, it will be necessary to consider the variability of events that involve the occurrence of risks, providing an objective assessment of risks when making management decisions. The scientific novelty of the study is to justify the development of a mechanism for assessing the risks of the territorial economy, based on the relationship between the consolidation of risk analysis indicators and the effectiveness of the development of socio-economic processes, while comparing various options for the forecast effect. As a result of the study, the problems of assessing the strategic management of economic risks in the territorial context made it possible to develop generalized indicators characterizing risk events. (shrink)
Many Byzantine texts are still provoking fierce debates over their dates of composition. The recent examples falling only into the 9th c. include the Bibliotheca of Photius, the Chronicle of George the Monk and the Life of the patriarch Nicephore by Nicetas the Deacon. In this article we will venture to call into question the accepted date of the no less well-known and important text, the Life of the patriarch Ignatius by Nicetas David the Paphlagonian.
This article explores the kinds of response John Dewey(1859-;1952) received in Russia between 1900 and1930, and the impact he had on the educational debatethere. The study's main findings are: Both before andafter the Socialist October Revolution of 1917, Deweyhad a significant impact on the development of theRussian school system. The ultimate rejection ofDewey's pedagogy towards the end of the 20s was notdue to educational but to political and ideologicalreasons.
As a cognitivist about emotions, Socrates takes the fear of death to be a belief that death is a bad thing for the one who dies. Socrates, however, thinks there are reasons for thinking death is not a bad thing at all, and might even be a blessing. So the question considered in this paper is: how would Socrates explain the fact that so many people believe death is bad?
This book reorients the question of the matrix as a place "where" everything comes from ( "chora," womb, incubator) by recasting it in terms of acts of "matrixial/maternal hospitality" that produce space and matter of / for the other.
A widespread assumption in experimental comparative cognition is that, barring compelling evidence to the contrary, the default hypothesis should postulate the simplest cognitive ontology consistent with the animal’s behavior. I call this assumption the principle of cognitive simplicity . In this essay, I show that PoCS is pervasive but unjustified: a blanket preference for the simplest cognitive ontology is not justified by any of the available arguments. Moreover, without a clear sense of how cognitive ontologies are to be carved up (...) at the joints—and which tools are appropriate for the job—PoCS rests on shaky conceptual ground. (shrink)
In his 21 st Letter to Lucilius, Seneca tries to convince his student to retreat from public life by granting him the renown which Lucilius strives to achieve through political engagement in the field of philosophy instead: Three examples - Epicurus, Cicero and Vergil - illustrate that literary expressions of friendship, too, lead to lasting fame. Through this device, Seneca not only fashions himself as an author who has the literary power to exempt himself and his friend from oblivion; in (...) citing Vergil’s famous fortunati ambo, he also uses the background of the Nisus-and-Euralyus-episode to provoke intertextual tensions and highlight the urgency of his call to retreat from politics. (shrink)
This in-depth case study examines the Russian Orthodox Church's influence on federal-level policy in the Russian Federation since the fall of communism. By far more comprehensive than competing works, The Orthodox Church and Russian Politics is based on interviews, close readings of documents--including official state and ecclesiastical publications--and survey work conducted by the author.
Behavioural flexibility is often treated as the gold standard of evidence for more sophisticated or complex forms of animal cognition, such as planning, metacognition and mindreading. However, the evidential link between behavioural flexibility and complex cognition has not been explicitly or systematically defended. Such a defence is particularly pressing because observed flexible behaviours can frequently be explained by putatively simpler cognitive mechanisms. This leaves complex cognition hypotheses open to ‘deflationary’ challenges that are accorded greater evidential weight precisely because they offer (...) putatively simpler explanations of equal explanatory power. This paper challenges the blanket preference for simpler explanations, and shows that once this preference is dispensed with, and the full spectrum of evidence—including evolutionary, ecological and phylogenetic data—is accorded its proper weight, an argument in support of the prevailing assumption that behavioural flexibility can serve as evidence for complex cognitive mechanisms may begin to take shape. An adaptive model of cognitive-behavioural evolution is proposed, according to which the existence of convergent trait–environment clusters in phylogenetically disparate lineages may serve as evidence for the same trait–environment clusters in other lineages. This, in turn, could permit inferences of cognitive complexity in cases of experimental underdetermination, thereby placing the common view that behavioural flexibility can serve as evidence for complex cognition on firmer grounds. (shrink)
The tendencies of postsecularism in the social life of today's Ukraine are especially significant in their influence on the quasi-religious context of religious worships practiced in the country. These factors erode the modernity basis of the society, and Ukraine appears in the contradictory situation of its intention to complete the modernisation process and oppose the antiglobalistic isolationism. The neo-Protestant teachings and practices are obviouly connected with the principles of liberalism and consumerism. Neo-Oriental and new syncretic religions show that they produce (...) significant influence on spreading globalistic views in the Ukrainian society. The marginality characteristics of new religions prove the idea that their values are a challenge to the essentialistic dichotomies of the Ukrainian traditional churches. The sociocultural and political context of globalisation and postmodernism includes religious transformations axiomatically, and the impact of both on the late capitalism stage is evident in different contexts. The culture of postmodernism makes this process complicated in the countries which are still between modernity and postmodernity. The processes of 'label change' are important with the stress on the substitution of the rationalistic foundation by quasi-scientific teachings. The conclusions demonstrate that the very incompleteness of the modernity has led to the expansion of the quasi-religious techniques in the social and cultural life of Ukraine. The erosion of the modernity values results in spreading new religions, which became vivid at the end of the last century. As globalisation promotes syncretic and neo-Oriental religions, antiglobalistic movements are supported by neo-pagan techniques and practices. (shrink)
In this paper, we aim at an exercise that is transdisciplinary, involving science and religion, and interdisciplinary, involving disciplines and theories which appeared in the second half of the 20th century. The latter required the reformulation of quantum mechanics theories starting with the beginning of the century, based on the substance-energy-information triangle. We focus on information and we also attempt a transdisciplinary approach to the imaginary from a psychological - physical - mathematical perspective, but the religious perspectives find their place (...) along with the philosophical or even philological vision. (shrink)
The paper aims to show how mathematical practice, in particular with visual representations, can lead to new mathematical results. The argument is based on a case study from a relatively recent and promising mathematical subject—geometric group theory. The paper discusses how the representation of groups by Cayley graphs made possible to discover new geometric properties of groups.
In this article I attempt to conceptualize myexistential and institutional experience as thedirector of the Kharkov Center for GenderStudies acquired in the course of introducinggender studies into the system of post-Soviethigher education. The main subject of thearticle concerns the logical ground of genderdiscourse and the complicated relations betweenthe notions of `gender studies', `women'sstudies', and, within the latter, `feminism' inthe former USSR, all in the framework ofconcepts from Western feminists theory.
Temperance literature, though widely popular in America and Britain between 1830–80, lost its allure in the decades that followed. In spite of its didactic and moralistic nature, the public eagerly consumed temperance novels, thus reciprocating contemporaneous writers’ efforts to promote social ideals and mend social ills. The main aim of this paper is to redress the critical neglect that the temperance prose written by women about women has endured by looking at three literary works—two novellas and one confessional novelette—written by (...) mid-nineteenth-century American female writers. These works serve as a prism through which the authors present generally “tabooed” afflictions such as inebriation among high-class women and society’s role in perpetuating such behaviors. The essay examines the conflicting forces underlying such representations and offers an inquiry into the restrictive and hostile social climate in mid-nineteenth-century America and the lack of medical attention given to alcohol addicts as the possible causes that might have prompted women’s dangerous behaviors, including inebriation. This paper also demonstrates the cautious approach that nineteenth-century female writers had to take when dealing with prevalent social ills, such as bigotry, hypocrisy and disdain directed at female drunkards. It shows how these writers, often sneered at or belittled by critics and editors, had to maneuver very carefully between the contending forces of openly critiquing social mores, on the one hand, and not being censored, on the other. (shrink)
In guarding against inferential mistakes, experimental comparative cognition errs on the side of underattributing sophisticated cognition to animals, or what I refer to as the underattribution bias. I propose eliminating this bias by altering the method of choosing the default, or null, hypothesis. Rather than choosing the most parsimonious null hypothesis, as is current practice, I argue for choosing the best-evidenced hypothesis. Doing so at once preserves the risk-controlling structure of the current statistical paradigm and introduces a sensitivity to probability-conferring (...) empirical and theoretical information. This analysis illustrates how values like parsimony can covertly shape statistical-experimental design and inference. (shrink)