Results for 'Isaac A. Friedman'

997 found
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  1.  3
    Novice Teachers as Organisational People: Expectations of a Professional Work Environment, Collegiality, Recognition and Respect.Bella Gavish & Isaac A. Friedman - 2011 - Educational Studies 37 (4):451-467.
    This study introduces a model of novice teachers’ expectations together with supporting empirical evidence. The model is sectorial, distinguishing novice teachers’ expectations according to their reciprocal relations with their partners in the school. The study investigated 237 teachers attending internship programmes at five large teachers training colleges in Israel, using a self‐report questionnaire. The findings revealed that: the expectations of novice teachers are based on a sectorial organisational view of the school, as proposed by role theory; novice teachers have very (...)
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  2. A Complete Theory of Everything: Satisfiability in the Universal Domain Harvey M. Friedman October 10, 1999 Friedman@Math.Ohio-State.Edu Www.Math.Ohio-State.Edu/~Friedman/. [REVIEW]Harvey Friedman - manuscript
    Here we take the view that LPC(=) is applicable to structures whose domain is too large to be a set. This is not just a matter of class theory versus set theory, although it can be interpreted as such, and this interpretation is discussed briefly at the end.
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  3. A Complete Theory of Everything: Satisfiability in the Universal Domain Harvey M. Friedman October 10, 1999 Friedman@Math.Ohio-State.Edu. [REVIEW]Harvey Friedman - manuscript
    Here we take the view that LPC(=) is applicable to structures whose domain is too large to be a set. This is not just a matter of class theory versus set theory, although it can be interpreted as such, and this interpretation is discussed briefly at the end.
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  4. Fanatical, Not Reasonable: A Short Correspondence Between Walter Block and Milton Friedman.Milton Friedman - 2006 - Journal of Libertarian Studies 20 (3):61-80.
     
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  5. A Net Cast Wide: Investigations Into Indian Thought in Memory of David Friedman.Julius Lipner, Dermot Killingley & David Friedman (eds.) - 1986 - Grevatt & Grevatt.
  6. Harvey Friedman's Research on the Foundations of Mathematics.Harvey Friedman & L. A. Harrington - 1985
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  7.  57
    Kant's Construction of Nature: A Reading of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.Michael Friedman - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science is one of the most difficult but also most important of Kant's works. Published in 1786 between the first and second editions of the Critique of Pure Reason, the Metaphysical Foundations occupies a central place in the development of Kant's philosophy, but has so far attracted relatively little attention compared with other works of Kant's critical period. Michael Friedman's book develops a new and complete reading of this work and reconstructs Kant's main argument (...)
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  8.  43
    Taking 'Know' for an Answer: A Reply to Nagel, San Juan, and Mar.Christina Starmans & Ori Friedman - 2013 - Cognition 129 (3):662-665.
    Nagel, San Juan, and Mar report an experiment investigating lay attributions of knowledge, belief, and justification. They suggest that, in keeping with the expectations of philosophers, but contra recent empirical findings [Starmans, C. & Friedman, O. (2012). The folk conception of knowledge. Cognition, 124, 272–283], laypeople consistently deny knowledge in Gettier cases, regardless of whether the beliefs are based on ‘apparent’ or ‘authentic’ evidence. In this reply, we point out that Nagel et al. employed a questioning method that biased (...)
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  9.  9
    The Ant Colony as a Test for Scientific Theories of Consciousness.Daniel A. Friedman & Eirik Søvik - forthcoming - Synthese:1-24.
    The appearance of consciousness in the universe remains one of the major mysteries unsolved by science or philosophy. Absent an agreed-upon definition of consciousness or even a convenient system to test theories of consciousness, a confusing heterogeneity of theories proliferate. In pursuit of clarifying this complicated discourse, we here interpret various frameworks for the scientific and philosophical study of consciousness through the lens of social insect evolutionary biology. To do so, we first discuss the notion of a forward test versus (...)
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  10.  63
    Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science.Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.) - 2010 - Open Court.
    Addressing a wide range of topics, from Newton to Post-Kuhnian philosophy of science, these essays critically examine themes that have been central to the influential work of philosopher Michael Friedman.
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  11.  68
    Virtues and Oppression: A Complicated Relationship.Marilyn Friedman - 2008 - Hypatia 23 (3):pp. 189-196.
    This paper raises some minor questions about Lisa Tessman’s book, Burdened Virtues. Friedman’s questions pertain, among other things, to the adequacy of a virtue ethical focus on character, the apparent implication of virtue ethics that oppressors suffer damaged characters and are not any better off than the oppressed, the importance of whether privileged persons may have earned their privileges, and the oppositional anger that movement feminists sometimes direct against each other.
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  12.  9
    Jewish Visions for Aging: A Professional Guide for Fostering Wholeness.Dayle A. Friedman - 2008 - Jewish Lights.
    A timeless resource that probes Jewish texts, spirituality, and observance provides a unique approach to caring for the aging and elderly, helping today's ...
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  13.  33
    How Are Visuospatial Working Memory, Executive Functioning, and Spatial Abilities Related? A Latent-Variable Analysis.Akira Miyake, Naomi P. Friedman, David A. Rettinger, Priti Shah & Mary Hegarty - 2001 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130 (4):621.
  14. The Idea of a Political Liberalism: Essays on Rawls.Samantha Brennan, Claudia Card, Bernard Dauenhauer, Marilyn A. Friedman, Dale Jamieson, Richard Arneson, Clark Wolf, Robert Nagle, James Nickel, Christoph Fehige, Norman Daniels & Robert Noggle - 2000 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    In this unique volume, some of today's most eminent political philosophers examine the thought of John Rawls, focusing in particular on his most recent work. These original essays explore diverse issues, including the problem of pluralism, the relationship between constitutive commitment and liberal institutions, just treatment of dissident minorities, the constitutional implications of liberalism, international relations, and the structure of international law. The first comprehensive study of Rawls's recent work, The Idea of Political Liberalism will be indispensable for political philosophers (...)
     
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  15.  7
    Ownership Matters: People Possess a Naïve Theory of Ownership.Shaylene E. Nancekivell, Ori Friedman & Susan A. Gelman - 2019 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 23 (2):102-113.
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  16.  50
    Harming Women as a Group.Marilyn A. Friedman & Larry May - 1985 - Social Theory and Practice 11 (2):207-234.
  17.  14
    The Humane Imperative: A Moral Opportunity.Kimberly A. Urie, Alison Stanley & Jerold D. Friedman - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (3):20 – 21.
  18. Kant, Kuhn e a racionalidade da ciência.Michael Friedman & Tradutor: Rogério Passos Severo - 2009 - Philósophos - Revista de Filosofia 14 (1):175-209.
    This paper considers the evolution of the problem of scientific rationality from Kant through Carnap to Kuhn. I argue for a relativized and historicized version of the original Kantian conception of scientific a priori principles and examine the way in which these principles change and develop across revolutionary paradigm shifts. The distinctively philosophical enterprise of reflecting upon and contextualizing such principles is then seen to play a key role in making possible rational intersubjective communication between otherwise incommensurable paradigms.
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  19.  7
    Self-Rule in Social Context: Autonomy From a Feminist Perspective.Marilyn A. Friedman - 1989 - Social Philosophy Today 2:158-169.
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  20.  7
    The Jews in Egypt and in Palestine Under the Fāṭimid Caliphs. A Contribution to Their Political and Communal History Based Chiefly on Genizah Material Hitherto UnpublishedPreface and Reader's GuideThe Jews in Egypt and in Palestine Under the Fatimid Caliphs. A Contribution to Their Political and Communal History Based Chiefly on Genizah Material Hitherto Unpublished.Mordechai A. Friedman, Jacob Mann & Shelomo D. Goitein - 1974 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 94 (2):272.
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  21.  7
    Cardinal Characteristics at Κ in a Small U Model.A. D. Brooke-Taylor, V. Fischer, S. D. Friedman & D. C. Montoya - 2017 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 168 (1):37-49.
  22.  4
    A Mediterranean Society. The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. Vol. III. The Family. [REVIEW]Mordechai A. Friedman & S. D. Goitein - 1980 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 100 (2):128.
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  23.  7
    Enhancing National Solidarity Through the Deployment of Verbal Categories: How the Albanian Admirative Participates in the Construction of a Reliable Self and an Unreliable Other.Victor A. Friedman - 2012 - Pragmatics and Society 3 (2):189-225.
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  24.  7
    Introducing New Educational Game Principles: A Case For Education And Behavior Engineering.Lee A. Friedman - 1971 - Educational Theory 21 (1):59-69.
  25.  3
    A Mediterranean Society, Volume 4: Daily Life. The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza.Mordechai A. Friedman & S. D. Goitein - 1986 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 106 (4):815.
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  26.  24
    Democracy as an Open-Ended Utopia: Reviving a Sense of Uncoerced Political Possibility.Steven Friedman - 2012 - Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 59 (130):1-21.
    Utopian thought has been discredited because attempts to re-engineer society using Utopian formulae have invariably produced violence and despotism. But the apparent eclipse of Utopia has left a yawning gap, for economic and social conditions across the globe suggest a need for alternatives to the reigning social order - and thus for Utopian thinking which avoids the pitfalls of 'classical' Utopias. This needs to begin by recognising that the chief flaw in earlier Utopias is that they aspired to a world (...)
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  27.  28
    Model Uncertainty and Policy Choice: A Plea for Integrated Subjectivism.Alistair M. C. Isaac - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 47:42-50.
    A question at the intersection of scientific modeling and public choice is how to deal with uncertainty about model predictions. This "high-level" uncertainty is necessarily value-laden, and thus must be treated as irreducibly subjective. Nevertheless, formal methods of uncertainty analysis should still be employed for the purpose of clarifying policy debates. I argue that such debates are best informed by models which integrate objective features with subjective ones. This integrated subjectivism is illustrated with a case study from the literature on (...)
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  28.  96
    Newton and Kant: Quantity of Matter in the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.Michael Friedman - 2012 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):482-503.
    Immanuel Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786) provides metaphysical foundations for the application of mathematics to empirically given nature. The application that Kant primarily has in mind is that achieved in Isaac Newton's Principia (1687). Thus, Kant's first chapter, the Phoronomy, concerns the mathematization of speed or velocity, and his fourth chapter, the Phenomenology, concerns the empirical application of the Newtonian notions of true or absolute space, time, and motion. This paper concentrates on Kant's second and third chapters—the (...)
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  29.  3
    Knowledge Central: A Central Role for Knowledge Attributions in Social Evaluations.John Turri, Ori Friedman & Ashley Keefner - 2017 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (3):504-515.
    Five experiments demonstrate the central role of knowledge attributions in social evaluations. In Experiments 1–3, we manipulated whether an agent believes, is certain of, or knows a true proposition and asked people to rate whether the agent should perform a variety of actions. We found that knowledge, more so than belief or certainty, leads people to judge that the agent should act. In Experiments 4–5, we investigated whether attributions of knowledge or certainty can explain an important finding on how people (...)
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  30. Einstein, Kant, and the A Priori.Michael Friedman - 2010 - In Mauricio Suarez, Mauro Dorato & Miklos Redei (eds.), EPSA Philosophical Issues in the Sciences · Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association. Springer. pp. 65--73.
    Kant's original version of transcendental philosophy took both Euclidean geometry and the Newtonian laws of motion to be synthetic a priori constitutive principles—which, from Kant's point of view, function as necessary presuppositions for applying our fundamental concepts of space, time, matter, and motion to our sensible experience of the natural world. Although Kant had very good reasons to view the principles in question as having such a constitutively a priori role, we now know, in the wake of Einstein's work, that (...)
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  31.  48
    Belief Revision: A Critique. [REVIEW]Nir Friedman & Joseph Y. Halpern - 1999 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (4):401-420.
    We examine carefully the rationale underlying the approaches to belief change taken in the literature, and highlight what we view as methodological problems. We argue that to study belief change carefully, we must be quite explicit about the ontology or scenario underlying the belief change process. This is something that has been missing in previous work, with its focus on postulates. Our analysis shows that we must pay particular attention to two issues that have often been taken for granted: the (...)
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  32.  28
    A Borel Reducibility Theory for Classes of Countable Structures.Harvey Friedman & Lee Stanley - 1989 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 54 (3):894-914.
    We introduce a reducibility preordering between classes of countable structures, each class containing only structures of a given similarity type (which is allowed to vary from class to class). Though we sometimes work in a slightly larger context, we are principally concerned with the case where each class is an invariant Borel class (i.e. the class of all models, with underlying set $= \omega$, of an $L_{\omega_1\omega}$ sentence; from this point of view, the reducibility can be thought of as a (...)
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  33. A Consistency Proof for Elementary Algebra and Geometry.Harvey Friedman - manuscript
    We give a consistency proof within a weak fragment of arithmetic of elementary algebra and geometry. For this purpose, we use EFA (exponential function arithmetic), and various first order theories of algebraically closed fields and real closed fields.
     
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  34. A Theory of Strong Indiscernibles.Harvey Friedman - manuscript
    The Complete Theory of Everything (CTE) is based on certain axioms of indiscernibility. Such axioms of indiscernibility have been given a philosophical justification by Kit Fine. I want to report on an attempt to give strong indiscernibility axioms which might also be subject to such philosophical analysis, and which prove the consistency of set theory; i.e., ZFC or more. In this way, we might obtain a (new kind of) philosophical consistency proof for mathematics.
     
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  35.  47
    A Crisis of Politics, Not Economics: Complexity, Ignorance, and Policy Failure.Jeffrey Friedman - 2009 - Critical Review 21 (2-3):127-183.
    ABSTRACT The financial crisis was caused by the complex, constantly growing web of regulations designed to constrain and redirect modern capitalism. This complexity made investors, bankers, and perhaps regulators themselves ignorant of regulations promulgated across decades and in different ?fields? of regulation. These regulations interacted with each other to foster the issuance and securitization of subprime mortgages; their rating as AA or AAA; and previously their concentration on the balance sheets (and off the balance sheets) of many commercial and investment (...)
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  36.  70
    Is Probabilistic Evidence a Source of Knowledge?Ori Friedman & John Turri - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (5):1062-1080.
    We report a series of experiments examining whether people ascribe knowledge for true beliefs based on probabilistic evidence. Participants were less likely to ascribe knowledge for beliefs based on probabilistic evidence than for beliefs based on perceptual evidence or testimony providing causal information. Denial of knowledge for beliefs based on probabilistic evidence did not arise because participants viewed such beliefs as unjustified, nor because such beliefs leave open the possibility of error. These findings rule out traditional philosophical accounts for why (...)
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  37.  15
    Paradoxical Relationships Between Cultural Norms of Particularism and Attitudes Toward Relational Favoritism: A Cultural Reflectivity Perspective.Chao C. Chen, Joseph P. Gaspar, Ray Friedman, William Newburry, Michael C. Nippa, Katherine Xin & Ronaldo Parente - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 145 (1):63-79.
    We examined how the cultural dimension of universalism–particularism influences managers’ attitudes toward relational favoritism. Paradoxically, we found in a survey study that Brazilian and Chinese managers perceived more negative consequences of relational favoritism than did American managers—even though the Brazilians and the Chinese perceived stronger particularistic cultural norms in their countries than Americans did in the United States. We attribute this pattern of results to “cultural reflexivity”—the ability of people from transforming economies to be culturally self-critical during a period of (...)
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  38.  21
    A Developmental Shift in Processes Underlying Successful Belief‐Desire Reasoning.Ori Friedman & Alan M. Leslie - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (6):963-977.
    Young children’s failures in reasoning about beliefs and desires, and especially about false beliefs, have been much studied. However, there are few accounts of successful belief-desire reasoning in older children or adults. An exception to this is a model in which belief attribution is treated as a process wherein an inhibitory system selects the most likely content for the belief to be attributed from amongst several competing contents [Leslie, A. M., & Polizzi, P. (1998). Developmental Science, 1, 247–254]. We tested (...)
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  39.  24
    L'idée de la Logique Formelle Dans les Appendices VI À X du Volume 12 des Husserliana.Manuel Gustavo Isaac - 2015 - History and Philosophy of Logic 36 (4):321-345.
    Au terme des Prolégomènes, Husserl formule son idée de la logique pure en la structurant sur deux niveaux: l'un, supérieur, de la logique formelle fondé transcendantalement et d'un point de vue épistémologique par l'autre, inférieur, d'une morphologie des catégories. Seul le second de ces deux niveaux est traité dans les Recherches logiques, tandis que les travaux théoriques en logique formelle menés par Husserl à la même époque en paraissent plutôt indépendants. Cet article est consacré à ces travaux tels que recueillis (...)
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  40. A Way Out.Harvey Friedman - manuscript
    We present a way out of Russell’s paradox for sets in the form of a direct weakening of the usual inconsistent full comprehension axiom scheme, which, with no additional axioms, interprets ZFC. In fact, the resulting axiomatic theory 1) is a subsystem of ZFC + “there exists arbitrarily large subtle cardinals”, and 2) is mutually interpretable with ZFC + the scheme of subtlety.
     
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  41. More Than a Feeling: Counterintuitive Effects of Compassion on Moral Judgment.Anthony I. Jack, Philip Robbins, Jared Friedman & Chris Meyers - 2014 - In Justin Sytsma (ed.), Advances in Experimental Philosophy of Mind. Bloomsbury. pp. 125-179.
    Seminal work in moral neuroscience by Joshua Greene and colleagues employed variants of the well-known trolley problems to identify two brain networks which compete with each other to determine moral judgments. Greene interprets the tension between these brain networks using a dual process account which pits deliberative reason against automatic emotion-driven intuitions: reason versus passion. Recent neuroscientific evidence suggests, however, that the critical tension that Greene identifies as playing a role in moral judgment is not so much a tension between (...)
     
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  42.  23
    History and Philosophy of Science in a New Key.Michael Friedman - 2008 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 99:125-134.
    This essay considers the relationship between history of science and philosophy of science from Thomas Kuhn to the present. This relationship, of course, has often been troubled, but there is now new hope for an ongoing productive interaction—due to an increasing awareness, among other things, of the mutual entanglement between the development of modern science and the development of modern philosophy on the part of both professional philosophers and professional historians of science. This idea is illustrated with several examples, including (...)
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  43.  23
    What is a Human?: Toward Psychological Benchmarks in the Field of Human–Robot Interaction.Peter H. Kahn, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Batya Friedman, Takayuki Kanda, Nathan G. Freier, Rachel L. Severson & Jessica Miller - 2007 - Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 8 (3):363-390.
    In this paper, we move toward offering psychological benchmarks to measure success in building increasingly humanlike robots. By psychological benchmarks we mean categories of interaction that capture conceptually fundamental aspects of human life, specified abstractly enough to resist their identity as a mere psychological instrument, but capable of being translated into testable empirical propositions. Nine possible benchmarks are considered: autonomy, imitation, intrinsic moral value, moral accountability, privacy, reciprocity, conventionality, creativity, and authenticity of relation. Finally, we discuss how getting the right (...)
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  44. Transcendental Philosophy and a Priori Knowledge: A Neo-Kantian Perspective.Michael Friedman - 2000 - In Paul Boghossian & Christopher Peacocke (eds.), New Essays on the a Priori. Oxford University Press.
  45. Friedman@Math.Ohio-State.Edu.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    It has been accepted since the early part of the Century that there is no problem formalizing mathematics in standard formal systems of axiomatic set theory. Most people feel that they know as much as they ever want to know about how one can reduce natural numbers, integers, rationals, reals, and complex numbers to sets, and prove all of their basic properties. Furthermore, that this can continue through more and more complicated material, and that there is never a real problem.
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  46.  14
    Neural Correlates of Cognitive Improvements Following Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials.Clémence Isaac & Dominique Januel - 2016 - Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 6.
    BackgroundCognitive impairments are a core feature in schizophrenia and are linked to poor social functioning. Numerous studies have shown that cognitive remediation can enhance cognitive and functional abilities in patients with this pathology. The underlying mechanism of these behavioral improvements seems to be related to structural and functional changes in the brain. However, studies on neural correlates of such enhancement remain scarce.ObjectivesWe explored the neural correlates of cognitive enhancement following cognitive remediation interventions in schizophrenia and the differential effect between cognitive (...)
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  47. A Complete Theory of Everything: Satisfiability in the Universal Domain.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    Here we take the view that LPC(=) is applicable to structures whose domain is too large to be a set. This is not just a matter of class theory versus set theory, although it can be interpreted as such, and this interpretation is discussed briefly at the end.
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  48.  5
    A Failed Encounter in Mathematics and Chemistry: The Folded Models of van ‘T Hoff and Sachse.Michael Friedman - 2016 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 38 (3):359-386.
    Three-dimensional material models of molecules were used throughout the 19th century, either functioning as a mere representation or opening new epistemic horizons. In this paper, two case studies are examined: the 1875 models of van ‘t Hoff and the 1890 models of Sachse. What is unique in these two case studies is that both models were not only folded, but were also conceptualized mathematically. When viewed in light of the chemical research of that period not only were both of these (...)
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  49. A Language for Mathematical Knowledge Management.Jeremy Avigad, Steven Kieffer & Harvey Friedman - manuscript
    We argue that the language of Zermelo Fraenkel set theory with definitions and partial functions provides the most promising bedrock semantics for communicating and sharing mathematical knowledge. We then describe a syntactic sugaring of that language that provides a way of writing remarkably readable assertions without straying far from the set-theoretic semantics. We illustrate with some examples of formalized textbook definitions from elementary set theory and point-set topology. We also present statistics concerning the complexity of these definitions, under various complexity (...)
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  50.  11
    How Do We Know Things with Signs? A Model of Semiotic Intentionality.Manuel Gustavo Isaac - 2017 - IfCoLog Journal of Logics and Their Applications 10 (4):3683-3704.
    Intentionality may be dealt with in two different ways: either ontologically, as an ordinary relation to some extraordinary objects, or epistemologically, as an extraordinary relation to some ordinary objects. This paper endorses the epistemological view in order to provide a model of semiotic intentionality defined as the meaning-and-cognizing process that constitutes to power of the mind to be about something on the basis of a semiotic system. After a short introduction that presents the components of semiotic intentionality (viz. sign, act, (...)
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