In the first part of this article, we show that, contrary to the Gricean tradition, inter-clausal and is not semantically equivalent to logical conjunction and, contrary to temporal approaches such as Bar-Levand Palacas 1980, it is not temporallyloaded. We then explore a commonsenseidea – namely that while sentence juxtaposition might be interpreted either as discourse coordination or subordination, and indicates coordination. SDRT already includes notions of coordinating and subordinating discourse relations (cf. Lascarides and Asher 1993, Asher 1993), and the meaning (...) of and is related to this distinction. Similar distinctions that play a crucial role in anaphora resolution have also appeared in AI – cf. Scha and Polanyi 1988, or Webber 1991. However, this discourse-structure-based distinction has not been well defined yet, and our approach provides independent motivation for it. This paper argues that the semantics of and includes a notion of coordination expressed as the requirement of a Coordinated Discourse Topic (CDT).CDT characterizes aclass of discourse relations, among which are Narration and Result.Once the basic semanticcontribution of and is isolated, effects related to its presence such as changes in temporal structure, blocking of a Discourse Relation, or conditional meanings are shown to follow from the defeasiblearchitecture set up by SDRT. (shrink)
This work studies the issue of political representation from the perspective of a specific legal culture, the exercise of political rights in the context of the occidental democratic system, a concept that has undergone a profound evolution to the present day. The essential aspects for an analysis of this progression are voting, decision making, and the relationship between representatives and their constituents. Overall, the phenomena making up the crisis of representation have been explained as a result of changes that have (...) affected the operation and structure of modern states constituted as representative democracies. The idea is that a well-functioning representative system comes primarily from the form of government and electoral system in which it develops. (shrink)
Currently, the concept of the cell as a society or an ecosystem of molecular elements is gaining increasing acceptance. The basic idea arose in the 19th century, from the surmise that there is not just a single unit underlying an individual’s appearance, but a plurality of entities with both collaborative and conflicting relationships. The following hypothesis is based around this model. The incompatible activities taking place between different original elements, which were subsumed into the first cell and could not be (...) eliminated, had to be controlled very closely. Similarly, a strong level of control had to be developed over many cellular elements after the cell changed its genome to DNA. We assume that at least some of those original RNA agents and other biomolecules which carry incompatibilities and risks, are retained within current cells, although they are now under strict control. A virus functions as a signal informing these repressed cellular RNAs and other elements of ancient origin how to restore suppressed degrees of molecular freedom, favoring pre-existing molecular affinities and activities, re-establishing ancient molecular webs of interactions, and giving fragments of ancient coded information the opportunity to be re-expressed. Collectively, these newly activated mechanisms lead to different possibilities for pathological cell states. All these processes are opposed by cell-control mechanisms. Thus, in this new scenario, the battle is considered intracellular rather than between the virus and the cell. And so the virus is treated as the signal that precipitates the cell’s change from a latent to an active pathological state. (shrink)
This article attempts to analyze the deconstruction of the linear organization of legal systems into a plurality of organized networks conform a circular systemic organization. As we know, the process of systematization runs parallel to the evolution of the modern State and, in this sense, the structure constitutes a single and well defined corps. However, at present, the emergence of multiple legal networks has been seen to turn Law into a structure that translates into a plethora of information that is (...) hard to nuance. Finally, with respect to the emergence of reflexive law, such reflexivity is feasible only when the processes of democratization create discursive structures in social subsystems, so the main problem is to deal with is their identity within a dynamic process of inter-legalities. (shrink)
Tras recordar la intensa labor intelectual desarrollada por José Gómez Caffarena, se analizan la estructura y tesis fundamentales de su obra El enigma y el misterio. Una filosofía de la religión. A las consideraciones sobre la historia y estructura del hecho religioso se agrega un amplio estudio sobre las diversas posiciones ante lo religioso, conforme a una triple tipología inspirada en Dilthey, para articular finalmente una elaborada propuesta sobre la plausibilidad filosófica de la fe en Dios, en la que (...) se abordan muy diversos problemas de la filosofía de la religión . Con un sólido conocimiento de la tradición escolástica y de la filosofía moderna , Caffarena ofrece una sobria y matizada propuesta en la que defiende la posible conjugación de las cautelas de la razón con el aliento de la esperanza. (shrink)
Gomez, Cristina Lledo This article explores the idea that motherhood is an invitation to engage with the paschal mystery and can thus be a salvific experience in the lives of women. This is of even greater significance for a Christian mother who can explicitly name the experience as her own sharing in the paschal event of Jesus. This article will focus on crisis moments of motherhood in a contemporary Western context, exploring particularly the issues raised in first becoming a mother, (...) and on the initial years of motherhood. (shrink)
Abstract: I address the issue of how pretence emerged in evolution by reviewing the (mostly negative) evidence about pretend behaviour in non-human primates, and proposing a model of the type of information processing abilities that humans had to evolve in order to be able to pretend. Non-human primates do not typically pretend: there are just a few examples of potential pretend actions mostly produced by apes. The best, but still rare, examples are produced by so-called 'enculturated' apes (reared by humans) (...) and among them specially those that have been systematically trained to use symbols (so-called 'linguistic' apes). A hypothesis that would explain the lack of pretence in apes is that they lack the mentalistic ability of theory of mind. However, in the last years apes have been demonstrated to possess relatively sophisticated social cognitive skills, some of them ontogenetically appearing in humans alongside with or even after pretend play. As a solution to the paradox, I discuss a model according to which pretence is supported by a mechanism capable of computing intentional relations with non-existing objects or properties (Intentional non-existence), as opposed to mechanisms computing intentional relations with existing, although not necessarily currently perceived, objects (Intentional availability). Apes possess the latter, which allows them to solve a variety of theory of mind tasks, but not the former, which typically prevents them from developing pretence. (shrink)
Paulo Freire consistently upheld humanization and mutuality as educational ideals. This article argues that conceptualizations of knowledge and how knowledge is sought and produced play a role in fostering humanization and mutuality in educational contexts. Drawing on Mary Shelley?s novel Frankenstein, this article focuses on the two central characters who ?ardently? pursue knowledge at all costs. It will be argued that the text suggests two possible outcomes from the pursuit of knowledge. One is mutuality; the other is social disconnectedness.
Beltrami's first allegedly true interpretation of lobachevsky's geometry can be conceived as (i) pursuing a kantian program insofar as it shows that all the geometrical lobachevskian concepts are constructible in the euclidean space of our human representation, And (ii) proving, Even to kant, That a non-Euclidean geometry is not only logically possible (something that kant never denied) but also mathematically acceptable from a kantian point of view (something that kant would have accepted only after beltrami's interpretation).
The Freud Wars offers a comprehensive introduction to the crucial question of the justification of psychoanalysis. Part I examines three powerful critiques of psychoanalysis in the context of a recent controversy about its nature and legitimacy: is it a bankrupt science, an innovative science, or not a science at all but a system of interpretation? The discussion makes sense of the entrenched disagreement about the validity of psychoanalysis, and demonstrates how the disagreement is rooted in the theoretical ambiguity of the (...) central concept of psychoanalysis, the unconscious. This ambiguity is then presented as the pathway to a new way of understanding psychoanalysis, based on a mode of thinking that precedes division into mental and physical. The reader is drawn into a lively and thought-provoking analysis of the central issues: · What would it mean for psychoanalysis to count as a science? · Is psychoanalysis a form of hermeneutics? · How can mental and physical explanations coincide? Part II contains the source material for Part I: the influential critiques of psychoanalysis by Adolf Grünbaum, Thomas Nagel and Jürgen Habermas. No specialised knowledge is assumed, and the book is clear and accessible while still conveying the complexity and richness of the subject. It provides a fascinating introduction to philosophical thinking on psychoanalysis for students and practitioners of psychoanalysis, psychotherapy and philosophy. (shrink)
This chapter proposes that the cognitive mechanisms of joint attention (defined as a combination of attention following skills with attention contact skills) are not metarepresentational in nature, but based upon the coordination of two different types of intentional understanding — third-person and second-person intentions — that are represented at the level of a sensorimotor notion of others as subjects. This proposal is developed and analyzed from a comparative perspective through a review of findings concerning apes, typically developing children, and children (...) with autism. It is argued that each of these populations illustrates a different type of joint attention system based upon different notions of the other as a subject. (shrink)
La tolerancia es un valor que se puede entender como inclusión entusiasta del otro en el propio mundo. Partimos de esta visión, resaltando que, desde ella, ser tolerante requeriría tener la capacidad y la posibilidad de escuchar. Aludimos, en este sentido, tanto a una disposición interior del s..
This book presents a historical perspective on patterns of human rights abuse in Cuba, El Salvador and Nicaragua and incorporates international relations in to the traditional theories of state repression found within the social sciences.
In this work, we examine the debate over thecommodification of agricultural germplasm in Mexico using aneo-Marxist theoretical framework. Specifically, we examine Mexico's movement away from a ``Farmers' Rights'' framework, whichtreats germplasm as a ``common good'' towards the passage of theMexican Federal Law on Plant Varieties, which sees germplasm as acommodity. In order to understand this legal change, the recenthistory of this discourse in Mexico is examined. Usingtheoretical insights based in an analysis of this discourse, weexamine the ideological elements of this (...) debate. It is arguedthat an international hegemonic bloc has arisen to address thisissue, superceding the bounds of any single state entity andfunctioning through the international bodies of free trade.Taking the Mexican state to be relatively autonomous fromcapital, we argue that the hegemonic bloc influenced the changein Mexican policy. We conclude with a discussion of the possibleeffects of this legal change in Mexico. (shrink)
Nuestro propósito aquí es el de dar cuenta, de un modo sumario, de la figura de Abu Bakr Zakariyya al-Razi (el Rhazes de los latinos) y los posibles orígenes de su pensamiento, así como presentar la originalidad de su pensamiento filosófico en el contexto de su tiempo y su cultura.
The con flict be tween postmodernidad and mo der nity has left a se ries of leg a cies that al - though not new, be gin to resurge in a con text of con stant and dis tinct sociopolitical trans for ma - tion. In the case of Latin Amer ica, ac cord ing to Wallerstein, the mo ment has ar rived for..
El presente trabajo pretende servir como introducción a una teodicea de la filosofía y la teología racionalista (mu'tazilí) árabe a partir de un texto de Algazel. Esta teología y filosofía cree que Dios ha creado el mejor de los mundos posibles debido a su esencia buena, siendo, por tanto, optimista y determinista. Sin embargo, este optimismo en la teología viene dado por la mera voluntad de Dios, mientras que en la filosofía por la causalidad y la necesidad lógica.
This commentary criticizes nonverbal methods of assessing theory-of-mind on the basis of prior training of the critical response because they would encourage simple, nonmentalistic, associative solutions even in subjects with mentalistic capacities. I propose instead a new experimental paradigm based upon the use of spontaneous responses in less artificial situations. This method has already provided positive evidence of some level of ToM understanding in nonhuman primates.
On the basis of Eugen Fink’s insistence that the true contribution of Kant’s transcendental dialectic is that its treatment of the problem of totality reveals the concept ‘totum’ to be a masking of the nothing, our aim is to highlight that the theory of sexual relation introduced by Lacan in his Seminar Encore –and in general his turn to the real from the 1960 onwards– presents a group of features that make clear its Kantian affiliation. The particular analysis of the (...) logic of illusion contained in Lacan’s formulas of sexuation entail the exposure of three nothings: the impossibility of the sexual relation, the non-existence of The woman, and the absence of the Other of the Other. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to prove how what is apparently a mistake made by Plutarch, wheter deliberate or not, in his reference to the arson attack of Caesar´s soldiers in Alexandria as the end of the famous Library, show us the common sense of the term “bibliotheke” from that time up to now. Coming to this conclusion has required a detailed analysis of the Library of Alexandria since its birth applying Aristotelian doctrine to its configuration not only as (...) an organized space for books but also as an imaginary reading room from which the helenistic world of relations is established. In a second approach, we focus the attention on the change occurred in this collection with the introduction of alphabetical order and, then, with the philological activity of Callimachus. As a result of his Pinakes, the platonic concept of daimon, “guide”, became the first characteristic o a philologist or librarian. Using the information ordered in the Pinakes anybody could be a librarian and find a library anywhere. The old megále bibliotheke of Alexandría remains only with the idea of the conservation of original papyrus. This is de reason of the enigmatic sentence of Plutarch announcing the end of this situation caused by the action of the fire. (shrink)
In this paper we present a semantic analysis of the application of didactic constructivism to chemical education. We show that the psychological basis of constructivism yield, when applied to chemistry, an internalist semantics for the chemical names. Since these names have been presented as typical examples of an externalism for kind terms, a fundamental incompatibility ensues. We study this situation, to conclude that it affects chemical education at every level. Finally, we present a preliminary analysis of this problem from the (...) point of view of physics. (shrink)
Nowadays is necessary to understand Life in a global way and that means to consider several dimensions of the topic at the same time: the ecological and the biological ones, but also the technical and symbolic ones, because we are just living –as it is well known– in a great “net-world”. The interdependence is the key, above all when Nature and Culture interact and integrate the new ecosystem of the planet Earth as never they did before, and all that includes (...) many challenges and risks too. (shrink)
It is pretended to show the influence Cervantes had on Freud. Freud was worried about the psychic disorders. He was also disappointed by the methods of psychiatry had at that time. Freud was very interested in the plays of Cervantes, especially in El coloquio de los perros and El Quixote, where reality and illusion, and the relationship between sanity and insanity are their central axes. One of the possible readings of the great play is the one where limits between reason (...) and unreason are not clear, to the point of achieving “the reason of the unreasonableness”, which would make it understandable and explicable. Real fantasy, fantastic reality, the demarcation between them was one of the topics that worried Freud. Freud is not a simple lawyer of the irrationality, but he also tries to find “the reason of the unreasonableness” that neurotics show in the symptoms he tried to explain in detail. (shrink)
La polémica Mach-Planck acerca del estado cognitivo de las teorías científicas nos permite llegar a las siguientes conclusiones. No siempre el que defendió las posturas luego asentadas científicamente desarrolló los mejores argumentos en la polémica. Por ejemplo, Planck malinterpretó las tesis de Mach acerca de la imagen científica, sus conceptos y leyes. La postura de ambos estaba fundada en distintas filosofías y, por ende, en distintos sistemas de valores y en modos diferentes de priorizarlos. Hay una relatividad temporal de un (...) aparente vencedor por sobre otro que se invierte en otro momento del desarrollo histórico de la física. No hay algoritmo o argumento definitivo alguno para declarar vencedora a ninguna de las posturas. Dicotomías filosóficas como realismo-instrumentalismo son insuficientes para captar la complejidad de las posturas epistemológicas y ontológicas de los científicos. Finalmente, la polémica enfatiza el rol decisivo de la dimensión filosófica en cuestiones teóricas de la física. The Mach-Planck controversy about the cognitive status of scientific theories lead us to the following conclusions. Not always the one who maintains some theses that look better is the one who advanced the best arguments for criticizing his opponent. Their views were grounded in different philosophies, and consequently, in different valuesystems. There was no absolute winner-loser; each one might look like a winnerloser depending upon de historical and scientific context relative to which the choice is being made. There is no algorithm and definitive argument for declaring a final winner-loser. Standard philosophical dichotomies like realism vs. instrumentalism are insufficient for grasping the complexity of the epistemological and ontological positions of scientists. Finally, the controversy emphasizes the decisive role played by philosophy in the theoretical issues of physics. (shrink)