The accuracy of proxies when they interpret advance directives or apply substituted decision-making criteria has been called into question. It therefore became important to know if the Andalusian Advance Directive Form can help to increase the accuracy of proxies' predictions. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of the AADF on the accuracy of proxies' predictions about patients' preferences with that gained from informative and deliberative sessions about end-of-life decision making. A total of 171 pairs of patients (...) and their proxies were randomized to three groups. The control group's answers to the Life Sustaining Preferences Questionnaire were compared with their proxies' answers to the same questionnaire. In one intervention group, the patients had already completed the AADF and given it to their proxies, who used it to guide their own answers to the LSPQ. In the second intervention group, both patients and proxies attended two educative sessions guided by trained nurses and later filled in the LSPQ. Comparisons of accuracy and other variables showed a strong association with the discussion group. The findings show that promoting communication between patients and their proxies improves the accuracy of proxies' predictions much more than isolated use of the AADF form. (shrink)
This study describes the methodology used by Marcos Y. Lopez of the Centro Escolar University in developing and validating The CEU-Lopez Critical Thinking Test. The test is a multi-aspect general-knowledge critical thinking test designed for Filipino students in tertiary level. It uses Ennis’s conception of critical thinking in the development of test items. The use of verbal reports of thinking to establish validity and fairness of multiple-choice critical thinking test is based on the study by Norris in validating his co-authored (...) Test on Appraising Observations. Verbal reports of thinking are useful in establishing validity and fairness of multiple-choice critical thinking tests for they provide evidence to judge whether good thinking is in general associated with choosing answers credited by the key as correct and poor thinking is associated with choosing unkeyed answers . The eight processes employed in developing and validating this multiple-choice critical thinking test are as follows: test conceptualization, development of a test plan, development of test items, face and content validation of the test, revision of the test items, pre try-out of the test, actual try-out of the test, and construct validation of the test using verbal reports of thinking. The CEU-Lopez Critical Thinking Test consists of 87 items that focus on five aspects of critical thinking: deduction, credibility judgment, assumption identification, induction, and meaning. (shrink)
Este es el primer número de la revista tras la jubilación del profesor Nicolás López Calera. Él ha sido su director durante más de cuarenta años, concretamente desde que en 1967 se incorporase a la Universidad de Granada como catedrático de Derecho Natural y Filosofía del Derecho. Hasta ahora, en que ha querido retirarse también de esa página de inicio que da cuenta de las responsabilidades oficiales de su confección. Valgan estas líneas como testimonio de reconocimiento y agradecimiento por parte (...) de los que actualmente nos hacemos cargo de ella, anteriormente colaboradores suyos, y que ahora hemos asumido la responsabilidad de mantener su continuidad con la intención de avanzar por el camino que él abrió en su momento. (shrink)
In this book, Jason Kido Lopez argues that self-deception is a matter of intentionally using the strategies and methods of interpersonal deception on oneself. This conception demonstrates interesting connections between Sartre’s notion of bad faith, interpersonal deception and lying, pretense, wishful thinking, akrasia, and unintentional biases.
In _Lukács: Praxis and the Absolute_, Daniel Andrés López reassembles Lukács’s philosophy of praxis on a Hegelian basis, as a conceptual-historical totality, both defending him and proposing an unprecedented, immanent critique that raises problems for Marxian philosophy as a whole.
I respond to comments offered by Peter Harrison and Thupten Jinpa on my book Buddhism and Science: A Guide for the Perplexed (2008). I report briefly on the reception of the book thus far and provide a summary of its contents before responding individually to the essays of Harrison and Jinpa.
Artificial stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system has been shown to improve ownership of body parts in neurological patients, suggesting vestibular contributions to bodily self-consciousness. Here, we investigated whether galvanic vestibular stimulation interferes with the mechanisms underlying ownership, touch, and the localization of one’s own hand in healthy participants by using the “rubber hand illusion” paradigm. Our results show that left anodal GVS increases illusory ownership of the fake hand and illusory location of touch. We propose that these changes are (...) due to vestibular interference with spatial and/or temporal mechanisms of visual-tactile integration leading to an enhancement of visual capture. As only left anodal GVS lead to such changes, and based on neurological data on body part ownership, we suggest that this vestibular interference is mediated by the right temporo-parietal junction and the posterior insula. (shrink)
In our everyday moral deliberations, we attend to two central types of considerations – outcomes and moral rules. How these considerations interrelate is central to the long-standing debate between deontologists and utilitarians. Is the weight we attach to moral rules reducible to their conduciveness to good outcomes (as many utilitarians claim)? Or do we take moral rules to be absolute constraints on action that normatively trump outcomes (as many deontologists claim)? Arguments over these issues characteristically appeal to commonsense intuitions about (...) various cases. As a result, an important portion of the debate involves empirically tractable questions — questions that can be investigated by probing for people’s judgments in cases in which the two types of considerations come into conflict with one another. (shrink)
Different theoretical approaches highlight the growing relevance of corporate reputation as strategic factor. Among these approaches the arguments of the Resource-Based View are special worthwhile (Grant, 1991, California Management Review 33(3), 114–135; Barney, 1999, Sloan Management Review Spring, 137–145). Nevertheless, this topic poses several methodological problems (Barney et al., 2001), as the unavailability to identify and measure this organizational factor, that is “socially complex” and intangible in its nature. In this work, using the findings of our empirical research on Spanish (...) biotechnology firms, we carry out an identification and measurement of corporate reputation, highlighting its two key components: “business reputation” and “social reputation”. (shrink)
This paper argues that narrative elements from the science fiction (SF) literary genre are used in the discourse of Nanoscience and Technology (NST) to bridge the gap between what is technically possible today and its inflated promises for the future. The argument is illustrated through a detailed discussion of two NST texts. The paper concludes by arguing that the use of SF narrative techniques poses serious problems to the development of a critical analysis of the ethical and social implications of (...) NST. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to prove how what is apparently a mistake made by Plutarch, wheter deliberate or not, in his reference to the arson attack of Caesar´s soldiers in Alexandria as the end of the famous Library, show us the common sense of the term “bibliotheke” from that time up to now. Coming to this conclusion has required a detailed analysis of the Library of Alexandria since its birth applying Aristotelian doctrine to its configuration not only as (...) an organized space for books but also as an imaginary reading room from which the helenistic world of relations is established. In a second approach, we focus the attention on the change occurred in this collection with the introduction of alphabetical order and, then, with the philological activity of Callimachus. As a result of his Pinakes, the platonic concept of daimon, “guide”, became the first characteristic o a philologist or librarian. Using the information ordered in the Pinakes anybody could be a librarian and find a library anywhere. The old megále bibliotheke of Alexandría remains only with the idea of the conservation of original papyrus. This is de reason of the enigmatic sentence of Plutarch announcing the end of this situation caused by the action of the fire. (shrink)
Pedro de Toledo’s translation, Enseñador e Mostrador delos Turbados, is the earliest and most extensive philosophical text to appear in Spanish. The first translation into a vernacular language of RaMBaM’s Guide for the Perplexed is presented in Ms. 10289 of the Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid. The text seems an intellectual battle-field. It presents some interesting and peculiar characteristics at once: a text covered with glosses of the translator himself, and comments, variant translations, philosophical and theological disagreements, the use of rabbinic and (...) scriptural sources, by an anonymous critical commentator. These discrepancies show how the sensitive nature of the Maimonides ideas demands a particular hermeneutics, and offers an interesting view about the Spanish Jewish controversy in the fifteenth century. (shrink)
There have been two main lines in the literature on restricted games: the first line was started by Myerson (1977) that studied graph-restricted games an the second one was initiated by Faigle (1989). The present paper provides a unified way to look on the literature and establishes connections between the two different lines on restricted games. The strength and advantages of this unified approach becomes clear in the study of the inheritance of the convexity from the game to the restricted (...) game where an interesting result by Nouweland and Borm (1991) on the convexity of graph-restricted games is turned into a direct consequence of the corresponding result by Faigle (1989), by means of this relation. (shrink)
Joy Gordon has made a major contribution to both the ethical analysis and the policy evaluation of economic sanctions. Her claims against sanctions should be understood as critique rather than condemnation of sanctions on ethical grounds.
In Communitas: The Origin and Destiny of Community, Roberto Esposito develops a destructionist reading of political philosophy, interested in tracing modernity's attempt to constitute the political as a radical negation of our exposure to others. If the task of contemporary political thinking is to interrupt the myth of the common, without falling back completely into the negative and self-destructive power of immunization, political philosophy must be confronted with itself, searching within itself for the traces and points of departure – hermeneutic (...) supports – for such a destructive gesture. Esposito finds and develops these traces in a genealogical line that, starting with Hobbes, goes through Rousseau and Kant and ends with Heidegger and Bataille. By way of this genealogy, Esposito intends to show how modern philosophy would already have started to interrupt the dialectics between the immunization paradigm and the myth of the common. In this paper I argue that Hegel is not only an interesting figure but also an obligatory step in this effort, and in doing so I will pay particular attention to a notion of being-in-common that arises in The Spirit of Christianity and its Fate from his criticism of the violence of law. Hence, Hegel is read here in the light of an unexplored relationship to Esposito's work in Communitas. (shrink)
El artículo aboga por la unificación de criterios en el estilo de escritura académica y en su transmisión a través de la publicación. Recoge información del dosier presentado en el año 2003 por la Universidad de Granada titulado "Evaluación normativa, calidad editorial y difusión de las revistas científicas editadas por el Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid". Se centra en una de las secciones más relevantes de las publicaciones periódicas: la información que deben tener los autores si (...) quieren que sus trabajos tengan mayor impacto y calidad metodológica. A lo largo de cuatro capítulos se realiza una selección de parámetros y criterios a los que deben adaptarse las revistas científicas según los nuevos usos nacionales e internacionales. Se aborda, asimismo, la implementación de los requisitos e itemes normativos a la revista Anales del seminario de historia de la filosofo. Por último se presenta una selección de normas, tesauros y manuales del estilo, con la intención expresa de allanar el dificil camino de la comunicación científica. (shrink)
Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues (...) in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination. (shrink)
This paper explores the way in which Agamben takes part in the dialogue on “impolitical communities” that was inaugurated by J. L. Nancy and was soon followed by authors like M. Blanchot, J. Derrida and R. Esposito, among others. Although Agamben’s ontological exploration of ‘whatever being,’ followed later by the political idea of form-of-life, are still very close particularly to Nancy’s work, the article will show in which ways Agamben’s view of a political coming community explores different paths and moves (...) in unusual registers, that help to understand in new ways the kind of inoperativeness involved in a contemporary rethinking of community. The notion of experience of thought as potentiality and its relationship to that “tiny displacement” of the world which Agamben seems to connect with his idea of a coming community will play a central role in the analysis. (shrink)
Abstract In this study a training programme was implemented to increase reflectivity in 13?and 14?year?old children in the 8th grade of a primary school in Spain. We hoped to confirm that an increase in reflectivity would promote moral development in these children. We did not use classical techniques for improving moral development (values clarification, moral dilemmas, etc.) but, rather, cognitive techniques to increase reflectivity?? problem?solving, self?instruction, scanning strategies, and so on. We used Cairns and Cammock's Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFF20) (...) (1978) and Rest's Defining Issues Test (DIT) (1986) as measuring instruments. As we had supposed prior to the intention, we succeeded in increasing reflectivity in the children in the experimental group in comparison with those in the control group and, as a result, in significantly improving their moral development in scores of post?conventional levels and in the P index. We think that this investigation opens new ways for interventions in the field of moral development. (shrink)
Most philosophical and historiographical interpretations of the origins of modern science have conferred an essential relevance to the importance attached to experience and experiment during sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. These epistemological categories have been very often deemed basic concepts that need not any further analysis. As an alternative interpretation, this paper rather suggests to think over the philosophical and scientifical evolution of the concept of experience itself up to seventeeenth century. The chain sensation-memory-experience that Aristotle had provided as the way (...) to the establishing of first principles of science, was after worked out by scholastic thinkers who made of the concept of “experience” a kind of historical knowledge necessary to science although prior to it and deeply legitimated by the authority of tradition criteria and the concept of “common opinion”. Seventeenth century science, undertook from different philosophical and disciplinary approaches a criticism as well as a reformulation of the said category of “historical experience”. As a consequence of it science was obliged to search for new legitimating strategies for empirical knowledge. This paper aims to point out the outcomes of this process of experience rationalization, as well as the consequences of considering experience not merely a prior condition, but an essential part of scientific knowledge. (shrink)
Medical professionals are a community of highly educated individuals with a commitment to a core set of ideals and principles. This community provides both technical and ethical socialization. The ideal physician is confident, empathic, forthright, respectful, and thorough. These ideals allow us to define broadly "the excellence" of being a physician. At the core of these ideals is the ability to be empathic. Empathy exhibits itself in attributes of an individual's moral character and also in actions that actualize and support (...) communal life. Empathy, however, can be diminished or even lost and must be nurtured on an ongoing basis. The development of ethical physicians is strongly linked to experiences in the training period. Moral traits are situation-sensitive psychological and behavioral dispositions. The clinical environment of medical training programs can be so intense as to lead to conditions that may actually deprofessionalize trainees. Creating a clinical environment that is ethically nurturing and sustaining is an indispensable component of practicing medicine. (shrink)
Ideal rods and clocks are defined as an infinitesimal symmetry of the spacetime, at least in the non-quantum case. Since no a priori geometric structure is considered, all the possible models of spacetime are obtained.
Dentro del Humanismo Cristiano se da un concepto preciso de lo que sea la naturaleza humana. El hombre es una unidad intrínseca cuerpo-espíritu; por ello es un ser abierto a todo tipo de realidad, tanto material como espiritual o divina. Ha de construir su propia vida en vista de esta realidad si quiere salvarse individualmente y como especie. Actúa de acuerdo al modelo de vida que escoje y al fin que desea alcanzar. Los modelos de sociedad que construye, las instituciones (...) y normas por las que se rigen las diferentes sociedades responden a ese modelo de vida elegido. Por ello, B. Arias Montano y X. Zubiri, al coincidir en el mismo concepto de hombre, coinciden también en una explicación antropológica y filosófica de los actos humanos y los diferentes modelos de sociedad aparecidos a lo largo de la historia. (shrink)
Atran conjectures that a triggering algorithm for a living- kind module could involve inputs from other modules that detect animacy and intentionality. Here we further speculate about how algorithms for detecting specific intentions could be used to trigger between- or within-species categorization. Such categorization may be adaptively important in Eldredge's energy and information realms.
Este trabajo ofrece una selección de enciclopedias y diccionarios especializados en filosofía, obras de referencia imprescindibles en determinados centros de documentación. En un primer apartado se estudian las enciclopedias desde una panorámica general, para abordar a continuación las específicamente filosóficas. Un segundo apartado sitúa la problemática de los diccionarios y de los propiamente filosóficos destacando las diferencias y similitudes con otras obras de consulta. Se trata de revalorizar este tipo de obras mediante el conocimiento de sus características esenciales, finalidades y (...) autorías. (shrink)
Utilitarianism and democracy had always been related, to the point that for same authors democracy is nothing but political utilitarianism. Though his claim can be challenged, utilitarians had always supported democracy. However, their main arguments and proposals had been remarkably different. In this paper we analyze these differences in terms both of the intrinsic differences in their theoretical proposals and of the changing historical and political context.
Confucius proposes the view of human beings as moral agents that have to behave according to their own individual thinking and reflection. In Analects, I, 4, one of his disciples says: “Have I passed on to others anything that I have not tried out myself?” And in Analects, XIII, 23, Confucius says: “The gentleman agrees with others without being an echo.” That is, when one agrees with others it is because using his (today we will say “his or her”) own (...) understanding he (or she) has arrived at the same conclusions. In Analects, XV, 16, he is quite explicit: “When a man is not in the habit of saying: What shall I think of this? What shall I think of this? I can indeed do nothing with him.” In this sense it is clear that he believes in moral autonomy and in human equality. Contrary to what a lot of scholars think, he is not a communitarian thinker; he is a philosopher who wants people to think by themselves. From this early time in the History of China he was proposing what Socrates defended in Athens; the importance of an internal moral conscience. So, if we can speak about Enlightenment in the Greek world, we cansay that Confucius was an enlightenment figure in the Chinese world. In this sense I believe we can conclude that Confucius is not a good example to argue for “Asian Values”. On the contrary, Confucius presents a universalistic theory that strengthens the position of the individual and of his or her self-cultivation. And if one of the objectives of education is that individuals can think by themselves, don’t we have to conclude that the political implication of this theory for the modern world is democracy? (shrink)
Unamuno es un apasionado de su ser. En su dialéctica que es hegeliana en el sentido de limitación-tensión, él es el protagonista y, frente a él, un mundo de sombras shakespearianas en el que se perfilan como antagonistas Dios, el mundo, el otro y todo aquello que limite, ya sea en el espacio, ya sea en el tiempo, ya sea ontológica o psicológicamente, su yo. El mundo le acucia a conocerlo para incorporarlo a sí mismo. Apasionadamente lo encuentra y desencuentra (...) en su trascenderse vivido como trágica limitación del conocimiento y del ser. Dios es lo que él querría ser en su mundo, hecho de la misma materia que los sueños. Y pelea con esa idea y ese todopoderoso antagonista, que le ha vencido desde la eternidad, con el espíritu rebelde de un perdedor. «El otro» le persigue en su existencia desde un sentimiento edípico, antagonista vivido con instintos camitas , raíz en última instancia de su culpabilidad de ser, de ser el bueno y no el otro, de ser querido y no «todo lo querido», causa, en fin, de ese afán de totalidad que es el comedón de su sentimiento trágico de la vida. Toda esta dialéctica existencial apasionadamente subjetiva no podrá ser plasmada nada más que en literatura. La pesantez de los conceptos filosóficos rompería los sueños. Y cubre su filosofía con los ropajes de Mab, la reina de los sueños de Romeo yJulieta, cuyos vestidos son de alas de saltamonte y telas de arafla y sus collares de líquidos rayos de luna. Sus sueños son él y, sus personajes, productos de su fantasía en el más estricto sentido freudiano. A través de sus sueños, se puede llegar al alma de este Caballero de la Trágica Figura que peleó contra gigantescos monstruos del conocimiento montado en el dudoso Caballo de Clavileño de la fe. En los mundos de Don Miguel hay dos sueños, Niebla y San Manuel Bueno, mártir, que se nos presentan como claves para interpretar los hitos de su pensamiento y, a través de éste, la evolución del propio Unamuno. (shrink)
the main relevant philosophical aspect in Suárez’s interpretation of the transcendentals is his doctrine of the notions res and aliquid . therefore, after analyzing the nature and the number of the transcendentals, as well as the relationship between them and the first principles, the article goes into a detailed historical analysis of the notions res and aliquid. With precedents in Avicenna and Duns Scotus, the ens is understood according to Suarez, negatively, as it is not nothing and, in such sense, (...) it is something ( aliquid ) and, positively, as it has got a quidditas and, therefore, it is res. the question of nothing ( nihil ) is thus introduced into modern metaphysics. What’s more, the said interpretation is one of the fundamental conditions of the transformation of metaphysics in modern ontology . thus, in the post- Cartesian context of Schulmetaphysik, and its aliquitas (as non-nihil ) and its quiditative character (as res ) being presumed, the ens will be understood as an intelligible . through that, a Copernican revolution commenced that anticipated Kant himself. (shrink)