14 found
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  1. Some Myths of Connectionism.István S. N. Berkeley - manuscript
    Since the emergence of what Fodor and Pylyshyn (1988) call 'new connectionism', there can be little doubt that connectionist research has become a significant topic for discussion in the Philosophy of Cognitive Science and the Philosophy of Mind. In addition to the numerous papers on the topic in philosophical journals, almost every recent book in these areas contain at least a brief reference to, or discussion of, the issues raised by connectionist research (see Sterelny 1990, Searle, 1992, and O Nualláin, (...)
     
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  2.  89
    What the #$*%! Is a Subsymbol?Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (1):1-13.
  3.  38
    Moving the Goal Posts: A Reply to Dawson and Piercey. [REVIEW]Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (4):471-478.
    Berkeley [Minds Machines 10 (2000) 1] described a methodology that showed the subsymbolic nature of an artificial neural network system that had been trained on a logic problem, originally described by Bechtel and Abrahamsen [Connectionism and the mind. Blackwells, Cambridge, MA, 1991]. It was also claimed in the conclusion of this paper that the evidence was suggestive that the network might, in fact, count as a symbolic system. Dawson and Piercey [Minds Machines 11 (2001) 197] took issue with this latter (...)
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  4.  14
    A Computational Conundrum: “What is a Computer?” A Historical Overview.Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2018 - Minds and Machines 28 (3):375-383.
    This introduction begins by posing the question that this Special Issue addresses and briefly considers historical precedents and why the issue is important. The discussion then moves on to the consideration of important milestones in the history of computing, up until the present time. A brief specification of the essential components of computational systems is then offered. The final section introduces the papers that are included in this volume.
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  5.  45
    Peter Novak, Mental Symbols: A Defence of the Classical Theory of Mind. Studies in Cognitive Systems 19, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997, Xxii + 266 Pp., $114.00, ISBN 0-7923-4370-0. [REVIEW]Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (1):148-150.
  6.  31
    PDP Networks Can Provide Models That Are Not Mere Implementations of Classical Theories.Michael R. W. Dawson, D. A. Medler & Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 1997 - Philosophical Psychology 10 (1):25-40.
    There is widespread belief that connectionist networks are dramatically different from classical or symbolic models. However, connectionists rarely test this belief by interpreting the internal structure of their nets. A new approach to interpreting networks was recently introduced by Berkeley et al. (1995). The current paper examines two implications of applying this method: (1) that the internal structure of a connectionist network can have a very classical appearance, and (2) that this interpretation can provide a cognitive theory that cannot be (...)
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  7. What is Connectionism?Istvan S. N. Berkeley - manuscript
    Connectionism is a style of modeling based upon networks of interconnected simple processing devices. This style of modeling goes by a number of other names too. Connectionist models are also sometimes referred to as 'Parallel Distributed Processing' (or PDP for short) models or networks.1 Connectionist systems are also sometimes referred to as 'neural networks' (abbreviated to NNs) or 'artificial neural networks' (abbreviated to ANNs). Although there may be some rhetorical appeal to this neural nomenclature, it is in fact misleading as (...)
     
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  8.  79
    Connectionism Reconsidered: Minds, Machines and Models.Istvan S. N. Berkeley - manuscript
    In this paper the issue of drawing inferences about biological cognitive systems on the basis of connectionist simulations is addressed. In particular, the justification of inferences based on connectionist models trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm is examined. First it is noted that a justification commonly found in the philosophical literature is inapplicable. Then some general issues are raised about the relationships between models and biological systems. A way of conceiving the role of hidden units in connectionist networks is then (...)
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  9.  72
    What the is a Symbol?Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (1):93-105.
    The notion of a ‘ symbol ’ plays an important role in the disciplines of Philosophy, Psychology, Computer Science, and Cognitive Science. However, there is comparatively little agreement on how this notion is to be understood, either between disciplines, or even within particular disciplines. This paper does not attempt to defend some putatively ‘correct’ version of the concept of a ‘ symbol.’ Rather, some terminological conventions are suggested, some constraints are proposed and a taxonomy of the kinds of issue that (...)
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  10. A Revisionist History of Connectionism.Istvan S. N. Berkeley - manuscript
    According to the standard (recent) history of connectionism (see for example the accounts offered by Hecht-Nielsen (1990: pp. 14-19) and Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1988), or Papert's (1988: pp. 3-4) somewhat whimsical description), in the early days of Classical Computational Theory of Mind (CCTM) based AI research, there was also another allegedly distinct approach, one based upon network models. The work on network models seems to fall broadly within the scope of the term 'connectionist' (see Aizawa 1992), although the term had (...)
     
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  11.  29
    Uncertainty and Quality in Science for Policy Silvio O. Funtowicz and Jerome R. Ravetz Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990, Xii + 229 Pp., US$88.50. [REVIEW]István S. N. Berkeley - 1993 - Dialogue 32 (4):837-.
  12.  15
    Taming Type-2 Tigers: A Nonmonotonic Strategy.István S. N. Berkeley - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):66-67.
    Clark & Thornton are too hasty in their dismissal of uninformed learning; nonmonotonic processing units show considerable promise on type-2 tasks. I describe a simulation which succeeds on a “pure” type-2 problem. Another simulation challenges Clark & Thornton 's claims about the serendipitous nature of solutions to type-2 problems.
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  13.  14
    Some Counter-Examples to Page's Notion of “Localist”.Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):470-471.
    In his target article Page proposes a definition of the term “localist.” In this commentary I argue that his definition does not serve to make a principled distinction, as the inclusion of vague terms make it susceptible to some problematic counterexamples.
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  14. The Curious Case of Connectionism.Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2019 - Open Philosophy 2 (1):190-205.
    Connectionist research first emerged in the 1940s. The first phase of connectionism attracted a certain amount of media attention, but scant philosophical interest. The phase came to an abrupt halt, due to the efforts of Minsky and Papert, when they argued for the intrinsic limitations of the approach. In the mid-1980s connectionism saw a resurgence. This marked the beginning of the second phase of connectionist research. This phase did attract considerable philosophical attention. It was of philosophical interest, as it offered (...)
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