It is shown that the equation deduced by Marinov for the gravitational frequency shift does not follow from his assumptions. The correct equation is deduced. It is pointed out that the result of Marinov's absolute spacetime theory concerning the gravitational frequency shift is contained in general relativity as an approximate description. The need for experiments testing the validity of Marinov's measurements is emphasized.
Supporters of eliminative connectionism have argued for a pattern association-based explanation of language learning and language processing. They deny that explicit rules and symbolic representations play any role in language processing and cognition in general. Their argument is based to a large extent on two artificial neural network (ANN) models that are claimed to be able to learn the past tenses of English verbs (Rumelhart & McClelland, 1986, Parallel distributed processing, Vol. 2, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; MacWhinney & Leinbach, 1991, (...) Cognition, 40, 121-157). In this article we critically review Rumelhart and McClelland's as well as MacWhinney and Leinbach's ANN models and conclude that they do not succeed in the assigned task of learning the past tenses of English verbs. In order to answer their challenge to the symbolic processing approach, we present our symbolic pattern associator (SPA)-a general-purpose pattern associator that can learn to associate arbitrary discrete patterns. We carried out several experiments with the SPA using the same set of verbs that was used in MacWhinney and Leinbach's simulation with more realistic training and testing procedures. The SPA outperformed the connectionist models by a wide margin in the accuracy of learning, and successful inductive generalizations to unseen verbs. Our SPA has very natural and psychologically realistic explanations to many psychological effects such as U-shaped learning curve, and is much closer to human subjects in predicting past tense of the pseudo-verbs. In contrast to ANNs, whose internal representations are entirely opaque, the SPA can represent the acquired knowledge in the form of production rules that allow for further higher-level processing and integration, resulting in linguistically realistic associative templates for irregular verbs and production rules for regular verbs. In the light of these findings, we conclude that eliminative connectionists' vision of cognition as simple pattern association and pattern recognition without symbolic representation is inadequate. Pattern association as such does not imply rule-less or cue-based models of language acquisition or of human learning in general. (shrink)
Increasing the socio-economic effects caused by the tourism development in the local population, they adopt some attitudes according to the impacts directly or indirectly perceived. However, some of this impact can be considered positive or negative, according to different perspectives. The issue of the resident-tourist relationship has been much-discussed recently. Therefore, many case studies are being conducted that address the impacts on both residents and tourists. The goal of this manuscript is to analyze the attitudes of local residents to the (...) development of tourism in the urban monument zone Předhradí. Primary data were collected in a questionnaire survey for residents who have a permanent residence in a municipality of Předhradí in 2020. In our research, we tried to identify the significant negative impacts of tourism development. In the same way, we evaluate how the locals see positive effects on their quality of life conducted with tourism development. The research finds out that local respondents perceived some negative impacts to increase the economic perspective, as they referred to in the higher traffic load or increased noise. The pandemic crises are perceived as a game-changer in the tourism industry. For that reason, we suggest the primary considerations for future research not only with the academic perfective as for the practical point of view. The local population’s entrepreneurship attitudes must be one of the tools to assume the resilience toward the tourism development impacts. (shrink)
ABSTRACT This article deals with the communicational aspects of Aristotle’s theory of signification as laid out in the initial chapters of the De Interpretatione (Int.).1 We begin by outlining the reception and main interpretations of the chapters under discussion, rather siding with the linguistic strand. We then argue that the first four chapters present an account of verbal communication, in which words signify things via thoughts. We show how Aristotle determines voice as a conventional and hence accidental medium of signification: (...) words as ‘spoken sounds’ are tokens of thoughts, which in turn are signs or natural likenesses of things. We argue that, in this way, linguistic expressions may both signify thoughts and refer to things. This double account of signification also explains the variety of ontological, logical and psychological interpretations of the initial chapters of Int. (shrink)
In the article, the author deals with the political and social influences of the relationship between the state and religious communities in France. The first part of the paper is an analysis of historical context and the construction of laicism in France through its local characteristics, values and social strengths, contributing to its formation. The fact that Catholic Church was one of the main legitimizing pillars of?the old regime?, permanently determined the relationship between church and state, most importantly - it?s (...) subsequent social exclusion under the Republic. The 1789 French revolution in conjunction with the 1905 law on the Separation of church and state, up until present time, have been seen as the most important events in defining the relationship between political and religious entities in France. The second part of the paper continues in outlining the founding logic and principles of the contemporary relationship between religious communities and the French state. The article concludes in suggesting that through its persistence of a purely Laicistic model of state-church affiliation, view of the nation as a community of citizens, Weberian definition of the State, and the acceptance of the public sphere as common space in which communal interests are negated, France today represents an isolated island on the European continent. nema. (shrink)
Le fait d’avoir signalé l’importance du principe de l’invariance est considéré comme un des plus grands mérites d’Einstein. Les symétries sont présentées comme une nouvelle catégorie dans la description du monde physique, laquelle s’ajoute aux catégories des conditions initiales et des lois mêmes de la nature, définies par Newton. Certaines symétries de l’espace et du temps sont faciles à décrire: les lois de la physique doivent être les mêmes partout et indépendantes du temps, de même que ces lois ne changent (...) pas si un système physique subit une rotation autour d’un axe dans l’espace. D’autre part l’invariance relativiste qu’Einstein a incorporé dans sa théorie de la relativité est moins évidente. Einstein a donné une signification physique pleine aux transformations dont se servait Lorentz pour relier mathématiquement les observateurs en mouvement relatif uniforme, reconnaissant qu’il n’était pas possible d’établir le repos absolu ou de déterminer la simultanéité des faits différents. Pourtant la relativité a des éléments absolus, identiques pour tous les observateurs: la vitesse constante de la lumière et l’intervalle bien défini du temps de l’observateur. La relativité a fait son entrée en physique comme un des principes créatifs d’Einstein. Associée au principe quantique provenant des recherches atomiques, elle a donné naissance à la théorie des champs quantiques qui sera une arme puissante dans les recherches futures sur le monde subatomique. Les nouvelles interactions fondamentales, faibles et fortes qui y ont été découvertes ont posé la question d’un nouveau principe responsable des interactions fondamentales. Un tel « principe créatif » se trouve dans le principe mathématique de jauge sur lequel repose le modèle standard actuel des interactions des particules élémentaires actuelles. Il est remarquable que les deux autres principes, le principe quantique et le principe de jauge sont également attribués à Einstein. Pourtant l’idée la plus importante d’Einstein est de faire entrer l’intégralité de la physique dans l’espace de Minkowski soumis aux transformations de Lorentz. Aujourd’hui nous sommes conscients du fait que, comme les autres symétries ont leurs restrictions, on peut, à l’échelle cosmique, s’attendre à des écarts par rapport à la symétrie de Lorentz. Les nouvelles idées conjugées avec des mesurages cosmiques dont nous sommes déjà témoins, peuvent nous conduire vers des découvertes surprenantes. (shrink)
Pointing to the importance of invariance principles has been ranked as one of Einstein’s greatest merits. The symmetries represent an additional category used in a description of the physical world, additional to initial conditions and the very laws of Nature, as distinguished by Newton. Some invariances related to space and time are easy to describe: that the laws of nature are the same everywhere, that they are time independent, and that they do not change if some physical system is subjected (...) to a rotation around an axis in space. The relativistic invariance, which Einstein re-established in his special relativity, was based on giving a full physical meaning to the transformations which Lorentz used to relate observers moving uniformly with respect to each other. He realized that there is no absolute “at rest”, and no sensible “simultaneous” events. What is absolute in his relativity is the constant speed of light, and a well defined proper-time interval. The relativity entered physics as the first great creative principle on Einstein’s list. Subsequently, its marriage to the quantum principle established in atomic physics, brought out the quantum field theory as a mighty tool for the future investigation of the subatomic world. The newly discovered fundamental interactions urged to look for a principle explaining them. It has been found in the form of the gauge principle underlying the present day standard model of elementary particle interactions. It is remarkable that Einstein gave his magical touch also to quantum and gauge principles. Still, the most important Einstein’s idea is that the whole of physics has to be expressed in Minkowski’s space, subject to Lorentz transformations. Today we are aware that, like other symmetries with their restrictions, Lorentz symmetry would be restricted to the non cosmological scale. New ideas in conjunction with the forthcoming cosmological measurements may lead to astonishing results. (shrink)
Die Hervorhebung der Bedeutung der Invarianzprinzipien wird zu den größten Verdiensten Einsteins gezählt. Die Symmetrien stellen eine neue Kategorie zur Beschreibung der physikalischen Welt dar, zusätzlich zu den Randbedingungen und den Naturgesetzen, wie sie von Newton aufgestellt wurden. Einige Invarianzen in Bezug auf die Zeit und den Raum sind leicht zu verstehen: dass die Naturgesetze überall die gleichen sind, ferner dass sie zeitunabhängig und unveränderlich sind, wenn ein Bezugssystem der Drehung im Raum um eine Achse ausgesetzt ist. Die relativistische Invarianz (...) hingegen, die Einstein in seine Relativitätstheorie eingebaut hat, bleibt weniger plausibel. Den Lorentz-Transformationen, mit denen Beobachter bei konstanter Geschwindigkeit in einem gemeinsamen Bezugssystem mathematisch beschrieben werden, maß Einstein ihre volle physikalische Bedeutung zu, infolge seiner Erkenntnis, dass es nicht möglich ist, den absoluten Stillstand zu bestimmen oder die Gleichzeitigkeit verschiedener Ereignisse festzustellen. Gleichwohl bestehen in der Relativität auch absolute Bestandteile, die für alle Beobachter gelten: die konstante Lichtgeschwindigkeit und ein genau definiertes Intervall der Eigenzeit des Beobachters. Die Relativität hielt als eines der ersten „kreativen Prinzipien“, die Einstein erkannt hatte, ihren Einzug in die Physik. In Verbindung mit dem Quantenprinzip, das aus der Erforschung der Atomphysik hervorgeht, kam die Quantentheorie der Felder zustande, eine mächtige Waffe für künftige Erforschungen der subatomaren Welt. Die neuentdeckten fundamentalen Interaktionen eröffneten die Frage nach einem neuen Prinzip, das sie erklären konnte. Ein solches kreatives Prinzip wurde im mathematischen Messprinzip erkannt, auf dem auch das heutige Standardmodell des Zusammenwirkens von Elementarteilchen gründet. Es ist erstaunlich, dass beide Prinzipien, das Quantenprinzip und das Messprinzip, aus Einsteins Arbeit hervorgehen. Doch vor allem bleibt Einsteins bedeutendste Idee, dass nämlich die gesamte Physik im Minkowski-Raum zu verorten ist, den Lorentz-Transformationen unterstellt. Heute ist man sich der Tatsache bewusst, dass, wie bei allen anderen Symmetrien mitsamt ihrer Einschränkungen, auch bei der Lorentz’schen mit Abweichungen auf der kosmischen Skala zu rechnen ist. Neue Ideen in Zusammenhang mit kosmischen Messungen, deren Zeugen wir schon jetzt sind, könnten zu erstaunlichen Ergebnissen führen. (shrink)
Sustainable soil management is imperative for agriculture development in any area of the planet Earth so that future generations can enjoy the benefits Earth provides, which is the production of sufficient quantities of healthy food on the soils with preserved natural fertility. Awareness of the need for sustainable development is already present to a certain degree. Therefore, it is necessary to use all of the scientific and professional potential to create appropriate research programs and the implementation of those results in (...) practice. (shrink)
We consider the historic Harress-Sagnac experiment in the light of our absolute space-time theory, proposing two modifications, and we give an account of its recent practical performance. We show that the effect of the rotating disk experiment is a direct result of the light velocity's direction dependence and we point out that our recently performed coupled-mirrors experiment, with whose help for the first time we have measured the Earth's absolute velocity, can be considered as a logical result of the rotating (...) disk experiment. (shrink)
Marinov''s critique I argue, is vitiated by its failure to recognize the distinctive role of superposition within the distributed connectionist paradigm. The use of so-called subsymbolic distributed encodings alone is not, I agree, enough to justify treating distributed connectionism as a distinctive approach. It has always been clear that microfeatural decomposition is both possible and actual within the confines of recognizably classical approaches. When such approaches also involve statistically-driven learning algorithms — as in the case of ID3 — the fundamental (...) differences become even harder to spot. To see them, it is necessary to consider not just the nature of an acquired input-output function but the nature of the representational scheme underlying it. Differences between such schemes make themselves best felt outside the domain of immediate problem solving. It is in the more extended contexts of performance DURING learning and cognitive change as a result of SUBSEQUENT training on new tasks (or simultaneous training on several tasks) that the effects of superpositional storage techniques come to the fore. I conclude that subsymbols, distribution and statistically driven learning alone are indeed not of the essence. But connectionism is not just about subsymbols and distribution. It is about the generation of whole subsymbol SYSTEMS in which multiple distributed representations are created and superposed. (shrink)
In the light of our recently performed experiments, revealing the anisotropy of light velocity in any frame moving with respect to absolute space, we show that the Lorentz transformation, where the relativity of light velocity is given implicitly through the relativity of the time coordinates, must be treated from an absolute point of view if one seeks to preserve its adequacy to physical reality. Then we propose a new transformation (which is to be considered as a legitimate companion of the (...) Lorentz transformation) wherein the relativity of light velocity is given explicitly and the time coordinates are absolute. (shrink)
Proceeding from our absolute space-time conceptions, we obtain the formula for the gravitational frequency shift in an extremely simple way. Using our “burst” model for photons, we show that the different rates of clocks placed in spatial regions with different gravitational potentials appear as a direct result of the gravitational frequency shift and the axiomatic assumption that at any space point the time unit is to be defined by light clocks with equal “arms,” i.e., that at any space point the (...) light velocity (in moving frames the “there-and-back” velocity) has the same numerical valuec. Considering the principle of equivalence, we come to the logical conclusion that the kinematic (Einstein-Lorentz) time dilation is an absolute phenomenon. (shrink)
The article criticises the attempt to establish connectionism as an alternative theory of human cognitive architecture through the introduction of thesymbolic/subsymbolic distinction (Smolensky, 1988). The reasons for the introduction of this distinction are discussed and found to be unconvincing. It is shown that thebrittleness problem has been solved for a large class ofsymbolic learning systems, e.g. the class oftop-down induction of decision-trees (TDIDT) learning systems. Also, the process of articulating expert knowledge in rules seems quite practical for many important domains, (...) including common sense knowledge.The article discusses several experimental comparisons betweenTDIDT systems and artificial neural networks using the error backpropagation algorithm (ANNs usingBP). The properties of one of theTDIDT systemsID3 (Quinlan, 1986a) are examined in detail. It is argued that the differences in performance betweenANNs usingBP andTDIDT systems reflect slightly different inductive biases but are not systematic; these differences do not support the view that symbolic and subsymbolic systems are fundamentally incompatible. It is concluded, that thesymbolic/subsymbolic distinction is spurious. It cannot establish connectionism as an alternative cognitive architecture. (shrink)
If phonons are particles, they must be attached to absolute space through their proper masses, which depend on the absolute velocities. In such a case one should be able to register with phonons the Sagnac and Marinov effects which have been observed with massless and massive particles (photons and neutrons). The experimental possibilities for such experiments are analyzed.
We find the relation between the frequencies received by two observers placed at a given parallel with 180° difference in longitude when they observe a distant light (radio) source. This relation depends on the absolute velocity of the Earth; however, because of the occurrence of aberration, the effect cannot be registered in practice.
Abstract During 1745-1755 Bošković explicitly used the concept of scientific theory in three cases: the theory of forces existing in nature, the theory of transformations of geometric loci, and the theory of infinitesimals. The theory first mentioned became the famous theory of natural philosophy in 1758, the second was published in the third volume of his mathematical textbook Elementorum Universae Matheseos (1754), and the third theory was never completed, though Bošković repeatedly announced it from 1741 on. The treatment of continuity (...) and infinity in natural philosophy, geometry and infinitesimal analysis brought about inter?theory relations in Bošković's work during his Roman period. The two constructed theories of Bošković, the theory of forces and the theory of geometric transformations, directly influenced the idea for the construction of his third theory. These written theories refer to understanding and effective application of continuity and infinity in natural philosophy and geometry, and this task, according to Bošković, requires methodological support from the theory of infinitesimals. (shrink)
Tijekom svoje kratke filozofske profesure na Bečkom sveučilištu i u plemićkom zavodu Collegium Theresianum , ali i potom dok je bio profesorom teologije u Beču, isusovac Josip Zanchi, riječki plemić, četiri je puta tiskao svoj udžbenik Physica particularis, koji je sadržavao raspravu iz meteorologije. U svim je tim izdanjima izlaganje o uzroku dúge započeo povijesnom bilješkom, u kojoj je sažeto prikazao de Dominisov, Descartesov i Newtonov doprinos objašnjenju dúge. Potraga za Zanchijevim izvorom u optičkim i prirodnofilozofskim djelima objavljenim nakon Newtonova (...) djela Opticks otkrila je tri newtonovca koji su također spomenuli de Dominisa: Henryja Pembertona, Voltairea i Antonija Genovesija. Njima treba pridodati i četvrtoga: Pietera van Musschenbroeka, koji je de Dominisovu ulogu u povijesti istraživanja dúge opisao pod Genovesijevim utjecajem, ali tek u posmrtno objavljenom djelu Introductio ad philosophiam naturalem .Pri sastavljaju svoje povijesne bilješke o istraživanju dúge Josip Zanchi slijedio je Newtona ili nekog newtonovca. Tvrdio je više od Newtona jer je za njega de Dominis »prvi od svih otkrio pravi uzrok dúge«, pri čem je oprezno dometnuo videtur, a objektivnije je od Newtona i nekih newtonovaca opisao Descartesov doprinos. Kad je pak studentima objašnjavao dúgu, slijedio je posljednju riječ znanosti – Newtona.Uporabom Zanchijeva udžbenika Physica particularis s de Dominisovim optičkim i meteorološkim prinosom mogli su se susresti profesori i studenti filozofije i u Hrvatskoj. Taj su udžbenik posjedovale knjižnice na dvama isusovačkim filozofskim učilištima: u Zagrebačkom kolegiju najkasnije od 1758., a u Požeškom kolegiju najkasnije od 1769. godine.While teaching philosophy at the University of Vienna and the elite school Collegium Theresianum , but also theology in the same city, Josip Zanchi, Jesuit of noble birth from Rijeka, had published four editions of his manual Physica particularis, containing also a most comprehensive meteorological treatise. In each of the four Vienna editions his elaboration on the cause of rainbow opens a historical paragraph comprising a short survey of de Dominis’, Descartes’ and Newton’s contributions to the explanation of rainbow. Search for Zanchi’s source in the works dealing with natural philosophy published after Newton’s Opticks has brought to light three Newtonians who also mentioned de Dominis: Henry Pemberton, Voltaire and Antonio Genovesi. The name of Pieter van Musschenbroek should be added to this list. He described de Dominis’ role in the history of the explanation of rainbow under the influence of Genovesi, published posthumously in his work Introductio ad philosophiam naturalem .While composing his historical paragraph on the explanation of rainbow, Josip Zanchi followed in the footsteps of Newton or a Newtonian. He exceeded Newton by stating that de Dominis was »the first to have discovered the true cause of rainbow,« carefully employing videtur in support of his argument, his description of Descartes’ contribution being more objective than that of Newton or some Newtonians. However, in his academic lectures on rainbow, he followed the latest scientific discoveries – Newton.Through Zanchi’s manual Physica particularis, Croatian professors and students of philosophy could also have become familiar with de Dominis’ optical and meteorological contribution. This manual was available in the libraries of two Jesuit philosophical schools: Zagreb College or Collegium Zagrabiense, not later than 1758, and in Požega College or Collegium Poseganum, from 1769 at the latest. (shrink)
Druga knjiga Petrićeve Pancosmije potpuno nam otkriva što je Petrić mislio de continuo ili de divisibilitate quantitatis te nam ujedno nudi mnoge detalje Petrićeve neuspješne strategije pri osporavanju Aristotelovih pojmova neprekidnine i potencijalne beskonačnine. Prigovarajući Aristotelu, Petrić i ne htijući upozorava na glavne domete Aristotelova nauka o neprekidnini, ali nudi svoja, drugačija rješenja, poput zamisli o najmanjoj nedjeljivoj crti. Iako svojim rješenjima ne uspijeva postići ono što je Aristotel blistavo postigao pojmom neprekidnine u tumačenju prirode i matematike, Petrić unutar polemike (...) s Aristotelom postavlja nova pitanja kad se bavi računom s beskonačninama i genealogijom znanosti.The second book of Pancosmia provides full insight into Petrić’s view of the continuum or de divisibilitate quantitatis, offering us many details on Petrić’s futile strategy in refuting Aristotle’s notions of the continuum and the potential infinite. In his objections to Aristotle, Petrić implicitly points the major contributions of Aristotle’s doctrine of continuum, but also submits his own solutions such as the idea of the minimal indivisible line. Although his solutions failed to bring him the results as brilliant as those of Aristotle with the notion of the continuum in the interpretation of nature and mathematics, within his polemic with Aristotle, Petrić comes forward with new questions dealing with the calculus of infinite quantities and genealogy of science. (shrink)
How to reconcile the theory of evolution with existing religious beliefs has occupied minds since Darwin's time. The majority of the discourse on the subject is still focused on the Darwinian version of evolutionary theory, or at best, the mid-twentieth century version of the Modern Synthesis. However, evolutionary thought has moved forward since then with the insights provided by the advent of comparative genomics in recent decades having a particularly significant impact. A theology that successfully incorporates evolutionary biology needs to (...) take such developments into account, because range of truly viable options among the many versions of theistic evolution that have been proposed in the past may narrow down when this is done. Here I present these previously underappreciated strains of contemporary evolutionary thought and discuss their potential theological impact. (shrink)
A review of Porphyre, Sentences. Études d’introduction, texte grec et traduction française, commentaire par l’Unité Propre de Recherche n°76 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientiﬁque,avecunetraductionanglaise de John Dillon. Travaux édités sous la responsabilité de Luc Brisson. J. Vrin, Paris, 2005.
Quantal penetration through a (stationary) one-dimensional potential barrier is considered as a time evolution of an initially prepared wave packet. The large-time asymptotics of the process is concerned. Locality of the potential imposes certain analytical properties of the interaction amplitudes in the energy representation. The results are presented in terms of development of the phase-space (Wigner's) quasi-distribution. The phase-space evolution kernel is constructed, and it is shown that in the presence of a positive potential no part of the distribution is (...) transported faster than the free particle. For the case of a small initial momentum uncertainty, the deformation of the coordinate density is considered, including a possible advance of its maximum, which would not mean any noncausal signal transport. (shrink)
I defend the opinion that Cavalleri and Spinelli, who in the last years abandoned many of the relativity dogmas and embraced many of the absolute conceptions, are still very far from an adequte understanding and interpretation of physical reality.