The book is a reflection over how art functions in late modernity. It emphasizes processes of fictionalizing reality and exposes, how phenomenology can be used to extract this problem on a foundation of aesthetics. It is a panoramic outlook over existing views, but also a self-sufficient theoretical proposal.
The aim of the article is to present the application of the lean management method as appropriate for the management of the organizational system of psychiatric care in the Zealand region of Denmark. The organizational solutions of the Danish psychiatric care system presented in this paper are individualized and adapted to the regional needs of the residents. In Denmark, there are five administrative regions, in which each independently organizes its own system of medical care. This means that the regions have (...) considerable independence in choosing the acceptable and necessary methods of management, including – as is clear from the conducted research – the use of methods put-upon other areas of economy. Although the national laws in Denmark define certain conditions and guidelines for the functioning of psychiatric care, there is a distinct separation of structures and methods of functioning throughout the whole country, which constitutes unique observation material – from the cognitive point of view. The authors of this paper conduct extensive research and analyse the systems of psychiatric care organizations in various countries and, as a result, the obtained results may lead to the selection of the best models from other systems, which can be applied in the currently reorganised system of the Polish psychiatric care. The choice of Denmark for the observational study is not accidental and is related not only to the fact that there is a large degree of systemic identity within the country and between the regions, but also because the country applies solutions addressed to patients with very different cultural conditions and needs, resulting from their descent, religion, and -views. Denmark is one of those European countries that express a significant acceptance of diversity and tolerance, which is why communities with very different imponderables, denominations, and worldviews co-exist. In the area related to the organization of the psychiatric system, these conditions are of key importance. In the period from January 2015 to December 2017 the authors participated in study visits in Denmark, conducting research aimed at identifying the key success factors of the psychiatric care organization system in the country. The conducted analysis is also based on the analysis of literature and own and participant observations. The conclusions concerning this subject are also the result of interviews conducted with employees of the visited hospitals and system users, both professionals and patients. As the search for an optimal organizational model of psychiatric care is currently an ongoing concern in Poland, it seems justified to review the existing solutions in Europe and perform their critical analysis. A comparison of the adopted solutions was performed, in the context of, above all, the improvement of the quality of these services, their availability, and the satisfaction of patients and their families from the proposed organizational changes. The economic benefits of these solutions are also significant. (shrink)
Cathartic-Compensatory Role of an Artwork -/- This article raises the problem of catharsis and its role in arts. It is intended first of all to present, in brief, the controversy about this term in the history of literature and other forms of art and then give a short review of its most important aspects. The article intends to look at catharsis, taking into account its various aspects and different positions as to its role in literature as well as socio-cultural life. (...) It particularly emphasizes the role of Bohdan Dziemidok, who as one of the first researchers to draw attention to the cathartic-compensatory function of art and the role of the recipient’s experience in it. The article, following this trail, presents the latest results of contemporary research on the cathartic-compensatory function of art. A the author argues, they are not only confirmation of Dziemidok’s apt research intuitions but also contribute to the reformulation of our general thinking about art and its role in a contemporary world. (shrink)
The article presents an analysis of the notion of debt in the context of Deleuzean philosophy of affect. The interpretation presented on the following pages is “indebted” to Lazzarato’s conception of the notion of debt as a figure of subjectivity typical for capitalism. Debt is understood as an assemblage of sad passions and considered in relation to social transformations, that have led to contemporary societies of control. The article shows the connection between the concept of debt and the process of (...) individualization characteristic for contemporary society. Firstly, the concepts of control, debt and affect in the philosophy of Deleuze are put into consideration. Secondly, their relation to the forces and assemblages typical for contemporary societies is discussed. In order to grasp the social significance of the philosophical analysis, the article involves a sociological excursion that demonstrates sociological interpretation of the processes that were described in terms of philosophical analysis in the main body of the text. (shrink)
A MAN IS FREE AS HE IS THE IMAGE OF GODLY FREEDOM. FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY’S FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT FREEDOM. The article presents Fyodor Dostoevsky’s considerations of freedom based on both The Brothers Karamazov and The Idiot. The writer shows, that dealing with own freedom is one of the greatest tasks in human life and man's future fate depends wholly on how he copes with this task. Freedom is a fundamental concept in a philosophical anthropology of the Russian novelist. According to his (...) grasp of the problem of evil this is a man, who appears the source of all misery, which he brings upon himself, among which not atheism but false understanding of God is the greatest one. (shrink)
FREEDOM AS THE DIVINE FOUNDATION OF HUMANNES. FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY’S ANTHROPOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS No doubt, freedom is the main topic in the works of Dostoevsky. There is probably no other artist and thinker who would say about freedom more - broadly and profoundly describing all its complexity. Freedom constitutes the humanity and at the same time it is the greatest threat to mankind. Man gets freedom as a gift from God, as a key element of his ontic structure. This gift can be (...) a curse, the engine of destruction, ballast, which one need to quickly dump on someone's shoulders. According to Dostoevsky, a man bows his head humbly before the miracle, authority and wealth. He gives his freedom to those who will show him even a semblance of a miracle, will gain an advantage over him, or provide material prosperity. Freedom becomes ill when used arbitrary, enslaves the other, leads to violence and dehumanization. (shrink)
This contribution considers the question of scale in Peter Sloterdijk’s work in relation to some of the recent tendencies in contemporary French thought. It examines theoretical conditions for approaching philosophy as an exercise in constructing grand narratives and interrogates the legitimacy of such a gesture after poststructuralist critique. What is to be gained from new grand narratives?
The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it aims to confront Hegel's ideas on the interaction between universality, particularity and singularity with those of Butler and to show that Butler's universal is dynamic and infinitely self-renewing. Second, it aims to engage with Butler's politics of translation and to demonstrate how a Levinasian perspective on Hegelian dialectics changes the functioning of the universal. In relation to this claim, the article will also demonstrate how the structural failure in translation and performativity (...) allows for the constant circulation of the universal and, as a consequence, brings about social and political transformation. (shrink)
The present paper consists of two parts. In the first, some issues related to the character of biological experiments conducted under in vitro cultures are portrayed. The relevant aspects of these procedures are explicated from the viewpoint of the experimental botanist. It is a case study for the considerations in the second part, which presents selected philosophical and legal issues involved in biological experiments from the general perspective of philosophical investigations concerning the problem of plants’ axiology. Obviously, the nature of (...) the considerations is limited; not all important questions from the perspective of biology and philosophy have been raised. Nevertheless, the authors hope that the analyzed issues may be interesting for both biologists and philosophers. (shrink)
The question of politics is underdeveloped in René Girard's mimetic theory. This can be fairly easily accounted for. First, mimesis is essentially an ethical mechanism. In Girard, it pertains both to a set of moral prescriptions and to an ethos, understood here as a way of being that exchanges harmful repetitions for favorable ones.1 Throughout his work, Girard advances an ethics of generosity that steers clear of reciprocity, which, in his framework, would lead to violence.2 Second, Girard concentrates on social (...) structures and religious institutions that have been developed over the ages to deal with mimetic crises. These structures of containment protect communities from an all-consuming outbreak of violence by... (shrink)
This article attempts to respond to the fractional presence of feminist discourse around René Girard’s theory of mimetic desire. I will first briefly examine the relevant critical stands on mimesis and then proceed to rehabilitate it for feminism via an analysis of Judith Butler’s theory of performative gender. By bringing together selected aspects of Girard and Butler’s work, it will be possible to build a constructive dialogue between the two thinkers. Due to the scope of the paper I will not (...) be able to give an exhaustive account of the respective theories, and hence I will discuss only the most relevant aspects. Girard is concerned with giving an account of conflictual mimetic desire in social and cultural.. (shrink)
Artykuł jest próbą rozważenia koncepcji artystycznej Debory Vogel w kontekście refleksji nad transformacjami doświadczenia późnej nowoczesności. Jedną z tych zmian, którą uważam za kluczową, jest odejście od narracyjnej linearności ku polifonicznej symultaniczności, związane z przeniesieniem akcentu z czasowych aspektów nowoczesnego doświadczenia na jego aspekty przestrzenne. Drugim kontekstem, w którym rozważam fenomen Vogel, są transformacje, które zaszły w sztuce pod wpływem awangardy – z takimi jej wiodącymi pojęciami jak symultaniczność, polifonia, zaburzenie hierarchii, brak centrum, zdarzenie, wykorzenienie, zatarcie granic między sztuką i (...) życiem. Uważam, że pełne znaczenie wymienionych wątków staje się widoczne w sztuce neoawangardowej. Śledząc wątki sztuki neoawangardowej, wyodrębniam zmiany, które wydają się ważne z perspektywy konieczności powrotu do Vogel jako ich antycypatorki. Metoda, którą przyjmuję, zakłada szczególne rozumienie antycypacji, zgodnie z którym początek jest współtworzona przez jej kontynuację. (shrink)
One of the generalizations of R. W´ojcicki’s concept of referential matrix is so-called pseudo-referential matrix . G. Malinowski, who introduced that concept, also considers a particular case of pseudo-referential matrices called discrete pseudo-referential matrices . In this note we want to show how any generalized matrix determines a semantically equivalent discrete pseudo-referential matrix.
TO SEE BEYOND THE HORIZON. BLAISE PASCAL AND THE QUESTION OF PERSPECTIVE The main purpose of this paper is to present some aspects of Blaise Pascal’s thought, especially his skeptic theory of human natural cognition, as related to his comments on the question of perspective and his technique of permanent changing the points of view. I argue that Pascal’s practice as well as his theoretical considerations on the art of perspective and geometrical optics demonstrate not only some kind of skepticism (...) but a possible starting point to get to the metaphysical, invisible order from the visible world (irrespective of the grace of God). The fundamental condition of such metaphysical discovery is the situation of the lack of sense, of the impossibility to find any definitive answer to any of the questions that our reasoning has to cope with. Pascal finds the paradigmatic example of this “reading the world” in which any visible or intelligible meaning is available in the figural interpretation of the Bible, as opposed to its literal interpretation. At the same time Pascal does not propose any privileged point of view, any other perspective that human being could perceive as established, but always confronts us with Deus absconditus and his paradoxical traces. Keywords: BLAISE PASCAL, SKEPTIC THEORY, HUMAN NATURAL COGNITION, GEOMETRICAL OPTICS, METAPHYSICAL DISCOVERY, HORIZON. (shrink)
This text focuses on the possibility of acquiring universal knowledge by individual subjective consciousness as determined both corporeally and culturally. Along with the appearance of the “question” of the cultural Other the attempts of European philosophers to establish a kind of a universal sphere—intellectual basis for an intercultural dialogue—became more intensive, but still often limited by their relation to the values and ideas of the only one culture. In other words, the attempts to search the community of human kind in (...) an intellectual sphere often led to the universality being the “universalized particularity”, maintained by the empty signifiers. But there is also another philosophical tradition, in which the “universality” of ideas, concepts or values is being perceived as a quasi-universality or pluri-versality, mediated by human organic and cultural interactions, and is being derived rather from “beyond”—from the condition of embodiment—than from “above,” the pure intellectual cognition. I focus on three instances of moving from the order of body towards the quasi-universal values: on Bartolomé de Las Casas’s posing a problem of the universal values in the context of intercultural dialogue, on Michel de Montaigne’s reflections on human nature and Walter Mignolo’s naturalistic foundation of the comparative studies. I chose these examples, because they offer a clear and expressed attempt to reformulate the very idea of possible universality in the context of the desired intercultural dialogue, but within the optics of the embodied subjectivities. (shrink)
Artykuł stanowi próbę analizy listu Pico della Mirandoli O języku filozofów, skierowanego do Hermolausa Barbara. W pierwszej części tekstu zaprezentowano kontekst sporu, czyli znamienne dla epoki napięcie między filozofią a retoryką, oraz krytykę filozofii scholastycznej z perspektywy humanistów. Uwyraźnienie stanowiska Barbara pozwala uchwycić sedno sporu z Pikiem, mianowicie:jakiej prawdy – prawdy o czym – powinniśmy poszukiwać? Do analizy stanowiska Pika posłużyły wypreparowane z jego tekstu opozycje: wnętrze/zewnętrze, prawda/pozór, rozum/zmysły i popędy, filozofia/retoryka-sofistyka, człowiek rozumny/człowiek pospolity. Pozwala to uchwycić myśl Pika jako (...) z założenia paradoksalną: okazuje się, że retoryka zarazem zakrywa istotę rzeczy i ją odkrywa. Jest jednocześnie przeszkodą i nieodzownym narzędziem poznania i wyrażania myśli. Dzieje się tak ze względu na nieuchronną historyczność ludzkiej myśli. (shrink)
IntroductionThe world pandemic of the virus SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19 infection was announced by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Due to the restrictions that were introduced in order to minimize the spread of the virus, people more often suffer from stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. The aim of this study was evaluation of the stress levels and sleep disorders among nursing students during the pandemic SARS-CoV-2.Materials and Study MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study conducted among 397 nursing (...) students on March 2020. The research tools used were original questionnaires, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Athenian Insomnia Scale, as well as Coping with Stress Inventory.ResultsRespondents felt a high level of stress, which occurred in 68.8% of interviewees regarding whether there was a danger of contracting COVID-19. Respondents experienced 84% stress levels when a family member suffered from COVID-19. Sleep disorders were determined mainly by the fear of infection and contact with someone who might be infected with the virus. Nursing students who felt a high level of stress often suffered from sleep disorders more frequently than students who felt a low or average stress level. The respondents decided to cope with stress by denial, taking psychoactive substances, ceasing action, or blaming themselves. The greater the intensity of stress experienced by students, the more often they undertook avoidance behaviors or showed helplessness.ConclusionDuring the pandemic, students experienced severe stress, which resulted in sleep disorders and avoidance behaviors. (shrink)
The article presents findings derived from questionnaires administrated to 150 randomly selected inhabitants of Warsaw in November and early December of 1981. They were asked about their preferences concerning different rules of distributing basic supplies in time of crisis. The authors begin by saying that controlled distribution corresponds to a principle that is considered fundamental in the socialist country, namely the principle of redistribution. It determines all sorts of social exchange that may be governed elsewhere by the principle of reciprocity (...) or by market. Deteriorating Polish economy made it necessary after the Agreements of 198O and 1981 to introduce rationing of meat and fat initially and various other commodities later. This rationing is called “universal” by the authors to distinguish it from “situational” rationing that had existed earlier whenever particular sorts of commodities were in short supply and only first in line were served or whenever particular groups of people were given special entitlements to buy things that were not generally available. The authors point out that a complete collapse of the economic system, whether now in Poland or in any other case, leads to a wide acceptance of different forms of rationing. It is not expected that rationing may help to better the general level of individual needs; it is hoped only that it may ensure more equitable distribution of those goods that are supplied in minimum quantities. Just distribution stands in this case for limited egalitarianism which primarily provides for equal distribution but makes allowances for different levels of needs and endorses exclusion of certain categories of people from the distribution system. In case of grave impoverishment the rules of charity ad mutual help are called upon, or the respondents express their trust in the existence of widespread benevolent attitudes in society. (shrink)
Developmental Task Attainment in Adolescents from Families with a Recovering Alcoholic or Active Alcoholic Father The problem under consideration is the issue of adolescent developmental tasks in families with alcohol-related problems, especially in families which contain one or more treated alcoholics. In the present work it was hypothesised that the treatment of alcoholic fathers would be one of the more important protective factors in families coping with alcoholism. The participants of the study included 91 children, aged 17-18. The research sample (...) was comprised of three groups: 31 children of active alcoholics, 30 children of treated alcoholics, and 30 children of non-alcoholic parents. In general, the results of the study highlight the roles of temperament and parenting practices in the progress of developmental tasks. The data revealed that family characteristics were correlated to the predictors of these tasks. The groups used in the study were differed according to the factors of their developmental tasks. (shrink)
Normativity and Variety of Speech Actions embraces papers focused on the performative dimension of language. While all texts in the volume recognize speech primarily as a type of action, the collection is indicative of the multifaceted nature of J.L. Austin’s original reflection, which invited many varied research programmes. The problems addressed in the volume are discussed with reference to data culled from natural conversation, mediated political discourse, law, and literary language, and include normativity, e.g. types of norms operative in speech (...) acts, speaker’s intentions and commitments, speaker-addressee coordination, but also speech actions in discursive practice, in literal and non-literal language, performance of irony, presupposition, and meaningful significant silence. -/- Contributors are: Brian Ball, Cristina Corredor, Anita Fetzer, Milada Hirschová, Dennis Kurzon, Marcin Matczak, Marina Sbisà, Iwona Witczak-Plisiecka, Maciej Witek, and Mateusz Włodarczyk. (shrink)