27 found
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  1. The Principal Principle Implies the Principle of Indifference.James Hawthorne, Jürgen Landes, Christian Wallmann & Jon Williamson - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (1):axv030.
    We argue that David Lewis’s principal principle implies a version of the principle of indifference. The same is true for similar principles that need to appeal to the concept of admissibility. Such principles are thus in accord with objective Bayesianism, but in tension with subjective Bayesianism. 1 The Argument2 Some Objections Met.
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  2.  43
    Epistemology of Causal Inference in Pharmacology: Towards a Framework for the Assessment of Harms.Jürgen Landes, Barbara Osimani & Roland Poellinger - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (1):3-49.
    Philosophical discussions on causal inference in medicine are stuck in dyadic camps, each defending one kind of evidence or method rather than another as best support for causal hypotheses. Whereas Evidence Based Medicine advocates the use of Randomised Controlled Trials and systematic reviews of RCTs as gold standard, philosophers of science emphasise the importance of mechanisms and their distinctive informational contribution to causal inference and assessment. Some have suggested the adoption of a pluralistic approach to causal inference, and an inductive (...)
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  3.  21
    Variety of Evidence.Jürgen Landes - 2020 - Erkenntnis 85 (1):183-223.
    Varied evidence confirms more strongly than less varied evidence, ceteris paribus. This epistemological Variety of Evidence Thesis enjoys widespread intuitive support. We put forward a novel explication of one notion of varied evidence and the Variety of Evidence Thesis within Bayesian models of scientific inference by appealing to measures of entropy. Our explication of the Variety of Evidence Thesis holds in many of our models which also pronounce on disconfirmatory and discordant evidence. We argue that our models pronounce rightly. Against (...)
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  4.  10
    Evidence Amalgamation in the Sciences: An Introduction.Roland Poellinger, Jürgen Landes & Samuel Fletcher - 2019 - Synthese 196 (8):3163-3188.
    Amalgamating evidence from heterogeneous sources and across levels of inquiry is becoming increasingly important in many pure and applied sciences. This special issue provides a forum for researchers from diverse scientific and philosophical perspectives to discuss evidence amalgamation, its methodologies, its history, its pitfalls, and its potential. We situate the contributions therein within six themes from the broad literature on this subject: the variety-of-evidence thesis, the philosophy of meta-analysis, the role of robustness/sensitivity analysis for evidence amalgamation, its bearing on questions (...)
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  5.  82
    Objective Bayesianism and the Maximum Entropy Principle.Jürgen Landes & Jon Williamson - unknown
    Objective Bayesian epistemology invokes three norms: the strengths of our beliefs should be probabilities, they should be calibrated to our evidence of physical probabilities, and they should otherwise equivocate sufficiently between the basic propositions that we can express. The three norms are sometimes explicated by appealing to the maximum entropy principle, which says that a belief function should be a probability function, from all those that are calibrated to evidence, that has maximum entropy. However, the three norms of objective Bayesianism (...)
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  6.  11
    The variety of evidence thesis and its independence of degrees of independence.Jürgen Landes - 2020 - Synthese:1-31.
    The intuitive Variety of Evidence Thesis states that, ceteris paribus, more varied evidence for a hypothesis confirms it more strongly than less varied evidence. Recent Bayesian analyses have raised serious doubts in its validity. Claveau suggests the existence of a novel type of counter-example to this thesis: a gradual increase in source independence can lead to a decrease in hypothesis confirmation. I show that Claveau’s measure of gradual source independence suffers from two unsuspected types of inconsistencies. I hence put forward (...)
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  7.  11
    On the Assessed Strength of Agents’ Bias.Jürgen Landes & Barbara Osimani - 2020 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 51 (4):525-549.
    Recent work in social epistemology has shown that, in certain situations, less communication leads to better outcomes for epistemic groups. In this paper, we show that, ceteris paribus, a Bayesian agent may believe less strongly that a single agent is biased than that an entire group of independent agents is biased. We explain this initially surprising result and show that it is in fact a consequence one may conceive on the basis of commonsense reasoning.
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  8.  5
    The Principal Principle, admissibility, and normal informal standards of what is reasonable.Jürgen Landes, Christian Wallmann & Jon Williamson - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (2):1-15.
    This paper highlights the role of Lewis’ Principal Principle and certain auxiliary conditions on admissibility as serving to explicate normal informal standards of what is reasonable. These considerations motivate the presuppositions of the argument that the Principal Principle implies the Principle of Indifference, put forward by Hawthorne et al.. They also suggest a line of response to recent criticisms of that argument, due to Pettigrew and Titelbaum and Hart, 621–632, 2020). The paper also shows that related concerns of Hart and (...)
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  9.  14
    Reliability: An Introduction.Stefano Bonzio, Jürgen Landes & Barbara Osimani - 2020 - Synthese:1-10.
  10.  46
    Justifying Objective Bayesianism on Predicate Languages.Jürgen Landes & Jon Williamson - unknown
    Objective Bayesianism says that the strengths of one’s beliefs ought to be probabilities, calibrated to physical probabilities insofar as one has evidence of them, and otherwise sufficiently equivocal. These norms of belief are often explicated using the maximum entropy principle. In this paper we investigate the extent to which one can provide a unified justification of the objective Bayesian norms in the case in which the background language is a first-order predicate language, with a view to applying the resulting formalism (...)
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  11.  15
    Variety of evidence and the elimination of hypotheses.Jürgen Landes - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (2):1-17.
    Varied evidence for a hypothesis confirms it more strongly than less varied evidence, ceteris paribus. This epistemological Variety of Evidence Thesis enjoys long-standing widespread intuitive support. Recent literature has raised serious doubts that the correlational approach of explicating the thesis can vindicate it. By contrast, the eliminative approach due to Horwich vindicates the Variety of Evidence Thesis but only within a relatively narrow domain. I investigate the prospects of extending the eliminative approach to a larger domain by considering a larger (...)
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  12.  29
    A Characterization of the Language Invariant Families Satisfying Spectrum Exchangeability in Polyadic Inductive Logic.Jürgen Landes, Jeff B. Paris & Alena Vencovská - 2010 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 161 (6):800-811.
    A necessary and sufficient condition in terms of a de Finetti style representation is given for a probability function in Polyadic Inductive Logic to satisfy being part of a Language Invariant family satisfying Spectrum Exchangeability. This theorem is then considered in relation to the unary Carnap and Nix–Paris Continua.
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  13.  49
    Some Aspects of Polyadic Inductive Logic.Jürgen Landes, Jeff Paris & Alena Vencovská - 2008 - Studia Logica 90 (1):3-16.
    We give a brief account of some de Finetti style representation theorems for probability functions satisfying Spectrum Exchangeability in Polyadic Inductive Logic, together with applications to Non-splitting, Language Invariance, extensions with Equality and Instantial Relevance.
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  14.  22
    Invariant Equivocation.Jürgen Landes & George Masterton - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (1):141-167.
    Objective Bayesians hold that degrees of belief ought to be chosen in the set of probability functions calibrated with one’s evidence. The particular choice of degrees of belief is via some objective, i.e., not agent-dependent, inference process that, in general, selects the most equivocal probabilities from among those compatible with one’s evidence. Maximising entropy is what drives these inference processes in recent works by Williamson and Masterton though they disagree as to what should have its entropy maximised. With regard to (...)
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  15.  17
    Objective Bayesian Nets From Consistent Datasets.Jürgen Landes & Jon Williamson - unknown
    This paper addresses the problem of finding a Bayesian net representation of the probability function that agrees with the distributions of multiple consistent datasets and otherwise has maximum entropy. We give a general algorithm which is significantly more efficient than the standard brute-force approach. Furthermore, we show that in a wide range of cases such a Bayesian net can be obtained without solving any optimisation problem.
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  16. There Is More to a Paradox Than Credence.George Darby & Jürgen Landes - 2014 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 3 (2):99-109.
    Besides the usual business of solving paradoxes, there has been recent philosophical work on their essential nature. Lycan characterises a paradox as “an inconsistent set of propositions, each of which is very plausible.” Building on this definition, Paseau offers a numerical measure of paradoxicality of a set of principles: a function of the degrees to which a subject believes the principles considered individually (all typically high) and of the degree to which the subject believes the principles considered together (typically low). (...)
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  17.  6
    Artificial Intelligence Methods for a Bayesian Epistemology‐Powered Evidence Evaluation.Francesco De Pretis, Jürgen Landes & William Peden - forthcoming - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.
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  18.  7
    An Evidence-Hierarchical Decision Aid for Ranking in Evidence-Based Medici.Jürgen Landes - unknown
    This chapter addresses the problem of ranking available drugs in guideline development to support clinicians in their work. Based on a pragmatic approach to the notion of evidence and a hierarchical view on different kinds of evidence this chapter introduces a decision aid, HiDAD, which draws on the multi criteria decision making literature. This decision aid implements the wide-spread intuition that there are different kinds of evidence with varying degrees of importance by relying on a strict ordinal ordering of kinds (...)
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  19.  26
    Evolution and Rationality: Decisions, Co-Operation and Strategic Behaviour.Jürgen Landes - 2014 - Philosophical Quarterly 64 (255):358-361.
    This monograph is a collection of conference contributions chosen by the editors who led a three-year project on evolution, cooperation, and rationality. The collected works are held together by a six-page introduction identifying common strands and differences of positions in the different chapters. Since no two chapters have a common author, the chapters do not build on each other. Rather, they offer a variety of perspectives on a number of different aspects of rationality and evolution. The monograph thus does not (...)
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  20.  11
    Min–Max Decision Rules for Choice Under Complete Uncertainty: Axiomatic Characterizations for Preferences Over Utility Intervals.Jürgen Landes - unknown
    We introduce two novel frameworks for choice under complete uncertainty. These frameworks employ intervals to represent uncertain utility attaching to outcomes. In the first framework, utility intervals arising from one act with multiple possible outcomes are aggregated via a set-based approach. In the second framework the aggregation of utility intervals employs multi-sets. On the aggregated utility intervals, we then introduce min–max decision rules and lexicographic refinements thereof. The main technical results are axiomatic characterizations of these min–max decision rules and these (...)
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  21.  6
    Maximum Entropy Applied to Inductive Logic and Reasoning.Jürgen Landes & Jon Williamson - unknown
    This editorial explains the scope of the special issue and provides a thematic introduction to the contributed papers.
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  22.  14
    Special Issue: Combining Probability and Logic.Jürgen Landes & Jon Williamson - 2016 - Journal of Applied Logic 14:1-2.
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  23.  10
    The Entropy-Limit (Conjecture) for $$Sigma _2$$ Σ 2 -Premisses.Jürgen Landes - 2020 - Studia Logica:1-20.
    The application of the maximum entropy principle to determine probabilities on finite domains is well-understood. Its application to infinite domains still lacks a well-studied comprehensive approach. There are two different strategies for applying the maximum entropy principle on first-order predicate languages: applying it to finite sublanguages and taking a limit; comparing finite entropies of probability functions defined on the language as a whole. The entropy-limit conjecture roughly says that these two strategies result in the same probabilities. While the conjecture is (...)
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  24.  2
    The Entropy-Limit (Conjecture) for $$Sigma _2$$ Σ 2 -Premisses.Jürgen Landes - 2021 - Studia Logica 109 (2):423-442.
    The application of the maximum entropy principle to determine probabilities on finite domains is well-understood. Its application to infinite domains still lacks a well-studied comprehensive approach. There are two different strategies for applying the maximum entropy principle on first-order predicate languages: applying it to finite sublanguages and taking a limit; comparing finite entropies of probability functions defined on the language as a whole. The entropy-limit conjecture roughly says that these two strategies result in the same probabilities. While the conjecture is (...)
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  25.  6
    Tychomancy: Inferring Probability From Causal Structure.Jürgen Landes - 2014 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (4):446-448.
  26.  10
    Towards the Entropy-Limit Conjecture.Jürgen Landes, Soroush Rafiee Rad & Jon Williamson - 2021 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 172 (2):102870.
    The maximum entropy principle is widely used to determine non-committal probabilities on a finite domain, subject to a set of constraints, but its application to continuous domains is notoriously problematic. This paper concerns an intermediate case, where the domain is a first-order predicate language. Two strategies have been put forward for applying the maximum entropy principle on such a domain: applying it to finite sublanguages and taking the pointwise limit of the resulting probabilities as the size n of the sublanguage (...)
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  27.  12
    E-Synthesis: A Bayesian Framework for Causal Assessment in Pharmacosurveillance.Francesco De Pretis, Jürgen Landes & Barbara Osimani - 2019 - Frontiers in Pharmacology 10.
    Background. Evidence suggesting adverse drug reactions often emerges unsystematically and unpredictably in form of anecdotal reports, case series and survey data. Safety trials and observational studies also provide crucial information regarding the safety of drugs. Hence, integrating multiple types of pharmacovigilance evidence is key to minimising the risks of harm. Methods. In previous work, we began the development of a Bayesian framework for aggregating multiple types of evidence to assess the probability of a putative causal link between drugs and side (...)
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