In this article we show that it is possible to completely classify the degrees of r.e. bases of r.e. vector spaces in terms of weak truth table degrees. The ideas extend to classify the degrees of complements and splittings. Several ramifications of the classification are discussed, together with an analysis of the structure of the degrees of pairs of r.e. summands of r.e. spaces.
In , Metakides and Nerode introduced the study of recursively enumerable substructures of a recursively presented structure. The main line of study presented in  is to examine the effective content of certain algebraic structures. In , Metakides and Nerode studied the lattice of r.e. subspaces of a recursively presented vector space. This lattice was later studied by Kalantari, Remmel, Retzlaff and Shore. Similar studies have been done by Metakides and Nerode  for algebraically closed fields, by Remmel  for (...) Boolean algebras and by Metakides and Remmel  and  for orderings. Kalantari and Retzlaff  introduced and studied the lattice of r.e. subsets of a recursively presented topological space. Kalantari and Retzlaff consideredX, a topological space with ⊿, a countable basis. This basis is coded into integers and with the help of this coding, r.e. subsets ofωgive rise to r.e. subsets ofX. The notion of “recursiveness” of a topological space is the natural next step which gives rise to the question of what should be the “degree” of an r.e. open subset ofX? It turns out that any r.e. open set partitions ⊿; into four sets whose Turing degrees become central in answering the question raised above.In this paper we show that the degrees of the elements of the partition of ⊿ imposed by an r.e. open set can be “controlled independently” in a sense to be made precise in the body of the paper. In , Kalantari and Retzlaff showed that givenAany r.e. set andany r.e. open subset ofX, there exists an r.e. open set ℋ which is a subset ofand is dense in and in whichAis coded. This shows that modulo a nowhere dense set, an r.e. open set can become as complicated as desired. After giving the general technical and notational machinery in §1, and giving the particulars of our needs in §2, in §3 we prove that the set ℋ described above could be made to be precisely of degree ofA. We then go on and establish various results on the mentioned partitioning of ⊿. One of the surprising results is that there are r.e. open sets such that every element of partitioning of ⊿ is of a different degree. Since the exact wording of the results uses the technical definitions of these partitioning elements, we do not summarize the results here and ask the reader to examine §3 after browsing through §§1 and 2. (shrink)
In , Metakides and Nerode introduced the study of the lattice of recursively enumerable substructures of a recursively presented model as a means to understand the recursive content of certain algebraic constructions. For example, the lattice of recursively enumerable subspaces,, of a recursively presented vector spaceV∞has been studied by Kalantari, Metakides and Nerode, Retzlaff, Remmel and Shore. Similar studies have been done by Remmel ,  for Boolean algebras and by Metakides and Nerode  for algebraically closed fields. In all (...) of these models, the algebraic closure of a set is nontrivial., is given in §1, however in vector spaces, cl is just the subspace generated byS, in Boolean algebras, cl is just the subalgebra generated byS, and in algebraically closed fields, cl is just the algebraically closed subfield generated byS.)In this paper, we give a general model theoretic setting in which we are able to give constructions which generalize many of the constructions of classical recursion theory. One of the main features of the modelswhich we study is that the algebraic closure of setis just itself, i.e., cl = S. Examples of such models include the natural numbers under equality 〈N, = 〉, the rational numbers under the usual ordering 〈Q, ≤〉, and a large class ofn-dimensional partial orderings. (shrink)
In this paper, we study the lower semilattice of NP-subspaces of both the standard polynomial time representation and the tally polynomial time representation of a countably infinite dimensional vector space V∞ over a finite field F. We show that for both the standard and tally representation of V∞, there exists polynomial time subspaces U and W such that U + V is not recursive. We also study the NP analogues of simple and maximal subspaces. We show that the existence of (...) P-simple and NP-maximal subspaces is oracle dependent in both the tally and standard representations of V∞. This contrasts with the case of sets, where the existence of NP-simple sets is oracle dependent but NP-maximal sets do not exist. We also extend many results of Nerode and Remmel concerning the relationship of P bases and NP-subspaces in the tally representation of V∞ to the standard representation of V∞. (shrink)
A universal Horn sentence in the language of polynomial-time computable combinatorial functions of natural numbers is true for the natural numbers if, and only if, it is true for PETs of p-time p-isolated sets with functions induced by fully p-time combinatorial operators.
A number of nonmonotonic reasoning formalisms have been introduced to model the set of beliefs of an agent. These include the extensions of a default logic, the stable models of a general logic program, and the extensions of a truth maintenance system among others. In  and , the authors introduced nonmonotomic rule systems as a nonlogical generalization of all essential features of such formulisms so that theorems applying to all could be proven once and for all. In this paper, (...) we extend Rieter's normal default theories, which have a number of the nice properties which make them a desirable context for belief revision, to the setting of nonmonotonic rule systems. Reiter defined a default theory to be normal if all the rules of the default theory satisfied a simple syntatic condition. However, this simple syntatic condition has no obvious analogue in the setting of nonmonotonic rule systems. Nevertheless, an analysis of the proofs of the main results on normal default theories reveals that the proofs do not rely on the particular syntactic form of the rules but rather on the fact that all rules have a certain consistency property. This led us to extend the notion of normal default theories with respect to a general consistency property. This extended notion of normal default theories, which we call Forward Chaining normal , is easily lifted to nonmonotomic rule systems and hence applies to general logic programs and truth maintenance. (shrink)