41 found
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  1. Seeking Better Health Care Outcomes: The Ethics of Using the “Nudge”.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (2):1-10.
    Policymakers, employers, insurance companies, researchers, and health care providers have developed an increasing interest in using principles from behavioral economics and psychology to persuade people to change their health-related behaviors, lifestyles, and habits. In this article, we examine how principles from behavioral economics and psychology are being used to nudge people (the public, patients, or health care providers) toward particular decisions or behaviors related to health or health care, and we identify the ethically relevant dimensions that should be considered for (...)
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  2.  25
    In Defense of “Denial”: Difficulty Knowing When Beliefs Are Unrealistic and Whether Unrealistic Beliefs Are Bad.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby & Peter A. Ubel - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (9):4-15.
    Bioethicists often draw sharp distinctions between hope and states like denial, self-deception, and unrealistic optimism. But what, exactly, is the difference between hope and its more suspect cousins? One common way of drawing the distinction focuses on accuracy of belief about the desired outcome: Hope, though perhaps sometimes misplaced, does not involve inaccuracy in the way that these other states do. Because inaccurate beliefs are thought to compromise informed decision making, bioethicists have considered these states to be ones where intervention (...)
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  3.  58
    Biases and Heuristics in Decision Making and Their Impact on Autonomy.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (5):5-15.
    Cognitive scientists have identified a wide range of biases and heuristics in human decision making over the past few decades. Only recently have bioethicists begun to think seriously about the implications of these findings for topics such as agency, autonomy, and consent. This article aims to provide an overview of biases and heuristics that have been identified and a framework in which to think comprehensively about the impact of them on the exercise of autonomous decision making. I analyze the impact (...)
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  4. Between Reason and Coercion: Ethically Permissible Influence in Health Care and Health Policy Contexts.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2012 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (4):345-366.
    In bioethics, the predominant categorization of various types of influence has been a tripartite classification of rational persuasion (meaning influence by reason and argument), coercion (meaning influence by irresistible threats—or on a few accounts, offers), and manipulation (meaning everything in between). The standard ethical analysis in bioethics has been that rational persuasion is always permissible, and coercion is almost always impermissible save a few cases such as imminent threat to self or others. However, many forms of influence fall into the (...)
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  5. On Nudging and Informed Consent—Four Key Undefended Premises.J. S. Swindell Blumenthal-Barby - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):31 - 33.
  6.  11
    Neuroethics at 15: Keep the Kant but Add More Bacon.Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz, Peter Zuk, Stacey Pereira, Kristin Kostick, Laura Torgerson, Demetrio Sierra-Mercado, Mary Majumder, J. Blumenthal-Barby, Eric A. Storch, Wayne K. Goodman & Amy L. McGuire - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (3):97-100.
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  7. Choice Architecture: A Mechanism for Improving Decisions While Preserving Liberty.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2013 - In Christian Coons Michael Weber (ed.), Paternalism: Theory and Practice. Cambridge University Press.
  8.  24
    In Defense of Nudge–Autonomy Compatibility.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby & Aanand D. Naik - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):45-47.
  9.  29
    Pandemic Medical Ethics.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Kenneth Boyd, Brian D. Earp, Lucy Frith, Rosalind J. McDougall, John McMillan & Jesse Wall - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (6):353-354.
    The COVID-19 pandemic will generate vexing ethical issues for the foreseeable future and many journals will be open to content that is relevant to our collective effort to meet this challenge. While the pandemic is clearly the critical issue of the moment, it’s important that other issues in medical ethics continue to be addressed as well. As can be seen in this issue, the Journal of Medical Ethics will uphold its commitment to publishing high quality papers on the full array (...)
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  10. Reconciling the Opposing Effects of Neurobiological Evidence on Criminal Sentencing Judgments.Corey Allen, Karina Vold, Gidon Felson, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby & Eyal Aharoni - 2019 - PLoS ONE 1:1-17.
    Legal theorists have characterized physical evidence of brain dysfunction as a double-edged sword, wherein the very quality that reduces the defendant’s responsibility for his transgression could simultaneously increase motivations to punish him by virtue of his apparently increased dangerousness. However, empirical evidence of this pattern has been elusive, perhaps owing to a heavy reliance on singular measures that fail to distinguish between plural, often competing internal motivations for punishment. The present study employed a test of the theorized double-edge pattern using (...)
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  11.  46
    Dilemmas for the Rarity Thesis in Virtue Ethics and Virtue Epistemology.J. Blumenthal-Barby - 2016 - Philosophia 44 (2):395-406.
    “Situationists” such as Gilbert Harman and John Doris have accused virtue ethicists as having an “empirically inadequate” theory, arguing that much of social science research suggests that people do not have robust character traits as traditionally thought. By far, the most common response to this challenge has been what I refer to as “the rarity response” or the “rarity thesis”. Rarity responders deny that situationism poses any sort of threat to virtue ethics since there is no reason to suppose that (...)
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  12. A Framework for Assessing the Moral Status of Manipulation,.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2014 - In Christian Coons Michael Weber (ed.), Manipulation. Oxford University Press. pp. 121-134.
    This paper deals with the ethics of using knowledge about a person’s particular psychological make-up, or about the psychology of judgment and decision-making in general, to shape that person’s decisions and behaviors. Various moral concerns emerge about this practice, but one of the more elusive and underdeveloped concerns is the charge of manipulation. It is this concern that is the focus of this paper. I argue that it is not the case that any of the practices traditionally labeled as “manipulation” (...)
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  13.  4
    Paying the Right Amount to Challenge Trial Participants – We Need to Use Behavioral Science Insights to Sell What’s Right.Peter A. Ubel & J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (3):38-39.
    Sometimes doing what’s right depends on anticipating how people will react when you do the right thing. Consider two aspects of challenge trial payments discussed by Lynch and colleagues. Th...
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  14. Choice Architecture: Improving Choice While Preserving Liberty?J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2013 - In Christian Coons & Michael Weber (eds.), Paternalism. Cambridge University Press.
    The past four decades of research in the social sciences have shed light on two important phenomena. One is that human decision-making is full of predicable errors and biases that often lead individuals to make choices that defeat their own ends (i.e., the bad choice phenomenon), and the other is that individuals’ decisions and behaviors are powerfully shaped by their environment (i.e., the influence phenomenon). Some have argued that it is ethically defensible that the influence phenomenon be utilized to address (...)
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  15.  2
    When Does Nudging Represent Fraudulent Disclosure?Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Neal W. Dickert & Derek Soled - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (5):63-66.
    In the article “Informed Consent: What Must be Disclosed and What Must be Understood?” Joseph Millum and Danielle Bromwich argue that informed consent requires satisfaction of certain disclosure an...
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  16.  27
    When Bins Blur: Patient Perspectives on Categories of Results From Clinical Whole Genome Sequencing.Leila Jamal, Jill O. Robinson, Kurt D. Christensen, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Melody J. Slashinski, Denise Lautenbach Perry, Jason L. Vassy, Julia Wycliff, Robert C. Green & Amy L. McGuire - 2017 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 8 (2):82-88.
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  17.  6
    Payment of COVID-19 Challenge Trials: Underpayment is a Bigger Worry Than Overpayment.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby & Peter Ubel - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (8):585-586.
    One way to test vaccines is through human challenge trials in which participants are intentionally infected with a contagious organism to expedite the process of assessing the vaccine’s effectiveness. Some experts believe challenge trials may play an important role in fighting COVID-19, especially if the vaccines under current study do not demonstrate sufficient efficacy, if spread of COVID-19 is controlled to a point that radically slows down traditional trials, or if new vaccines need to be rapidly developed for specific subpopulations.1 (...)
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  18.  11
    On the Ethical Criteria for Health-Promoting Nudges: The Importance of Conceptual Clarity.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (5):66-68.
    Volume 19, Issue 5, May 2019, Page 66-68.
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  19.  7
    Clinical Ultimatums: Coercion as Subjection.Jennifer S. Blumenthal-Barby, Mollie Gordon, John H. Coverdale & C. Maxwell Shannon - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):54-56.
    Volume 19, Issue 9, September 2019, Page 54-56.
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  20.  35
    Nudge or Grudge? Choice Architecture and Parental Decision‐Making.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby & Douglas J. Opel - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (2):33-39.
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  21.  22
    Truth Be Told: Not All Nudging is Bullshit.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby & Peter A. Ubel - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (8):547-547.
    > ‘The fact about himself that the bullshitter hides, on the other hand, is that the truth-values of his statements are of no central interest to him; what we are not to understand is that his intention is neither to report the truth nor conceal it. It is just this lack of connection to a concern with truth—this indifference to how things really are—that is the essence of bullshit.’1 > —Harry Frankfurt In his paper, Nudging, informed consent, and bullshit, William (...)
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  22.  18
    Response to Open Peer Commentaries on ‘‘In Defense of ‘Denial’: Difficulty Knowing When Beliefs Are Unrealistic and Whether Unrealistic Beliefs Are Bad”.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby & Peter A. Ubel - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (9):3-5.
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  23.  16
    Organ Donation Beyond Brain Death: Donors as Ends and Maximal Utility.Christos Lazaridis & J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (8):17-19.
  24.  30
    Gunmen and Ice Cream Cones: Harm to Autonomy and Harm to Persons.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby & Peter A. Ubel - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (11):13-14.
  25.  30
    What Sort of Collective Afterlife Matters and How.J. Blumenthal-Barby - 2016 - Philosophia 44 (1):87-100.
    In Death and the Afterlife, Samuel Scheffler argues that the assumption of a “collective afterlife” plays an essential role in us valuing much of what we do. If a collective afterlife did not exist, our value structures would be radically different according to Scheffler. We would cease to value much of what we do. In Part I of the paper, I argue that there is something to Scheffler’s afterlife conjecture, but that Scheffler has misplaced the mattering of a collective afterlife. (...)
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  26.  12
    Should Repugnance Give Us Pause? On the Neuroscience of Daily Moral Reasoning.Aaron Cardon & J. S. Swindell Blumenthal-Barby - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 2 (2):47-48.
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  27.  35
    Psychiatry's New Manual : Ethical and Conceptual Dimensions: Table 1.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (8):531-536.
    The introduction of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders in May 2013 is being hailed as the biggest event in psychiatry in the last 10 years. In this paper I examine three important issues that arise from the new manual: Expanding nosology: Psychiatry has again broadened its nosology to include human experiences not previously under its purview . Consequence-based ethical concerns about this expansion are addressed, along with conceptual concerns about a confusion of “construct validity” and “conceptual validity” (...)
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  28.  23
    Placing and Evaluating Unproven Interventions Within a Clinical Ethical Taxonomy of Treatments for Ebola Virus Disease.Nathan G. Allen, Jennifer S. Blumenthal-Barby & Laurence B. McCullough - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (4):50-53.
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  29.  6
    Psychiatry's New Manual (DSM-5): Ethical and Conceptual Dimensions.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics: The Journal of the Institute of Medical Ethics 40 (8):531-536.
    The introduction of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in May 2013 is being hailed as the biggest event in psychiatry in the last 10 years. In this paper I examine three important issues that arise from the new manual: Expanding nosology: Psychiatry has again broadened its nosology to include human experiences not previously under its purview. Consequence-based ethical concerns about this expansion are addressed, along with conceptual concerns about a confusion of "construct validity" and "conceptual validity" and (...)
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  30.  38
    On the Concept and Measure of Voluntariness: Insights From Behavioral Economics and Cognitive Science.J. S. Swindell Blumenthal-Barby - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (8):25-26.
    In their article “The Concept of Voluntary Consent,” Robert Nelson and colleagues (2011) argue for two necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for voluntary action: intentionality, and substantial freedom from controlling influences. They propose an instrument to empirically measure voluntariness, the Decision Making Control Instrument. I argue that (1) their conceptual analysis of intentionality and controlling influences needs expansion in light of the growing use of behavioral economics principles to change individual and public health behaviors (growing in part by the designation (...)
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  31.  32
    On the Utility and Distinctness of the Concept of Behavioral Equipoise.J. S. Swindell Blumenthal-Barby - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (2):9-10.
    In their paper, “Behavioral Equipoise: A Way to Resolve Ethical Stalemates in Clinical Research, “ Peter Ubel and Robert Silbergleit (2011) propose that we adopt another principle, the principle of behavioral equipoise, whereby RCTs are also morally justified in cases where they are expected to address the controversy, disagreement, or behavioral resistance surrounding a particular treatment. Adopting this ethical standard would allow for research to move forward and, as a result, for the resolution of stalemates between clinicians who hold opposing (...)
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  32.  12
    COVID-19 Current Controversies.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (7):419-420.
    This July 2020 issue of JME introduces a new section, “COVID-19 Current Controversies,” which will be a recurring section in each issue for the foreseeable future. This issue reflects on some of the most pressing ethical issues that have arisen roughly 6 months into the pandemic. Kathleen Liddell and colleagues examine important legal considerations at play in ventilator allocation decisions raised by the pandemic.1 They point out that ethics-based triage protocols that argue from the principle of “saving the most lives” (...)
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  33.  3
    How to Get Your Article Published as a JME Feature Article and Why They Matter for the Field.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (12):755-756.
    I published my first article in the Journal of Medical Ethics back in 2007 as an newly minted PhD. It was a proud moment. I respected the JME as a journal where I had read some of the most tightly argued and challenging essays in the literature. They inspired me to specialise in medical ethics and rethink some of my fundamental positions on various topics. This has been the case since, and I am proud now to join the editorial team (...)
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  34.  1
    Present and Future.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (6):361-361.
    As the COVID-19 pandemic rages on, this June 2021 issue of the JME contains several articles addressing pandemic-related ethical issues, including, discrimination against persons with disabilities,1 collective moral resilience,2 and stress in medical students due to COVID-19.3 It also contains a critical appraisal of the most recent WHO guidance document on the management of ethical issues during an infectious disease outbreak.4 This June issue of JME also addresses several important clinical ethics issues: covert administration of medication in food,5 educational pelvic (...)
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  35.  21
    The Place of Philosophy in Bioethics Today.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Sean Aas, Dan Brudney, Jessica Flanigan, S. Matthew Liao, Alex London, Wayne Sumner & Julian Savulescu - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-12.
    In some views, philosophy’s glory days in bioethics are over. While philosophers were especially important in the early days of the field, so the argument goes, the majority of the work in bioethic...
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  36.  28
    Should Repugnance Give Us Pause? On the Neuroscience of Daily Moral Reasoning.Aaron Cardon & J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics- Neuroscience 2 (2):47-48.
    In our commentary we briefly review the work on the neurological differences between the rational ethical analysis used in professional contexts and the reflexive emotional responses of our daily moral reasoning, and discuss the implications for the claim that our normative arguments should not rely on the emotion of repugnance.
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  37.  4
    The Ethics of Getting Ahead When All Heads Are Enhanced.Kristin Marie Kostick, J. S. Blumenthal-Barby, Eric A. Storch & Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (4):256-258.
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  38.  5
    Two Minds, One Patient: Clearing Up Confusion About “Ambivalence”.Bryanna Moore, Ryan H. Nelson, Peter A. Ubel & Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-18.
    Patients who experience difficulty making medical decisions are often referred to as “ambivalent.” However, the current lack of attention to the nuances between a cluster of phenomena that resemble...
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  39.  6
    Pediatric Deep Brain Stimulation for Dystonia: Current State and Ethical Considerations.Katrina A. Muñoz, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Eric A. Storch, Laura Torgerson & Gabriel Lázaro-muñoz - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (4):557-573.
    Dystonia is a movement disorder that can have a debilitating impact on motor functions and quality of life. There are 250,000 cases in the United States, most with childhood onset. Due to the limited effectiveness and side effects of available treatments, pediatric deep brain stimulation has emerged as an intervention for refractory dystonia. However, there is limited clinical and neuroethics research in this area of clinical practice. This paper examines whether it is ethically justified to offer pDBS to children with (...)
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  40.  23
    Paid Protection? Ethics of Incentivised Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Adolescents with Alcohol and Other Drug Use: Table 1.Tiana Won, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby & Mariam Chacko - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2015-103176.
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  41.  9
    Paid Protection? Ethics of Incentivised Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Adolescents with Alcohol and Other Drug Use.Tiana Won, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby & Mariam Chacko - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (3):182-187.
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