Families play an essential role in deceased organ procurement. As the person cannot directly communicate his or her wishes regarding donation, the family is often the only source of information regarding consent or refusal. We provide a systematic description and analysis of the different roles the family can play, and actions the family can take, in the organ procurement process across different jurisdictions and consent systems. First, families can inform or update healthcare professionals about a person’s donation wishes. Second, families (...) can authorize organ procurement in the absence of deceased’s preferences and the default is not to remove organs, and oppose donation where there is no evidence of preference but the default is to presume consent; in both cases, the decision could be based on their own wishes or what they think the deceased would have wanted. Finally, families can overrule the known wishes of the deceased, which can mean preventing donation, or permitting donation when the deceased refused it. We propose a schema of 4 levels on which to map these possible family roles: no role, witness, surrogate, and full decisional authority. We conclude by mapping different jurisdictions onto this schema to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the consent system for organ donation and some important nuances about the role of families. This classificatory model aims to account for the majority of the world’s consent systems. It provides conceptual and methodological guidance that can be useful to researchers, professionals, and policymakers involved in organ procurement. (shrink)
The majority of healthcare professionals regularly witness fragility, suffering, pain and death in their professional lives. Such experiences may increase the risk of burnout and compassion fatigue, especially if they are without self-awareness and a healthy work environment. Acquiring a deeper understanding of vulnerability inherent to their professional work will be of crucial importance to face these risks. From a relational ethics perspective, the role of the team is critical in the development of professional values which can help to cope (...) with the inherent vulnerability of healthcare professionals. The focus of this paper is the role of Communities of Practice as a source of resilience, since they can create a reflective space for recognising and sharing their experiences of vulnerability that arises as part of their work. This shared knowledge can be a source of strength while simultaneously increasing the confidence and resilience of the healthcare team. (shrink)
Para Maquiavelo el hecho de plantear al mal como un elemento necesario de la realidad humana le lleva a reconocerlo y a colocarlo como la piedra de toque de todo su pesimismo antropológico. Esta realidad es asumida en su filosofía política en general y en su teoría del Estado en particular.Macchiaveli was driven to state the problem of moral evil as a necessary element within the bounds of human reality; in fact he brought in as a cornerstone of his pessimist (...) anthropological outlook. This thesis is further assumed as the main root upon which Macchiaveli grounded both his philosophy of politics and his theory of the State. (shrink)
SummaryPedigree structures of 161 uncle/niece-aunt/nephew and 4420 first cousin consanguineous marriages registered during the 19th and 20th centuries in two large and very different Spanish regions have been analysed and their genetic consequences evaluated. The frequencies of the different pedigree subtypes within each degree of relationship were quite similar in both populations despite significant heterogeneity in inbreeding patterns. The mean X-linked inbreeding coefficient for each type of cousin mating was calculated and compared to that expected for autosomal genes. The effect (...) of genealogical structure on theFx/Fradio was compared to different cultural populations worldwide. Preferentiality and avoidance of close consanguinity along with specific types of pedigrees are discussed on the basis of premarital migration and sociocultural rules still deeply rooted in certain human groups. By admitting that the observedFxcoefficient is usually higher thanFin most human populations some remarks have been made in terms of population genetic risk. (shrink)
Object relative clauses are harder to process than subject relative clauses. Under Grillo’s Generalized Minimality framework, complexity effects of object relatives are construed as intervention effects, which result from an interaction between locality constraints on movement and the sentence processing system. Specifically, intervention of the subject DP in the movement dependency is expected to generate a minimality violation whenever processing limitations render the moved object underspecified, resulting in compromised comprehension. In the present study, assuming Generalized Minimality, we compared the processing (...) of object relatives with the processing of subject control in ditransitives, which, like object relatives, instantiates a syntactic dependency across an intervening DP. This comparison is justified by the current debate on whether Control should be analyzed as movement: if control involves movement of the controller DP, as proposed by Hornstein, a parallel between the processing of object relatives and subject control in ditransitives may be anticipated on the basis of intervention. In addition, we explored whether general cognitive factors contribute to complexity effects ascribed to movement across a DP. Sixty-nine adult speakers of European Portuguese read sentences and answered comprehension probes in a self-paced reading task with moving-window display, comprising four experimental conditions: Subject Relatives; Object Relatives; Subject Control; Object Control. Furthermore, participants performed four supplementary tasks, serving as measures of resistance to interference, lexical knowledge, working memory capacity and lexical access ability. The results from the reading task showed that whereas object relatives were harder to process than subject relatives, subject control was not harder to process than object control, arguing against recent movement accounts of control. Furthermore, we found that whereas object relative complexity effects assessed by response times to comprehension probes interacted with Reading Span, object relative complexity effects assessed by comprehension accuracy and reading times did not interact with any of the supplementary tasks. We discuss these results in light of Generalized Minimality and the hypothesis of modularity in syntactic processing. (shrink)
Theoretical problems concerning concepts of systems and measurement of behavior were encountered during experimental studies of the effects of electrical stimulation of the brain on the social behavior of a monkey colony. General problems involved in the description and measurement of behavior of natural systems, and especially of organisms are discussed. In animals with differentiated brain the general process of stimulation may be divided into four subprocesses: input, throughput, transput and output. Categories of behavior, temporal and spatial units, and logical (...) rules of homogeneity for sorting data and comparing measurements and categories, are discussed. Simple behavioral units are divided into: 1. Individual a. static or postural b. dynamic or gestural 2. Social a. static b. dynamic. Complex behavior is divided into: 1. Simultaneous 2. Sequential 3. Syntactic 4. Roles. The process of interpretation of data by the observer is assumed to be dependent upon actual behavior of the system, techniques of observation and experimentation, theoretical and technical processes of analysis, and synthesis and integration of data. Expression of behavior in mathematical terms insures greater accuracy than descriptive methods and enables data to be processed with computers. (shrink)
Las relaciones entre el sentido común -como categoría recurrente en la historia del pensamiento- y el ingenio -con sus relaciones tal y como plantea Vico- constituyen la estructura de la propuesta del autor.The paper is organised around the relationship between common sens -as a recurrent category in the history of thought- and ingenuity -with it's relationships, as they are considered by Vico-.
La gran paradoja del spinozismo se encuentra en el deseo por establecer los principios de una filosofía que aspira a la reforma de la naturaleza humana, y que acepta como evidencia la imposibilidad de llevar tal empresa a buen término. Es un realismo radical lo que acentúa que invariablemente en política se tenga que decidir entre la protesta radical y la protesta reflexiva.The great paradox of spinozism is found in the desire to establish the principles of a philosophy that aspires (...) to the reform of human nature, and that accepts as evidence the impossibility of carrying out such an enterprise. It's a radical realism that accentuates the politics' necessesity to choose between the radical protest and the reflexive protest. (shrink)
Objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer una introducción general a todo el conjunto de cuestiones que se plantean en torno al tema de la epistemología de los medios de comunicación. En la medida de lo posible intenta establecer los parámetros más importantes para reflexionar sobre el tema. Se hace esto en un doble sentido: 1) con el resumen de los paradigmas sobre los que se asienta la reflexión sobre los medios de comunicación a lo largo de estos últimos cincuenta años (...) ; y 2) con la dilucidación de los principales aspectos apistemológicos que deben estar presentes para su estudio e investigación. (shrink)
En este artículo se estudian 25 fragmentos inéditos que forman parte de 19 inscripciones árabes conservadas en el Museo Provincial de Almería. Todas ellas son de Almería, sin que conste el lugar exacto de procedencia, salvo en dos casos. La mayoría, en concreto trece inscripciones, son de carácter funerario ; dos son commemorativas o fundacionales ; y el resto, cuatro, son decorativas. Su cronología va desde el segundo cuarto del siglo X al XII, predominando las de época almorávide, que es (...) la época de mayor desarrollo económico de la ciudad. (shrink)
"La filosofía florentina en el jardín de Adán" La Modernidad ha tenido enormes dificultades para reconocer plenamente al Humanismo como parte de toda su incuestionable tradición filosófica y en particular de reconocer al Humanismo florentino a partir de sus propuestas filosóficas como lo que en esencia ellas son, representaciones concretas, históricas, del mundo. Tales dificultades radican en la imposibilidad de no poder o no querer superar sus propios parámetros y esquemas de explicación y reconstrucción histórica. Pues si algo es cierto, (...) es que filosofías como las de Pico della la Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino, Poliziano, Pomponazzi, Tommaso Campanella y Giordano Bruno, contienen todas ellas una constante común: la dificultad de ser explicadas y comprendidas a la luz de la razón y de la cientificidad modernas. "The Florentine philosophy in Adam's garden" The Modernity had had enormous difficulties to recognize fully the Humanism like apart of all its unquestionable philosophical tradition and in particular of recognizing the Florentine Humanism starting from its philosophical proposals as what in essence they are, concrete, historical representations, of the world. Such difficulties reside in the impossibility of not to be able, or not to want to overcome, their own parameters and explanation's outlines and historical reconstruction. Because if something is true, it is that philosophies like those of Pico della la Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino, Poliziano, Pomponazzi, Tommaso Campanella and Giordano Polish, all of them contain a common constant: the difficulty of being explained and understood by the light of the reason and in the modern scientific approach. (shrink)
Estudio literario de las cuatro versiones árabes de esta crónica redactada originalmente en griego. Se analiza la disposición del original mostrada por todas las versiones, la naturaleza literaria de las diferentes versiones árabes, la lectura histórico-teológica y los recursos literarios empleados por el autor.
This paper proposes communities of practice as a process to build moral resilience in healthcare settings. We introduce the starting point of moral distress that arises from ethical challenges when actions of the healthcare professional are constrained. We examine how situations such as the current COVID-19 pandemic can exponentially increase moral distress in healthcare professionals. Then, we explore how moral resilience can help cope with moral distress. We propose the term collective moral resilience to capture the shared capacity arising from (...) mutual engagement and dialogue in group settings, towards responding to individual moral distress and towards building an ethical practice environment. Finally, we look at CoPs in healthcare and explore how these group experiences can be used to build collective moral resilience. (shrink)
The baroque is the period of Italian history that extends to the second half of sixteenth century to the first one of seventeenth. From always, this period has been focused like main cause of the decay of all the great culture that was developed in Italy during Renaissance. Croce, in oposition of..
In order to improve the management of copyright in the Internet, known as Digital Rights Management, there is the need for a shared language for copyright representation. Current approaches are based on purely syntactic solutions, i.e. a grammar that defines a rights expression language. These languages are difficult to put into practise due to the lack of explicit semantics that facilitate its implementation. Moreover, they are simple from the legal point of view because they are intended just to model the (...) usage licenses granted by content providers to end-users. Thus, they ignore the copyright framework that lies behind and the whole value chain from creators to end-users. Our proposal is to use a semantic approach based on semantic web ontologies. We detail the development of a copyright ontology in order to put this approach into practice. It models the copyright core concepts for creation, rights and the basic kinds of actions that operate on content. Altogether, it allows building a copyright framework for the complete value chain. The set of actions operating on content are our smaller building blocks in order to cope with the complexity of copyright value chains and statements and, at the same time, guarantee a high level of interoperability and evolvability. The resulting copyright modelling framework is flexible and complete enough to model many copyright scenarios, not just those related to the economic exploitation of content. The ontology also includes moral rights, so it is possible to model this kind of situations as it is shown in the included example model for a withdrawal scenario. Finally, the ontology design and the selection of tools result in a straightforward implementation. Description Logic reasoners are used for license checking and retrieval. Rights are modelled as classes of actions, action patterns are modelled also as classes and the same is done for concrete actions. Then, to check if some right or license grants an action is reduced to check for class subsumption, which is a direct functionality of these reasoners. (shrink)