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Jeff Hughes [25]John Hughes [20]Julian C. Hughes [20]Jonathan Hughes [19]
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Jonathan A. Hughes
Keele University
James Hughes
University of Massachusetts, Boston
James J. Hughes
University of Massachusetts, Boston
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  1.  25
    Conscientious Objection, Professional Duty and Compromise: A Response to Savulescu and Schuklenk.Jonathan A. Hughes - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (2):126-131.
    In a recent article in this journal, Savulescu and Schuklenk defend and extend their earlier arguments against a right to medical conscientious objection in response to criticisms raised by Cowley. I argue that while it would be preferable to be less accommodating of medical conscientious than many countries currently are, Savulescu and Schuklenk's argument that conscientious objection is ‘simply unprofessional’ is mistaken. The professional duties of doctors should be defined in relation to the interests of patients and society, and for (...)
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  2.  30
    Moral Enhancement Requires Multiple Virtues.James J. Hughes - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (1):86-95.
  3. Contradictions From the Enlightenment Roots of Transhumanism.J. Hughes - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (6):622-640.
    Transhumanism, the belief that technology can transcend the limitations of the human body and brain, is part of the family of Enlightenment philosophies. As such, transhumanism has also inherited the internal tensions and contradictions of the broad Enlightenment tradition. First, the project of Reason is self-erosive and requires irrational validation. Second, although most transhumanists are atheist, their belief in the transcendent power of intelligence generates new theologies. Third, although most transhumanists are liberal democrats, their belief in human perfectibility and governance (...)
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  4.  5
    Acquisition of a Non-Vocal ‘Language’ by Aphasic Children.Jennifer Hughes - 1974 - Cognition 3 (1):41-55.
  5.  8
    Lockdown and Levelling Down: Why Savulescu and Cameron Are Mistaken About Selective Isolation of the Elderly.Jonathan A. Hughes - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (11):722-723.
    In their recent article, ‘Why lockdown of the elderly is not ageist and why levelling down equality is wrong’, Savulescu and Cameron argue for selective isolation of the elderly as an alternative to general lockdown. An important part of their argument is the claim that the latter amounts to ‘levelling down equality’ and that this is ‘unethical’ or even ‘morally repugnant’. This response argues that they fail to justify either part of this claim: the claim that levelling down is always (...)
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  6.  69
    The Politics of Transhumanism and the Techno‐Millennial Imagination, 1626–2030.James J. Hughes - 2012 - Zygon 47 (4):757-776.
    Transhumanism is a modern expression of ancient and transcultural aspirations to radically transform human existence, socially and bodily. Before the Enlightenment these aspirations were only expressed in religious millennialism, magical medicine, and spiritual practices. The Enlightenment channeled these desires into projects to use science and technology to improve health, longevity, and human abilities, and to use reason to revolutionize society. Since the Enlightenment, techno‐utopian movements have dynamically interacted with supernaturalist millennialism, sometimes syncretically, and often in violent opposition. Today the transhumanist (...)
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  7.  12
    Does the Heterogeneity of Autism Undermine the Neurodiversity Paradigm?Jonathan A. Hughes - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (1):47-60.
    The neurodiversity paradigm is presented by its proponents as providing a philosophical foundation for the activism of the neurodiversity movement. Its central claims are that autism and other neurodivergent conditions are not disorders because they are not intrinsically harmful, and that they are valuable, natural and/or normal parts of human neurocognitive variation. This paper: (a) identifies the non‐disorder claim as the most central of these, based on its prominence in the literature and connections with the practical policy claims that the (...)
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  8.  14
    Conscientious Objection in Healthcare: Why Tribunals Might Be the Answer.Jonathan A. Hughes - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (4):213-217.
    A recent focus of the debate on conscientious objection in healthcare is the question of whether practitioners should have to justify their refusal to perform certain functions. A recent article by Cowley addresses a practical aspect of this controversy, namely the question of whether doctors claiming conscientious objector status in relation to abortion should be required, like their counterparts claiming exemption from military conscription, to defend their claim before a tribunal. Cowley argues against the use of tribunals in the medical (...)
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  9.  72
    An Artifact is to Use: An Introduction to Instrumental Functions.Jesse Hughes - 2009 - Synthese 168 (1):179-199.
    Because much of the recent philosophical interest in functions has been motivated by their application in biology and other sciences, most of the ensuing discussions have focused on functional explanations to the neglect of the practical role of functional knowledge. This practical role is essential for understanding how users form plans involving artifacts. We introduce the concept of instrumental function which is intended to capture the features of functional claims that are relevant to practical—in particular, instrumental—reasoning. We discuss the four (...)
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  10. Technoprogressive Biopolitics and Human Enhancement.James Hughes - 2010 - In Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger (eds.), Progress in Bioethics: Science, Policy, and Politics. MIT Press.
    A principal challenge facing the progressive bioethics project is the crafting of a consistent message on biopolitical issues that divide progressives. -/- The regulation of enhancement technologies is one of the issues central to this emerging biopolitics, pitting progressive defenders of enhancement, “technoprogressives,” against progressive critics. This essay [PDF] will argue that technoprogressive biopolitics express the consistent application of the core progressive values of the Enlightenment: the right of individuals to control their own bodies, brains and reproduction according to their (...)
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  11.  53
    Linking Ethics and Risk Management in Taxation: Evidence From an Exploratory Study in Ireland and the UK.Elaine M. Doyle, Jane Frecknall Hughes & Keith W. Glaister - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 86 (2):177-198.
    Ethical dilemmas involving tax issues were identified by members of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants as posing the most difficult ethical problem for them (Finn et al., Journal of Business Ethics 7(8), pp. 607–609, 1988). The KPMG tax shelter fraud case proves that the tax profession has not gone untainted in the age of numerous accounting and corporate scandals, such as the Enron débâcle (Sikka and Hampton, Accounting Forum 29(3), 325–343, 2005). High-profile scandals serve to highlight the problems (...)
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  12.  10
    Resuscitation Decisions at the End of Life: Medical Views and the Juridification of Practice.Fiona M. A. MacCormick, Charlotte Emmett, Paul Paes & Julian C. Hughes - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (6):376-383.
    BackgroundConcerns about decision making related to resuscitation have led to two important challenges in the courts resulting in new legal precedents for decision-making practice. Systematic research investigating the experiences of doctors involved in decisions about resuscitation in light of the recent changes in law remains lacking.AimTo analyse the practice of resuscitation decision making on hospital wards from the perspectives of doctors.DesignThe data presented in this paper were collected as part of a wider research study of end-of-life care in an acute (...)
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  13.  20
    Thinking Through Dementia.Julian C. Hughes - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Dementia affects millions of people throughout the world. Thinking through Dementia offers a critique of the main models used to understand dementia-the biomedical, neuropsychological, and social constructionist. It discusses clinical issues and cases, together with philosophical work that might help us to better understand and treat this illness.
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  14.  43
    Why Code of Conduct Violations Go Unreported: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Intervention and Future Research.Detlev Nitsch, Mark Baetz & Julia Christensen Hughes - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 57 (4):327-341.
    . The ability to enforce the provisions of a code of conduct influences whether the code is effective in shaping behavior. Enforcement relies in part on the willingness of organization members to report violations of the code, but research from the business and educational environment suggests that fewer than half of those who observe code violations follow their organizations procedures for reporting them. Based on a review of the literature in the business and educational environments, and a survey of 3605 (...)
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  15.  37
    Views of the Person with Dementia.J. C. Hughes - 2001 - Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (2):86-91.
    In this paper I consider, in connection with dementia, two views of the person. One view of the person is derived from Locke and Parfit. This tends to regard the person solely in terms of psychological states and his/her connections. The second view of the person is derived from a variety of thinkers. I have called it the situated-embodied-agent view of the person. This view, I suggest, more readily squares with the reality of clinical experience. It regards the person as (...)
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  16.  11
    Advance Euthanasia Directives and the Dutch Prosecution.Jonathan A. Hughes - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (4):253-256.
    In a recent Dutch euthanasia case, a woman underwent euthanasia on the basis of an advance directive, having first been sedated without her knowledge and then restrained by members of her family while the euthanasia was administered. This article considers some implications of the criminal court’s acquittal of the doctor who performed the euthanasia. Supporters of advance euthanasia directives have welcomed the judgement as providing a clarification of the law, especially with regard to the admissibility of contextual evidence in interpreting (...)
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  17.  32
    Defining the Scope of Implied Consent in the Emergency Department.Raul B. Easton, Mark A. Graber, Jay Monnahan & Jason Hughes - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (12):35 – 38.
    Purpose: To determine the relative value that patients place on consent for procedures in the emergency department (ED) and to define a set of procedures that fall in the realm of implied consent. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample 134 of 174 patients who were seen in the ED of a Midwestern teaching hospital. The questionnaire asked how much time they believed was necessary to give consent for various procedures. Procedures ranged from simple (venipuncture) to complex (procedural (...)
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  18. Embracing Change with All Four Arms: Post-Humanist Defense of Genetic Engineering.J. Hughes - 1996 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 6 (4):94-101.
    This paper sets out to defend human genetic engineering with a new bioethical approach, post-humanism, combined with a radical democratic political framework. Arguments for the restriction of human genetic engineering, and specifically germ-line enhancement, are reviewed. Arguments are divided into those which are fundamental matters of faith, or "bio-Luddite" arguments, and those which can be addressed through public policy, or "gene-angst" arguments.The four bio-Luddite concerns addressed are: Medicine Makes People Sick; There are Sacred Limits of the Natural Order; Technologies Always (...)
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  19.  1
    The Philosophy of Social Research.J. A. Hughes - 1990 - Longman.
    An attempt to bring some of the major issues and debates in the philosophy of social research up-to-date. There is a new chapter on the philosophy of science, the conclusion has been rewritten and other chapters have been updated.
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  20.  63
    How Not to Criticize the Precautionary Principle.Jonathan Hughes - 2006 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31 (5):447 – 464.
    The precautionary principle has its origins in debates about environmental policy, but is increasingly invoked in bioethical contexts. John Harris and Søren Holm argue that the principle should be rejected as incoherent, irrational, and representing a fundamental threat to scientific advance and technological progress. This article argues that while there are problems with standard formulations of the principle, Harris and Holm's rejection of all its forms is mistaken. In particular, they focus on strong versions of the principle and fail to (...)
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  21.  99
    The Rule of Rescue in Clinical Practice.Jonathan Hughes & Tom Walker - 2009 - Clinical Ethics 4 (1):50-54.
    People often have a strong intuitive sense that we ought to rescue those in serious need, even in cases where we could produce better outcomes by acting in other ways. It has become common in such cases to refer to this as the Rule of Rescue. Within the medical field this rule has predominantly been discussed in relation to decisions about whether to fund particular treatments. Whilst in this setting the arguments in favour of the Rule of Rescue have generally (...)
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  22. Dementia: Mind, Meaning, and the Person.Julian Hughes, Stephen Louw & Steven R. Sabat (eds.) - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    Dementia is an illness that raises important questions about our own attitudes to illness and aging. It also raises very important issues beyond the bounds of dementia to do with how we think of ourselves as people--fundamental questions about personal identity. Is the person with dementia the same person he or she was before? Is the individual with dementia a person at all? In a striking way, dementia seems to threaten the very existence of the self.LThis book brings together philosophers (...)
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  23.  88
    A Semantics for Means-End Relations.Jesse Hughes, Peter Kroes & Sjoerd Zwart - 2007 - Synthese 158 (2):207-231.
    There has been considerable work on practical reasoning in artificial intelligence and also in philosophy. Typically, such reasoning includes premises regarding means–end relations. A clear semantics for such relations is needed in order to evaluate proposed syllogisms. In this paper, we provide a formal semantics for means–end relations, in particular for necessary and sufficient means–end relations. Our semantics includes a non-monotonic conditional operator, so that related practical reasoning is naturally defeasible. This work is primarily an exercise in conceptual analysis, aimed (...)
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  24. A Strategic Opening for a Basic Income Guarantee in the Global Crisis Being Created by AI, Robots, Desktop Manufacturing and BioMedicine.James J. Hughes - 2014 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 24 (1):45-61.
    Robotics and artificial intelligence are beginning to fundamentally change the relative profitability and productivity of investments in capital versus human labor; creating technological unemployment at all levels of the workforce; from the North to the developing world. As robotics and expert systems become cheaper and more capable the percentage of the population that can find employment will also fall; stressing economies already trying to curtail "entitlements" and adopt austerity. Two additional technology-driven trends will exacerbate the structural unemployment crisis in the (...)
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  25. The Future of Death: Cryonics and the Telos of Liberal Individualism.James Hughes - 2001 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 6 (1).
    This paper addresses five questions: First, what is trajectory of Western liberal ethics and politics in defining life, rights and citizenship? Second, how will neuro-remediation and other technologies change the definition of death for the brain injured and the cryonically suspended? Third, will people always have to be dead to be cryonically suspended? Fourth, how will changing technologies and definitions of identity affect the status of people revived from brain injury and cryonic suspension? I propose that Western liberal thought is (...)
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  26.  12
    A Defense of Limited Regulation of Human Genetic Therapies.James J. Hughes - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (1):112-120.
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  27.  36
    Types of Centredness in Health Care: Themes and Concepts. [REVIEW]Julian C. Hughes, Claire Bamford & Carl May - 2008 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (4):455-463.
    Background For a variety of sociological reasons, different types of centredness have become important in health and social care. In trying to characterize one type of centredness, we were led to consider, at a conceptual level, the importance of the notion of centredness in general and the reasons for there being different types of centeredness. Method We searched the literature for papers on client-, family-, patient-, person- and relationship- centred care. We identified reviews or papers that defined or discussed the (...)
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  28.  44
    A Study of Categorres of Algebras and Coalgebras.Jesse Hughes, Steve Awodey, Dana Scott, Jeremy Avigad & Lawrence Moss - unknown
    This thesis is intended t0 help develop the theory 0f coalgebras by, Hrst, taking classic theorems in the theory 0f universal algebras amd dualizing them and, second, developing an interna] 10gic for categories 0f coalgebras. We begin with an introduction t0 the categorical approach t0 algebras and the dual 110tion 0f coalgebras. Following this, we discuss (c0)a,lg€bra.s for 2. (c0)monad and develop 2. theory 0f regular subcoalgebras which will be used in the interna] logic. We also prove that categories 0f (...)
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  29.  52
    Group Speech Acts.Justin Hughes - 1984 - Linguistics and Philosophy 7 (4):379 - 395.
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  30. The Return of the Living Dead: Agency Lost and Found?Carmelo Aquilina & Julian C. Hughes - 2006 - In Julian C. Hughes, Stephen J. Louw & Steven R. Sabat (eds.), Dementia: Mind, Meaning, and the Person. Oxford University Press. pp. 143--161.
     
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  31.  85
    Value Judgements and Conceptual Tensions: Decision-Making in Relation to Hospital Discharge for People with Dementia.Helen Greener, Marie Poole, Charlotte Emmett, John Bond, Stephen J. Louw & Julian C. Hughes - 2012 - Clinical Ethics 7 (4):166-174.
    We reflect, using a vignette, on conceptual tensions and the value judgements that lie behind difficult decisions about whether or not the older person with dementia should return home or move into long-term care following hospital admission. The paper seeks, first, to expose some of the difficulties arising from the assessment of residence capacity, particularly around the nature of evaluative judgements and conceptual tensions inherent in the legal approach to capacity. Secondly, we consider the assessment of best interests around place (...)
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  32.  27
    ‘Modernists with a Vengeance’: Changing Cultures of Theory in Nuclear Science, 1920–1930.J. C. & J. Hughes - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 29 (3):339-367.
    Sandia National Laboratories, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was originally a part of Los Alamos Laboratory. In 1949, AT&T agreed to manage Sandia, which they did for the next 44 years. During those Cold War years, Sandia was the prime weapons engineering laboratory for Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore. As such, it bore prime responsibility for designing and adapting nuclear weapons for the military services' delivery systems, and ensuring the safety and reliability of the stockpile. The Labs' history has been (...)
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  33. Intellectual Property: Moral, Legal, and International Dilemmas.John P. Barlow, David H. Carey, James W. Child, Marci A. Hamilton, Hugh C. Hansen, Edwin C. Hettinger, Justin Hughes, Michael I. Krauss, Charles J. Meyer, Lynn Sharp Paine, Tom C. Palmer, Eugene H. Spafford & Richard Stallman - 1997 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    As the expansion of the Internet and the digital formatting of all kinds of creative works move us further into the information age, intellectual property issues have become paramount. Computer programs costing thousands of research dollars are now copied in an instant. People who would recoil at the thought of stealing cars, computers, or VCRs regularly steal software or copy their favorite music from a friend's CD. Since the Web has no national boundaries, these issues are international concerns. The contributors-philosophers, (...)
     
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  34.  10
    Emotional Intelligence: Elias, Foucault, and the Reflexive Emotional Self.Jason Hughes - 2010 - Foucault Studies 8:28-52.
    Over the last decade and a half there has emerged growing interest in the concept of “emotional intelligence” (henceforth EI), particularly within literature relating to occupational psychology, leadership, human resource management, and training. This paper considers the rise of EI as a managerial discourse and seeks to make sense of it, first in relation to existing accounts of emotion at work, and subsequently through utilising the analytical possibilities presented by the work of Norbert Elias and Michel Foucault. The case of (...)
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  35. Time and Crime: Which Cold-Case Investigations Should Be Reheated.Jonathan A. Hughes & Monique Jonas - 2015 - Criminal Justice Ethics 34 (1):18-41.
    Advances in forensic techniques have expanded the temporal horizon of criminal investigations, facilitating investigation of historic crimes that would previously have been considered unsolvable. Public enthusiasm for pursuing historic crimes is exemplified by recent high-profile trials of celebrities accused of historic sexual offences. These circumstances give new urgency to the question of how we should decide which historic offences to investigate. A satisfactory answer must take into account the ways in which the passage of time can erode the benefits of (...)
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  36.  14
    Facilitation and Interference in Naming: A Consequence of the Same Learning Process?Julie W. Hughes & Tatiana T. Schnur - 2017 - Cognition 165:61-72.
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  37.  15
    Balancing Cultural Diversity and Social Cohesion in Education: The Potential of Shared Education in Divided Contexts.Rebecca Loader & Joanne Hughes - 2017 - British Journal of Educational Studies 65 (1):3-25.
  38. Beyond “Real Boys” and Back to Parental Obligations.James Hughes - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):61-62.
    Learning to see the continuity between our everyday decision-making and our decision-making around new biotechnologies is key to acclimatizing to our enhanced future. By excavating this decision-making, Singh helps us see that Ritalin isn’t really that big a deal and helps dispel what Malcolm Gladwell (1999) noted as the “strange inversion of moral responsibility” encouraged by books like ‘Ritalin Nation’ and ‘Running on Ritalin,’ whose authors “seek to make those parents and physicians trying to help children with A.D.H.D. feel guilty (...)
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  39.  13
    Nudging the Older Person Into Care: An End to the Dilemma?Julian C. Hughes, Marie Poole & Stephen J. Louw - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):34 - 36.
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  40.  37
    Guest Editorial: How Moral is Moral Enhancement?Vojin Rakić & James Hughes - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (1):3-6.
    Moral bioenhancement is a topic that will only increase in controversy as neuroscience advances.
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  41.  13
    Young Children's Understanding of Emotions Within Close Relationships.Judy Dunn Claire Hughes - 1998 - Cognition and Emotion 12 (2):171-190.
  42. Ethical Issues and Tagging in Dementia: A Survey.Julian C. Hughes, Jane Newby, Stephen J. Louw, Gill Campbell & Jane L. Hutton - 2009 - Journal of Ethics in Mental Health 3 (1):4.
     
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  43.  37
    Nothing New Under the Sun: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in the Ancient World.Walid Khalid Abdul-Hamid & Jamie Hacker Hughes - 2014 - Early Science and Medicine 19 (6):549-557.
    Herodotus’ account of the Athenian spear carrier Epizelus’ psychogenic mutism following the Marathon Wars is usually cited as the first documented account of post-traumatic stress disorders in historical literature. This paper describes much earlier accounts of post combat disorders that were recorded as occurring in Mesopotamia during the Assyrian dynasty. The descriptions in this paper include many symptoms of what we would now identify in current diagnostic classification systems as post-traumatic stress disorders, including flashbacks, sleep disturbance and low mood. The (...)
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  44. Dementia: Mind, Meaning, and the Person.Julian Hughes, Stephen Louw & Steven R. Sabat (eds.) - 2005 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Dementia is an illness that raises important questions about our own attitudes to illness and aging. It also raises very important issues beyond the bounds of dementia to do with how we think of ourselves as people - fundamental questions about personal identity. Is the person with dementia the same person he or she was before? Is the individual with dementia a person at all? In a striking way, dementia seems to threaten the very existence of the self. This book (...)
     
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  45.  25
    Humans Should Be Free of All Biological Limitations Including Sex.James J. Hughes - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):15-15.
  46.  33
    Francis of Assisi and the Diversity of Creation.J. Donald Hughes - 1996 - Environmental Ethics 18 (3):311-320.
    Francis’ view of nature has been seen as positive in an ecological sense even by those who are for the most part critical of Christianity’s attitude to nature, such as Lynn White, Jr. I argue that one element of Francis’ uniqueness was that he saw the diversity of life as an expression of God’s creativity and benevolence and attempted to carry out that vision in ethical behavior. Much of what has been written about him has precedents in traditional hagiography, but (...)
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  47.  42
    Palliative Care and the QALY Problem.Jonathan Hughes - 2005 - Health Care Analysis 13 (4):289-301.
    Practitioners of palliative care often argue for more resources to be provided by the state in order to lessen its reliance on charitable funding and to enable the services currently provided to some of those with terminal illnesses to be provided to all who would benefit from it. However, this is hard to justify on grounds of cost-effectiveness, since it is in the nature of palliative care that the benefits it brings to its patients are of short duration. In particular, (...)
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  48. Are Technological Unemployment and a Basoc Income Guarantee Inevitable or Desirable?James J. Hughes - 2014 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 24 (1):1-4.
    Robotics and artificial intelligence are beginning to fundamentally change the relative profitability and productivity of investments in capital versus human labor; creating technological unemployment at all levels of the workforce; from the North to the developing world. As robotics and expert systems become cheaper and more capable the percentage of the population that can find employment will also fall; stressing economies already trying to curtail "entitlements" and adopt austerity. Two additional technology-driven trends will exacerbate the structural unemployment crisis in the (...)
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  49.  82
    The Manhattan Project: Big Science and the Atom Bomb.Jeff Hughes - 2003 - Columbia University Press.
    The Manhattan Project, the allies' project during the Second World War to build the atomic bomb, did not represent a radical break in the development of twentieth-century science but rather an acceleration of developments already underway, ...
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  50.  21
    Copyright and Incomplete Historiographies: Of Piracy, Propertization, and Thomas Jefferson.Justin Hughes - manuscript
    This article describes how historical claims frequently made in arguments about the propertization of copyright are incomplete, focusing on three examples: that intellectual property is a much older phrase than current scholarship would lead one to believe; that, regardless, copyright has been understood as property (literary, artistic, etc.) since the 18th century; that infringement of all sorts have generally been called piracy for at least that long; and that appeals to Thomas Jefferson for weaker intellectual property rights are misplaced for (...)
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