Cognitive Science is a promising field of research that deals with one of the most fundamental questions ever: how do beings know? However, despite the long and extensive tradition of the field it has not yet become an area of knowledge with scientific identity. This is primarily due to three reasons: the lack of boundaries in defining the object of study, i.e. cognition, the lack of a precise, robust and consistent scientific methodology and results, and the inner problems derived from (...) its interdisciplinary nature. This paper presents a background review, a theoretical frame and a humble reflection on these topics in order to arouse the internal debate among readers once more. (shrink)
Since the nineteenth century, the debate around the process of professionalization of higher education has been characterized by two extreme positions. For some critics the process carries the risks of instrumentalizing knowledge and of leading the university to succumb under the demands of the market or the state; for other theorists it represents a concrete opportunity for the university to open up to the real needs of society and for reorienting theoretical and fragmented disciplines towards the resolution of concrete and (...) challenging problems. This article pursues three objectives. Firstly, we show that the debate is usefully informed not only by ideas of what a university is, but also by ideas of a profession. We suggest that both ideas help to overcome the conflict between the two afore-mentioned antagonist perspectives. Secondly, we demonstrate that a certain understanding of a profession can prevent the risk of viewing knowledge exclusively as scientific expertise and reducing training to the acquisition of technical skills. The position on professions adopted here is inspired by the Scottish philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, whose work is instructive in understanding professions as “rational practical activities”, embedded in a social context with their own internal goods. Our third objective, therefore, is to argue, with MacIntyre, that the presence of professions within the university opens up the opportunity to rescue forms of rationality that are oriented towards action and, by implication, promotes spaces of training that are resistant to exclusively corporate or governmental interests and criteria of mere effectiveness. (shrink)
Due to the hyperspecialization so prevalent nowadays, interdisciplinary research is a demanding kind of epistemic activity. The concept of intellectual virtue as presented by responsibilist approaches of virtue epistemology could offer an effective counterweight to this challenge but raises the question of what epistemic virtues are necessary for interdisciplinarity. Based on a qualitative study, we identify and heuristically conceptualize a relevant subset of epistemic virtues required by interdisciplinarity that we call _interpersonal intellectual virtues. _These virtues are personal character traits that (...) facilitate the reciprocal acquisition and distribution of knowledge _with_ and _through_ other people. By their very nature, they are only exercised in an interpersonal relationship that seeks an epistemic good, so in some sense, they are at the intersection of social virtues and intellectual virtues. We use Jason Baehr’s four-dimensional proposal for the essential components of intellectual virtues (motivational, affective, skill, and judgment) to show that these interpersonal traits are indeed epistemic virtues. Some examples of interpersonal intellectual virtues are intellectual empathy, intellectual respect, and intellectual trust, among others. Intellectual empathy is a paradigmatic case that we analyze in more detail. Finally, we suggest that interpersonal intellectual virtues are the key character traits of people involved in any successful collective epistemic endeavor, interdisciplinary research being a privileged context in which we can clearly see their manifestation. (shrink)
The study and understanding of fundamental questions cannot be addressed by a single discipline. A plurality of insights needs to be integrated or coordinated to allow for mutual enrichment in interdisciplinary research. The intellectual character describes the set of dispositions that both configure and motivate intellectual behavior. In this paper, we explore the intellectual virtues that constitute the ideal character of an interdisciplinary researcher. We look at dimensions of several intellectual virtues – intellectual curiosity, open-mindedness, intellectual humility, and intellectual honest (...) – relevant to interdisciplinarity, we discuss the significance of other character traits – intellectual creativity and intellectual trust – for integrating a plurality of insights, and we argue for the need of a social cognition approach, emphasizing the relevance of interpersonal intellectual virtues in interdisciplinary inquiry. All these virtues are key constituents of the intellectual character of interdisciplinary researchers. (shrink)
El propósito del presente artículo es estudiar la respuesta humana al don divino según el comentario de Tomás de Aquino y Martín Lutero a la Carta a los Romanos. Si bien ambos autores asumen una postura antipelagiana, la concepción tomista, al reconocer el valor positivo del orden creado, comprende con mayor hondura metafísica la acción justificadora y santificadora de Dios en la creatura humana. Por otra parte, la exégesis de Lutero, más existencial, es especialmente aguda e incisiva desde este punto (...) de vista. En ambos casos es posible deducir que el punto de partida de la exégesis no es una reflexión abstracta sino un diálogo personal y vital con el Apóstol. El artículo profundizará en los comentarios a Rm 5,5, pasaje central en el pensamiento de san Agustín, cuya influencia es patente tanto en la exégesis de Tomás de Aquino como en la de Martín Lutero. Para estos efectos se apoyará en las recientes reflexiones sobre la categoría de don con la que se analizará la gracia divina, pues ésta contribuye a poner de manifiesto la diferencia entre una visión extrínseca o forense de la justificación y santificación, en la que se acentúa la pasividad del cristiano ante el don inmerecido recibido (Lutero), y una salvación que trasforma al cristiano para que responda al amor de Dios desde el amor (Tomás de Aquino). (shrink)
In this paper, we argue that to reverse the excess of specialization and to create room for interdisciplinary cross-fertilization, it seems necessary to move the existing epistemic plurality towards a collaborative process of social cognition. In order to achieve this, we propose to extend the psychological notion of joint attention towards what we call joint intellectual attention. This special kind of joint attention involves a shared awareness of sharing the cognitive process of knowledge. We claim that if an interdisciplinary research (...) team aspires to work collaboratively, it is essential for the researchers to jointly focus their attention towards a common object and establish a second-person relatedness among them. We consider some of the intellectual dispositions or virtues fostered by joint intellectual attention that facilitate interdisciplinary exchange, and explore some of the practical consequences of this cognitive approach to interdisciplinarity for education and research. (shrink)
Según Alasdair MacIntyre, la Universidad liberal descansa en ficciones que encubren sus propósitos y le proporcionan una legitimidad engañosa. Esta crítica no siempre se ha entendido en su profundidad, y se suele ver en ella una actitud reaccionaria de retorno nostálgico a la Universidad medieval. Se analizan esas ficciones: la sobre-especialización como sinónimo de profundidad investigativa, la neutralidad y la objetividad como posibilitadoras de racionalidad, y la excelencia en la gestión como forma de asegurar el logro de sus objetivos. Se (...) muestra cómo, a través de esta denuncia, aparece una postura revolucionaria, influida por Marx y Nietzsche, que busca desenmascarar las contradicciones internas de la Universidad liberal. According to Alasdair MacIntyre, the liberal University is based on fictions that hide its purposes and provide a misleading legitimacy. This critique has not always been understood in its depth and is often seen as a reactionary attitude, nostalgic for the medieval University. This article analyzes these fictions: over-specialization as a synonym for deep research, neutrality and objectivity as enablers of rationalism, and excellence in management as a form of ensuring its objectives. It shows how this indictment manifests a revolutionary position, influenced by Marx and Nietzsche, which seeks to unmask the internal contradictions of the liberal University. (shrink)
El presente trabajo quiere analizar la encíclica Caritas in veritate desde la idea de globalización como clave hermenéutica de todo el documento. Nos parece que este noción -comprendida en sus múltiples dimensiones sociales, éticas, políticas, culturales y espirituales- puede contribuir no sólo a una comprensión más profunda de este texto, sino que también puede ayudar a desentrañar muchas de las críticas que ha recibido esta carta, su excesiva extensión y complejidad temática, así como su silencio sobre el capitalismo y el (...) liberalismo. En una segunda etapa, pretendemos comparar la propuesta de esta encíclica social con el proyecto político de las pequeñas comunidades de Alasdair MacIntyre. La intención es mostrar que lejos de una oposición entre ambas posturas -como de alguna forma lo señaló Jeffrey Nicholas- ellas pueden comprenderse como posturas complementarias, en la medida que realicemos una nueva significación del concepto mismo de globalización, entendida ahora como un proceso dialéctico típicamente postmoderno, siguiendo para ello los análisis de autores como Roland Robertson, Zygmunt Bauman o Ulrich Beck. In this paper we seek to analyze the eneyelieal Caritas in veritate based on the idea of globalization as a hermeneutical key to the whole document. We think that this notion -understood in its multiple social, ethical, political, cultural and spiritual dimensions- can contribute not only to a deeper understanding of this text, but also help unravel many of the criticisms directed against the letter, its excessive length and thematic complexity, as well as its silence regarding capitalism and liberalism. In a second stage, we set out to compare the proposal of this social enyelieal with Alasdair Maclntyre’s political project of local communities. Our purpose lies in demonstrating that far from an opposition between the two positions -as Jeffrey Nicholas has in a way pointed out- that they can be understood as complementary, to the extent that we make a new meaning of the very concept of globalization, now understood as a typically postmodern dialectical process based on to the analyses of authors such as Roland Robertson, Zygmunt Bauman or Ulrich Beck. (shrink)
Resumen Este artículo analiza, en discusión con Joaquín García-Huidobro y Alejandro Miranda, la conveniencia de utilizar en moral sexual el argumento de la facultad pervertida, conforme al cual sería inmoral frustrar el fin natural de las facultades reproductivas. Según García-Huidobro y Miranda este argumento sólo puede utilizarse desde el “principio de totalidad”, pues su uso aislado llevaría a los absurdos denunciados por la New Natural Law Theory. Con vistas a una reconsideración de este argumento, se demuestra la importancia de considerar (...) la ética en su carácter tópico o contextual. Así, es en el ámbito de la templanza y de las inclinaciones sexuales donde el AFP cobra un papel normativo; en cambio, el “principio de totalidad” entra en juego cuando se está considerando el problema del límite de las intervenciones médicas.This paper focuses on the adequacy of using the so-called perverted faculty argument within the context of sexual morality. According to this argument, frustrating the reproductive faculty would be immoral. Professors García-Huidobro and Miranda think that this argument can be appropriately used only within the framework of the principle of totality. They argue that an unqualified use of the PFA would lead to the absurdities pointed out by the New Natural Law Theory. In order to see the PFA in a new light we demonstrate the importance of respecting the dialectical or contextual nature of Ethics. Thus, regarding temperance, and especially sexual inclinations, the PFA has a clear normative role. The principle of totality, instead, must be used when considering the problem of the moral limits of medical interventions. (shrink)
In this pa per I will try to of fer a syn the sis be tween two con flict ing epistemological po si - tions on the re cent philo soph i cal scene: pos i tiv - ism, whose her i tage sur vives as the be lief that sci ence is the most gen u ine form of knowl edge, and the de fend ers of incommensur..
Liberation theology's account of how Latin America's rich exploited the poor described things perfectly in El Salvador. On behalf of the crucified majority, Ellacurfa prophetically denounced, for over twenty years, the oppression of the crucifying oligarchy of El Salvador. This paper concerns a part of that denunciation, the part of it for which I, as a North American, as a citizen of the United States, have some responsibility.
Most research studying the corporate social performance –corporate financial performance link has utilized developed country samples. Also, this literature has generally focused on a wide variety of industries, ignoring the fact that certain sectors – such as controversial industries – have graver social and environmental issues. Hence, a gap exists in this tradition when it comes to emerging markets and controversial industries. This paper attempts to fill this void by providing preliminary evidence and insight on the matter. Based on an (...) exploration in six Latin American countries and five controversial industries, we find a negative bidirectional association between CSP and CFP. These results tend to contradict the mainstream conclusion of a positive bidirectional link, suggesting that institutional and market-level forces play a major role in shaping this relationship. (shrink)
Food choices are a key determinant of dietary intake, with brain regions, such as the mesolimbic and prefrontal cortex maturing at differential rates into adulthood. More needs to be understood about developmental changes in healthy and unhealthy food perceptions and preference. We investigated how food perceptions and preference vary as a function of age and how food attributes impact age-related changes. One hundred thirty-nine participants completed computerized tasks to rate high-calorie and low-calorie food cues for taste, health, and liking, followed (...) by 100 binary food choices based on each participant’s ratings. Dietary self-control was considered successful when the healthier food was chosen. Self-control success ratio was the proportion of success trials over total number of choices. Beta-weights for health and taste were calculated as each attribute’s influence on food preference. Adiposity measurements included BMI z-score and waist-to-height ratio. High-calorie foods were rated more tasty and less healthy with increasing age. Older participants liked high-calorie foods more, and β-taste was associated with age. Significant age-by-WHtR interactions were observed for health and taste ratings of high-calorie foods, β-taste, and marginally for preference of high-calorie foods. Stratifying by WHtR, we found age-related increases in taste and preference ratings of high-calorie foods in the high WHtR group alone. In contrast, age-related decreases in health ratings of high-calorie foods were significant in the low WHtR group alone. Age and β-taste were significantly associated in the high WHtR group and only marginally significant with low WHtR. Although participants rated low-calorie foods as less tasty and less healthy with increasing age, there was no association between age and preference for low-calorie foods. Participants made faster food choices with increasing age regardless of WHtR, with a significant age-by-WHtR interaction on reaction time. There were no age-related effects in self-control success ratio and β-health. These results suggest that individual differences in age and central adiposity play an important role in preference for high-calorie foods, and a higher importance of food tastiness in food choice may contribute to greater preference for high-calorie foods with increasing age. (shrink)
BackgroundDepression is a prevalent condition that has a significant impact on psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The onset and persistence of depression have been linked to a variety of biological and psychosocial variables. Many of these variables are associated with specific lifestyle characteristics, such as physical activity, diet, and sleep patterns. Some psychosocial determinants have an impact on people’ health-related behavior change. These include personal factors such as sense of coherence, patient activation, health literacy, self-efficacy, and procrastination. This study (...) aims to analyze the association between the severity of depression, lifestyle patterns, and personal factors related to health behavior. It also aims to analyze whether personal factors moderate the relationship between lifestyles and depression.MethodsThis study is a secondary data analysis of baseline data collected at the start of a randomized controlled trial. A sample of 226 patients with subclinical, mild, or moderate depression from primary healthcare centers in two sites in Spain was used, and descriptive, bivariate, multivariate, and moderation analyses were performed. Depression was the primary outcome, measured by Beck II Self-Applied Depression Inventory. Lifestyle variables such as physical exercise, adherence to Mediterranean diet and sleep quality, social support, and personal factors such as self-efficacy, patient activation in their own health, sense of coherence, health literacy, and procrastination were considered secondary outcomes.ResultsLow sense of coherence, poor sleep quality, low patient activation, and sedentarism are predictors of having more depressive symptoms. Moderation analyses were not significant.DiscussionLifestyle and personal factors are related to depressive symptomatology. Our findings reveal that sense of coherence, patient’s activation level, sedentarism, and sleep quality are associated with depression. Further research is needed regarding adherence to Mediterranean diet, minutes walking per week and the interrelationship between lifestyles, personal factors, and depression. (shrink)
El presente trabajo pretende establecer una íntima conexión entre el que considera un falso debate en torno a la modernidad y la pos modernidad y expresiones como fin de la historia, fin de las ideologías, y otras que desde ámbitos diversos vienen compitiendo por caracterizar el mundo actual. La hipótesis central es que esa constelación obedece a una lógica muy similar a la que llevó, a fines del XVIIII, a utilizar por pri mera vez el término nihilismo frente a la (...) que consideraba la Ilustración. La llamada posmodernidad no haría sino culminar esa tendencia, aunque en apariencia invirtiéndola mediante un mecanismo sutil fruto de la con fluencia de tradiciones dispares como la filosofía analítica anglosajona o la hermeneútica. De esa inversión surgiría una nueva teología, atea, invulnerable en virtud de su nihilismo, en la medida en que se asienta en la ausencia del fundamento, del referente o incluso de lo real mismo, y en cuyo seno se da incluso la apariencia de pluralismo o de la más plena secularización. A modo de ejemplo se contrastan los planteamientos bási cos de Habermas y Foucault, en cuanto ya clásicos de ese debate, y como compartiendo esa teología desde posiciones en apariencia dispares. (shrink)
We describe the results of an experiment on decision making in an insurance context. The experiment was designed to test for the underlying rationality of insurance consumers, where rationality is understood in usual economic terms. In particular, using expected utility as the preference function, we test for positive marginal utility, risk aversion, and decreasing absolute risk aversion, all of which are normal postulates for any microeconomic decision context under uncertainty or risk. We find that there the discrepancy from rational decision (...) making increases with the sophistication of the rationality criteria, that irrationality concerning fair premium contracts is uncharacteristically high, and that the slope of absolute risk aversion seems to depend on the format of the insurance contract. (shrink)