1. Causal knowledge is an indispensable element in science. Causal assertions are embedded in both the results and the procedures of scientific investigation. 2. It is therefore worthwhile to investigate the meaning of causal statements and the ways in which we can arrive at causal knowledge.
The paradoxical view of warnock and hodgson that act-Utilitarianism must have disutility is criticised. Simple examples in game theory style show that it does not defeat the possibility of cooperation and that it allows an approximation to truth-Telling. Promising would indeed have only a limited role in an act-Utilitarian society, But that is because its normal function is to aid compromise between divergent purposes. Also, The efforts of a single act-Utilitarian in a non-Act-Utilitarian society need not frustrate themselves, If he (...) is not too candid. (shrink)