A revised edition of this translation which was first published in 1934. Silber has added a vigorous and provocative essay focusing attention on the importance of the Religion for understanding Kant's ethics.--J. M. W.
Task unrelated thought (TUT) refers to thought directed away from the current situation, for example a daydream. Three experiments were conducted on healthy participants, with two broad aims. First, to contrast distributed and encapsulated views of cognition by comparing the encoding of categorical and random lists of words (Experiments One and Two). Second, to examine the consequences of experiencing TUT during study on the subsequent retrieval of information (Experiments One, Two, and Three). Experiments One and Two demonstrated lower levels of (...) TUT and higher levels of word-fragment completion whilst encoding categorical relative to random stimuli, supporting the role of a distributed resource in the maintenance of TUT. In addition the results of all three experiments suggested that experiencing TUT during study had a measurable effect on subsequent retrieval. TUT was associated with increased frequency of false alarms at retrieval (Experiment One). In the subsequent experiments TUT was associated with no advantage to retrieval based on recollection, by manipulating instructions at encoding (Experiment Two), and/or at retrieval (Experiment Three). The implications of the results of all three experiments are discussed in terms of recent accounts of memory retrieval and conscious awareness. (shrink)
This book contains twenty-two papers by K. Ajdukiewicz, an outline of his memoir and philosophical evolution by J. Giedymin, and a bibliography of Ajdukiewicz’s works compiled by T. Czezowski. In the colorful introductory paper, Giedymin characterizes the personality of the famous Polish philosopher-logician as a person open not only to philosophical investigations but also to contemplation of the beauty contained in music, literature, and nature. The sketch of Ajdukiewicz’s scientific activity presents him as an excellent teacher, open-minded in understanding different (...) viewpoints but simultaneously as an independent and uncompromising thinker. (shrink)
Unquestionably, Kant wrote one of the most important works in aesthetics. Yet, in comparison with the amount of work philosophers have done in other areas of his philosophy, surprisingly little has been done with the aesthetics. Crawford’s book is a welcome and useful attempt to remedy this situation by presenting a sustained and critical exposition of the major argument in The Critique of the Aesthetic Judgment.
Morality, as commonly conceived, is a delusion; it is, however, indispensable for the flourishing both of society and of individuals. These are the main theses, one concerning the status, the other the content of morality,, of J. L. Mackie’s Ethics, Inventing Right and Wrong. In part 1, with much fresh, useful, if subsidiary discussion of more standard meta-ethical fare—meanings of normative terms and analysis of moral argument—Mackie argues that the morality of the plain man is not, what it is commonly (...) taken to be, revelatory of a realm of objective values. Such values, he contends, making no secret of his empiricism, are ontologically too queer to exist, epistemologically too alien to be known. Nor are they needed to account for the specious objectivity of common sense morality, for there are "patterns of objectification" which, with less philosophical extravagance, can explain how an agent’s subjective attitudes become objectified. Although Mackie does think that one’s moral principles are prescriptive, universal, and, in some sense, chosen, his skepticism is not the fruit of linguistic analysis. On the contrary. "[O]rdinary moral judgments include a claim to objectivity.... Any analysis of the meanings of moral terms which omits this claim to objective, intrinsic, prescriptivity is to that extent incomplete; and this is true of any non-cognitive analysis, any naturalist one, and any combination of the two". (shrink)
Although some of Helmholtz’s scientific suggestions are dated with the progress of science, his ontological statements as well as his epistemological studies are still an object of philosophical controversy. The selection of Helmholtz’s epistemological writings, edited as volume 79 in the Synthese Library, contains four papers originally published in German between 1868 and 1887. In these papers are considered among others the epistemological aspects of measuring and numbering, the issues of perceptual cognition, the theory of geometrical knowledge, and the relationship (...) between science and metaphysics. The present collection of the Helmholtz’s articles was previously edited in German, on the centenary of his birth, under the title Schriften zur Erkenntnistheorie. The editors, M. Schlick and P. Hertz, sharing the opinion that Helmholtz’s name is a symbol of a union between epistemologically oriented philosophy and science, had selected from his many epistemological writings only four—the most representative and the most complete. In order to make the papers intelligible not only to philosophers but also to general readers, Schlick and Hertz supplemented the primary texts with explanatory remarks and comments. Some of them have a general introductory character, explaining, for instance, the difference between induction and deduction or elucidating Locke’s conception of two kinds of properties; the others present useful syntheses of methodological solutions, comparing, e.g., Carnap’s or Reichenbach’s ideas with Helmholtz’s. (shrink)
This book is part of the series ‘Classical Life and Letters’ and is thus intended for the general reader. Consequently, the book gives a survey of major figures and topics in Presocratic philosophy; the structure of the book appears from the headings of the eight chapters: Introduction, The Milesians, Heraclitus, Pythagoras and the Greek West, Parmenides and Zeno, The Age of the Sophists, Cosmology from Parmenides to Democritus, Conclusion: the Study of the Presocratics. Hussey leaves out most of the biographical (...) details and makes no attempt to present the evidence, either the actual fragments or the testimonies, independently of his own interpretations. The fragments are often broken up so as to suit his interpretation which is generally given before the fragments., thus sometimes misleading the reader. Hussey frequently acknowledges that there is no good evidence for what he is saying, and he does a lot of reconstructing and poses questions which do not seem to have been raised by the Presocratics themselves. (shrink)
Dicke discusses the metamorphosis of Hegelianism in Feuerbach and Marx through an examination of the concept of identity in the three philosophers. He demonstrates the persistence of this concept as a decisive theme in both Feuerbach and Marx, and shows how Hegel's doctrine of identity is transformed and adulterated in the process of adaptation. A primary consequence of Marx's modification of this doctrine is the philosophical sacrifice of the individual to the collective, which has its practical consequences in contemporary communist (...) states.--J. M. W. (shrink)
Rudolf Carnap, remembering in his Autobiography a visit to Warsaw in November 1930, and recalling animated discussions with Lesniewski, Kotarbinski, and Tarski, expressed deep regret that stimulating and fruitful works in the field of logic and theory of knowledge, published only in the Polish language, were inaccessible to the philosophical world. An analogous opinion is expressed by Karl R. Popper who has stated that his methodological solutions were influenced by Alfred Tarski more than by anybody else. Regarding similar appraisals and (...) trying to partially eliminate the mentioned barrier of the language, D. Reidel Publishing Company has edited an anthology of methodological papers published in Poland between 1947-72. The anthology consists of thirty-three articles by twenty Polish logicians investigating the issues of the general methodology of empirical sciences. (shrink)
In an important recent article T. C. W. Stinton reaffirmed the case that in Aristotle's Poetics, ch. 13, has a wide range of application. I do not wish to dispute the general conclusion of what seems to me a masterly analysis of the question but simply to discuss two areas where Stinton's argument may be thought defective–the interpretation of the examples given by Aristotle in Poetics 13, 5 3all and 53a2O–1 and the problem of the contradiction between 13, 53a13–15 and (...) 14, 54a4–9. (shrink)
Miles traces the transmission of the Platonic tradition from the Florentine Platonists to Colet. Although he finds Colet more guarded than Ficino and Mirandola in his assimilation of Platonism to Christianity, he shows that Platonic and Neoplatonic themes pervade almost every aspect of Colet's thought. This is the first of a projected series of three volumes on the relations of the Oxford Reformers to the Platonic tradition.--J. M. W.
What is the correct logical analysis of "S did A with the intention I"? The answer and central thesis of Aune’s Reason and Action, begins: "We do A with the intention i just when we do A and the fact that we do A is psychologically explainable by the fact that we have the intention i." The book can be seen as an elaboration of and commentary on this notion of psychological explanation. Briefly, psychological explanation is causal explanation; the intention (...) causally explains S’s doing A, but it explains psychologically, in the required sense, only if it is connected to his doing A through his practical reasoning. (shrink)
Butchvarov is chairman of the department of philosophy at the University of Iowa. His book, a contribution to a new series, the Northwestern University Publications in Analytical Philosophy, deals with "the conceptual foundations of epistemology." It is divided into four main parts. The first undertakes an account of the general concept of knowledge. The second treats the objects of a priori knowledge; the third, the nature of primary a posteriori knowledge. The fourth part regards nondemonstrative inference and the nature of (...) derivative knowledge in general. The focus of the book is upon fundamental epistemic concepts rather than such particular issues as knowledge of the future, of bodies, of other minds, etc. Butchvarov urges that such specialized problems be treated only after the general conceptual framework has been investigated, lest one's common-sense opinions on the former unduly influence his philosophical conclusions as to the latter. For the inherent demands of the discipline itself must be respected: "In philosophy, as in any other purely theoretical discipline, it is better to be wrong as the result of inquiry and argument than to be right as the result of mere conviction." One of the author's central conclusions concerns evidential criteria. One unquestionable criterion of evidence is the impossibility of mistake, the "demonstrative" criterion. Is there, in addition, any "nondemonstrative" criterion of evidence, with the consequent possibility of nondemonstrative derivative knowledge or at least nondemonstrative rational belief? While not ruling out the possibility of such a criterion, Butchvarov judges that at least one has not yet been brought forth. Particular criteria proposed as nondemonstrative, such as inductive and behavioral, either presuppose the demonstrative criterion or else lack intelligible content. More generally, the nondemonstrative criterion either would or would not possess something in common with the demonstrative criterion, such that both could be understood as species of the same genus, "criterion of evidence." But no successful attempt has thus far been made in showing just what this shared trait might be; and the thesis that there can be multiple criteria of evidence without any generic commonality equivocates on the very notion of evidence. It follows, therefore, that knowledge and rational belief are much more restricted than one would ordinarily surmise. This book manifests both the scholar's mastery of his field and the teacher's concern for clear, well-structured presentation. It reads well, employs good examples, and includes the all-important index.--J. M. V. (shrink)
In this brief work of modest pretensions, the author brings together Islamic texts relevant to freedom from a great variety of sources. He ventures very little analysis or interpretation. Each chapter is copiously footnoted. Given its purely scholarly intentions and limitations, the work should provide a valuable aid for those interested in the study of this field.--J. M. W.
Anders Nygren is widely known among English-speaking readers for his subtle and scholarly analysis of the forms of love, Agape and Eros, first published in 1930. Important facets of his far-ranging thought, however, have remained largely inaccessible to those who do not read Swedish. The present volume is a significant step in reducing that inaccessibility. Nygren's work is treated by seventeen different contributors in essays grouped under the following headings: Philosophy of Religion, Motif Research, The Meanings of Love, Systematic Theology, (...) Ethics, and Cultural and Ecumenical Concerns. Yet the book is more than merely a Festschrift. Over ten years in preparation, it aims at criticism as well as interpretation; and it includes an introductory "intellectual autobiography" by Nygren himself, a concluding response by Nygren to each of his critics, and a complete bibliography chronicling the 372 items published by Nygren from 1918 through 1970. Nygren's investigations fall on both sides of the line between philosophy and theology. The interest which unifies these inquiries is the philosophy of religion. "It is above all in the philosophy of religion that the great decisions are finally made." Nygren's earliest work was an attempt to establish the philosophy of religion on a purely scientific basis. It was in this regard that he developed his characteristic method of "motif research." Just as the supreme theoretical, aesthetic, and ethical categories are the true, the beautiful, and the good, respectively, so the supreme religious category is the eternal. All these categories are merely formal, however, and one must turn to the particular for content. Now, content in the theoretical domain consists of factual relationships; but content in the remaining three, "atheoretical," domains consists of the values or "fundamental motifs" which have been chosen from among a limited number of basic alternatives by a given historical group. The scholar forms a hypothesis regarding the fundamental motifs of the group in question; and if this hypothesis is verified by historical research, it then serves as a principle for organizing additional data concerning the group. Thus, the philosopher-historian of religion studies groups in an effort to determine their answers to the question, "What is the eternal?" It is chiefly in this domain that Nygren has applied his method, concluding, for example, that "agape" and "eros" are the characteristic Christian and Greek answers, respectively, to the fundamental religious question. Nygren maintains that this approach provides the means for treating the religious question systematically while simultaneously respecting the vast historical diversity of specific religious content. Just as the method of motif research is central to Nygren's work, so the discussion of that method and its applications constitutes, in effect, the central matter of this book. The project is carried off well. Nygren's final commentary is especially welcome, confirming or correcting positions presented by the contributors as his, and accepting or rejecting positions advanced by the contributors as their own.--J. M. V. (shrink)
The author wants to explicate a core "philosophy of human finitude" in Kierkegaard, Heidegger, and many others, philosophical and literary. A great many themes are taken up, and interesting connections among those writers are suggested. Some important distinctions are lost, however, and the wide-ranging topics are not fully developed.--J. M.
A richly detailed history of French secular thought in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. A wealth of material is introduced from unpublished manuscripts. Spink's stress on the clandestine spread of the enlightenment, in spite of official suppression, is interesting and sobering.--J. M. W.
This volume consists of seven contributions to a symposium held in 1970 to commemorate the centennial of Saint John's University. Carlo Giacon and Bernard Cohen explicate the relationship of philosophy and modern science. Joseph Owens and John E. Smith treat the question of God as it is posed in philosophy today. Richard McKeon interrelates humanism, civility, and culture; while Vernon Bourke evaluates humanism as a possible basis for moral philosophy. Finally, Paul Ramsey offers some pithy comments on the present trend (...) which abhors man's irreverence for the non-human environment but waxes enthusiastic over the prospect of man's limitless self-modification. Though these papers are brief, for the most part they are extensively footnoted; and thus they provide a handy survey of current thinking on the indicated issues.--J. M. V. (shrink)
Bahm surveys three types of intuition and three corresponding types of conflicting theories of intuition. He argues for an organic theory which views intuition as a dialectical synthesis of the oppositions discussed.--J. M. W.
This eighth volume of the Collected Works of Jung comprises a collection of essays in which Jung struggles with the basic theoretical problems of his psychology. He brings an impressive erudition to his search for concepts, models and explanatory principles adequate to the refractory psychic phenomena with which he deals. In keeping with Jung's conviction that the psyche is "a thing of such infinite complexity that it can be observed and studied from a great many sides," the essays exhibit a (...) variety of approaches, from the relatively empirical to the frankly speculative. The essays span some forty years of Jung's reflection and, thanks to their arrangement in thematic groupings by the editors, present an interesting study in the refinement of his thought and statement.--J. M. W. (shrink)
This publication reflects the revival of interest in Theophrastus’ minor works during the last decade,. Coutant’s edition of Theophrastus’ treatise on fire is not to be compared with any of these books. The book contains an introduction on random subjects such as the nature of the work, sources of information, Aristotle’s view of fire, vocabulary, important concepts, and the establishment of the Greek text. There is also a Greek text with critical apparatus, an English translation, a fourteen page commentary, as (...) well as a subject index and an index of Greek nouns occurring in the text. (shrink)
A short dictionary of quotations from Kierkegaard, Jaspers, Marcel, Heidegger, Sartre and de Beauvoir provides the reader with some idea of peculiarly existentialist understandings of standard philosophical terms as well as of terms which are more especially associated with existential thought. At times the selection seems rather arbitrary in some cases.--J. M. W.
A new and simplified edition of Myers' major work, originally published in 1903. Previous editions had relegated all illustrative case material to cumbersome appendices. The editor of this edition has abridged this material and integrated it into the body of the text. The result is a more manageable and readable volume.--J. M. W.
In this, his first book, originally published in 1926, Henry Nelson Wieman sets forth a view on the relationship of religious experience and scientific method which in substance he has maintained ever since. According to Wieman, our knowledge of the concrete world consists of immediate sensuous experience as interpreted through some set of concepts. Religious experience is the richest form of immediate sensuous experience. It is our awareness of God, who is as much an object of experience as are tree (...) and hill and stone. And scientific method is the systematic procedure by which the conceptual network for interpreting immediate sensuous experience is clarified and corrected, with the experience-concept compound thus becoming "science." Religious experience, therefore, receives its most adequate interpretation in science; while science, in turn, receives its most stimulating input from religious experience. In principle, the highest of the individual sciences is theology; in fact, however, the very complexity of religious experience and the difficulty of distinguishing it clearly from other types of immediate sensuous experience have prevented more than merely minimal progress in achieving a truly scientific theology. On the whole our ideas about God are marked by confusion and controversy, therefore, despite the fact that some of these notions probably are true. Wieman’s book serves as an excellent example of the liberal thought which dominated much of theology and philosophy-of-religion during the last part of the nineteenth century and the first part of the twentieth. The religious thinker with a liberal perspective conceives his primary challenge as developing a scientifically acceptable interpretation of religious experience, taking that experience itself as being obvious and almost universally recognized. One need not be particularly well read to know that current judgments regarding the obviousness of religious experience are hardly so sanguine, however, and that the religious thinker typical of our own age therefore conceives his primary challenge quite differently.—J. M. V. (shrink)
An authorized, eminently readable translation of a work first published in German in 1957. Martin leads his reader into the problems of metaphysics by tracing the development of Plato's thought and Aristotle's criticism of Plato, focusing throughout on the question, "What is unity?" Although the book is introductory in intent and tone, it offers its own interpretation of Plato and Aristotle.--J. M. W.
Cameron attacks the notion that words and sentences "stand for" thoughts--that thoughts are clothed diaphanously in prose, or attractively in verse. The thesis is that poetry enriches understanding of both oneself and others. A feeling is made available in its personal aspect through representation in a unique, non-paraphraseable poetic. --J. M.
Essays on Gilbert, Bacon, Galileo, Kepler, Harvey, van Helmont, and Descartes attempt, at a medium level of complexity, to relate the positions of these men to twentieth century views of the same questions. The stated purpose of the book is the assessment of the role of each man in the "methodological revolution"; although the methods are discussed, little attempt is made to put them into the context necessary for the reader to view them as revolutionary.—J. M. B.
This collection of fourteen articles, essays, and lectures produced by Fr. Congar between the years 1937 and 1962 illustrates the intellectual fecundity of a theologian who, with scholarly sympathy, examines the biblical, patristic, and liturgical sources of theological reflection and mediates their meaning in such a manner as to vivify the pastoral and eschatological self-understanding of the Christian community. The first part of the collection comprises four essays which treat of the theological significance of the Bible. Although Congar here develops (...) theses which are, for the most part, neither original nor conclusive, he acknowledges the Holy Scriptures as the primary source of divine revelation--an acknowledgement pregnant with consequences which, unfortunately, are not critically pursued. Part Two contains essays dealing with such themes as the experience of divine revelation, the role of the incarnate Word as the revealer of God, the integrity of Creation, Redemption, and Consummation, the interdependence of pneumatology and ecclesiology, the eucharist and the fulfilment of the world, etc. and entitled The Mysteries of God: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Without being systematic, the work is theologically illuminating and philosophically suggestive, especially in relation to the question of the grounds and limits of a Christian philosophy. All but two of the chapters have been published previously. No index is included.--J. M. S. (shrink)
The economic aspects of biobanking are intertwined with the social and scientific aspects. We describe two problems that structure the discussion about the economics of biobanking and which illustrate this intertwining. First, there is a ‘sustainability problem’ about how to maintain biobanks in the long term. Second, and representing a partial response to the first problem, there is a ‘commercialisation problem’ about how to deal with the voluntary altruistic relationship between participants and biobanks, and the potential commercial relationships that a (...) biobank may form. Social scientists have argued that the commercialisation problem is inadequate as a way to construct the multiple tensions that biobanks must negotiate. We agree that the commercialisation problem is an inadequate framework; turning to alternative accounts of bioeconomy, we suggest that contemporary consideration of the economics of biobanking primarily in terms of participants and their bodily tissue may reproduce the very commodification of science that these scholars critique. We suggest that an alternative conception of the economics of biobanking beyond the logics of commodification, which may thereby allow broader questions about the social and economic conditions and consequences of biobanks to be posed. (shrink)