We propose a new picture of nature in which there are only two fundamental universal constantsè ē (≡e/c) andh(≡ħ/c). Our theory is developed within the framework of a new four-dimensional symmetry which is constructed on the basis of the Poincaré-Einstein principle of relativity for the laws of physics and the Newtonian concept of time. We obtain a new space-light transformation law, a velocity-addition law, and so on. In this symmetry scheme, the speed of light is constant and is completely relative. (...) The new theory is logically self-consistent, and it moreover is in agreement with all previously established experimental facts, such as the “lifetime dilatation” of unstable particles, the Michelson-Morley experiment, etc. There is a difference relative to the usual theory, though, in that our theory predicts a new law for the Dopplerfrequency shift, which can be tested experimentally by measuring the second-order frequency shift. (shrink)
We discuss quantum electrodynamics within the framework of a new four-dimensional symmetry in which the concept of time, the propagation of light, and the transformation property of many physical quantities are drastically different from those in special relativity. However, they are consistent with experiments. The new framework allows for natural developments of additional concepts. Observers in different frames may use the same grid of clocks, located in any one of the frames, and hence have a universal time.
The structures of space and time associated with various four-dimensional symmetries are constructed and examined. It is interesting that some of these four-dimensional symmetries are compatible with the existence of an aether in the Einstein sense. There are two classes of infinitely many four-dimensional symmetries that cannot be ruled out by previous experiments. We discuss some laser experiments that test these two classes of four-dimensional symmetries. An interesting connection between the nonclassical aether and gravity through the equality of inertial and (...) gravitational mass is explored. (shrink)
A new theory of four-dimensional symmetry introduced by Hsu has been criticized as logically inconsistent. We answer the criticisms that have been raised and show that in fact this theory is not logically inconsistent.
We explore the mathematical structure and the physical implications of a general four-dimensional symmetry framework which is consistent with the Poincaré—Einstein principle of relativity for physical laws and with experiments. In particular, we discuss a four-dimensional framework in which all observers in different frames use one and the same grid of clocks. The general framework includes special relativity and a recently proposed new four-dimensional symmetry with a nonuniversal light speed as two special simple cases. The connection between the properties of (...) light propagation and the convention concerning clock systems is also discussed, and is seen to be nonunique within the four-dimensional framework. (shrink)
It is demonstrated on the basis of the Dirac equation that quarks cannot be confined by a vector gluon potential of the form(r/r 0)a or[ln(r/r 0]a, a>0, if the quark-gluon interaction conserves parity. In order to confine quarks with the parity-conserving interaction, the effective gluon potential must be a pseudovector or a scalar. These are shown in a simple Yang-Mills field with theSU(2) group.
Following the ideas of Poincaré, Reichenbach, and Grunbaum concerning the convention of setting up clock systems, we analyze clock systems and light propagation within the framework of four-dimensional symmetry. It is possible to construct a new four-dimensional symmetry framework incorporatingcommon time: observers in different inertial frames of reference use one and the same clock system, which is located in any one of the frames. Consequently, simultaneity has a meaning independent of position and independent of frame of reference. A further consequence (...) is that the two-way speeds of light alone are isotropic in any frame. By the choice of clock system there will be one frame in which the one-way speed of light is isotropic. This frame can be arbitrarily chosen. The difference between one-way speeds and two-way speeds of light signals is considered in detail. (shrink)
We study the magnetic monopoles in non-Abelian gauge theories. The exact static, spherically symmetric solutions of the magnetic monopoles in both Yang-Mills and unified gauge theories are obtained. The energyE of the static system is calculable and it is either zero or infinite. The existence of the magnetic monopole solution is a consequence of symmetry rather than dynamics. We propose a new definition of the electromagnetic field tensor, which relates the static solution of gauge fields and the magnetic monopole solution. (...) Experimental implications are discussed. (shrink)
We discuss the symmetry basis of unified field theories, i.e., the generalized concept of local gauge symmetry, and its physical implications. The generalized Ward-Takahashi identities and the explicit constraints among renormalization constants are derived by using the path integral in a specific model. These constraints are confirmed at the one-loop level.
The observable phase factor is taken as a basic concept for the description of electromagnetism. Generalization of this concept toSU(2) andSU(2) × U(1) groups is carried out in such a way that the monopoles with quantized charges appear naturally and that the symmetry between the electric and magnetic phenomena is preserved. Some physical implications are discussed.
Time is analyzed by considering the actual setup of clock system within the four-dimensional framework. We find that both relativistic time and universal time can be embedded in such a symmetry framework. Although Poincaré and Einstein both understood the meaning of Lorentz's local time in terms of sending light signals to calibrate clocks, they differed on a basic point: Einstein believed local time to be the necessary and unique time, while Poincaré admitted flexibility in the definitions of time and regarded (...) local time as only a convention. The results of our analysis shed light on Poincaré's original idea concerning conventions of time and provide the conceptual basis for the formulation of a new four-dimensional symmetry with a universal time. We demonstrate that the one-way speeds of light measured by stable atomic clocks in rockets may not be isotropic, in contrast to the two-way speeds of light. Furthermore, atomic clocks can be used to set up a clock system which reads a universal (but not absolute) time. (shrink)