135 found
Order:
  1. Minds, Machines and Gödel.J. R. Lucas - 2003 - Etica E Politica 5 (1):1.
    In this article, Lucas maintains the falseness of Mechanism - the attempt to explain minds as machines - by means of Incompleteness Theorem of Gödel. Gödel’s theorem shows that in any system consistent and adequate for simple arithmetic there are formulae which cannot be proved in the system but that human minds can recognize as true; Lucas points out in his turn that Gödel’s theorem applies to machines because a machine is the concrete instantiation of a formal system: therefore, for (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   126 citations  
  2.  34
    Consciousness: A Philosophic Study of Minds and Machines.J. R. Lucas & Kenneth M. Sayre - 1972 - Philosophical Review 81 (2):241.
  3.  9
    Spacetime and Electromagnetism: An Essay on the Philosophy of the Special Theory of Relativity.J. R. Lucas - 1990 - Oxford University Press.
    That space and time should be integrated into a single entity, spacetime, is the great insight of Einstein's special theory of relativity, and leads us to regard spacetime as a fundamental context in which to make sense of the world around us. But it is not the only one. Causality is equally important and at least as far as the special theory goes, it cannot be subsumed under a fundamentally geometrical form of explanation. In fact, the agent of propagation of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  4. A Treatise on Time and Space.J. R. Lucas - 1973 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 164 (4):486-487.
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  5.  41
    Satan Stultified: A Rejoinder to Paul Benacerraf.J. R. Lucas - 1968 - The Monist 52 (1):145-158.
    The application of Gödel’s theorem to the problem of minds and machines is difficult. Paul Benacerraf makes the entirely valid ‘Duhemian’ point that the argument is not, and cannot be, a purely mathematical one, but needs some philosophical premisses to be able to yield any philosophical conclusions. Moreover, the philosophical premisses are of very different kinds. Some are concerned with what is essential to being a machine—these are typically intricate, but definite, easily formalised by the mathematician, but unintelligible to the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   17 citations  
  6. Minds, Machines, and Gödel: A Retrospect.J. R. Lucas - 1996 - In P. J. R. Millican & A. Clark (eds.), Etica E Politica. Clarendon Press. pp. 1.
    In this paper Lucas comes back to Gödelian argument against Mecanism to clarify some points. First of all, he explains his use of Gödel’s theorem instead of Turing’s theorem, showing how Gödel’ theorem, but not Turing’s theorem, raises questions concerning truth and reasoning that bear on the nature of mind and how Turing’s theorem suggests that there is something that cannot be done by any computers but not that it can be done by human minds. He considers moreover how Gödel’s (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  7. Euclides Ab Omni Naevo Vindicatus.J. R. Lucas - 1969 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 20 (1):1-11.
    The issue is obscured by the fact that the word `space' can be used in four different ways. It can be used, first, as a term of pure mathematics, as when mathematicians talk of an `n-dimensional phase-space', an `n-dimensional vector-space', a `three-dimensional projective space' or a `twodimensional Riemannian space'. In this sense the word `space' means the totality of the abstract entities-the `points'-implicitly defined by the axioms. There is no doubt that there exist, iii this sense, non-Euclidean spaces, because all (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  8. Wilberforce and Huxley: A Legendary Encounter.J. R. Lucas - unknown
    The legend of the encounter between Wilberforce and Huxley is well established. Almost every scientist knows, and every viewer of the BBC's recent programme on Darwin was shown,* how Samuel Wilberforce, bishop of Oxford, attempted to pour scorn on Darwin's Origin of Species at a meeting of the British Association in Oxford on 30 June 1860, and had the tables turned on him by T. H. Huxley. In this memorable encounter Huxley's simple scientific sincerity humbled the prelatical insolence and clerical (...)
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  9.  90
    Against Equality.J. R. Lucas - 1965 - Philosophy 40 (154):296 - 307.
    Equality is the great political issue of our time. Liberty is forgotten: Fraternity never did engage our passions: the maintenance of Law and Order is at a discount: Natural Rights and Natural Justice are outmoded shibboleths. But Equality—there men have something to die for, kill for, agitate about, be miserable about. The demand for Equality obsesses all our political thought. We are not sure what it is—indeed, as I shall show later, we are necessarily not sure what it is—but we (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  10.  11
    Responsibility.Mark Ravizza & J. R. Lucas - 1995 - Philosophical Review 104 (2):306.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  11. The Future.J. R. Lucas - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (3):579-583.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  12.  16
    The Future.Robin LePoidevin & J. R. Lucas - 1991 - Philosophical Quarterly 41 (164):333.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  13. The Freedom of the Will.J. R. LUCAS - 1971 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (4):382-387.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  14. The Responsibilities of a Businessman.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    MANY thinkers deny the possibility of businessmen having responsibilities or ethical obligations. A businessman has no alternative, in view of the competition of the market-place, to do anything other than buy at the cheapest and sell at the dearest price he can. In any case, it would be irrational-if, indeed, it were possible-not to do so. Admittedly, there is a framework of law within which he has to operate, but that is all, and so long as he keeps the law (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  15. The Freedom of the Will.J. R. LUCAS - 1970 - Philosophy 47 (180):180-181.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  16. Responsibility.J. R. Lucas - 1993 - Philosophy 69 (268):254-255.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  17. On Justice.J. R. Lucas - 1982 - Ethics 93 (1):156-157.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  18. Responsibility.J. R. Lucas - 1993 - Ethics 105 (2):404-407.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  19.  22
    Induction by Enumeration and Induction by Elimination.Jaakko Hintikka, Imre Lakatos, J. R. Lucas, R. Carnap, M. B. Hesse & J. Hintikka - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (3):448-449.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  20.  9
    Satan Stultified: A Rejoinder to Paul Benacerraf.J. R. Lucas - 1968 - The Monist 52 (1):145-158.
    The application of Gödel’s theorem to the problem of minds and machines is difficult. Paul Benacerraf makes the entirely valid ‘Duhemian’ point that the argument is not, and cannot be, a purely mathematical one, but needs some philosophical premisses to be able to yield any philosophical conclusions. Moreover, the philosophical premisses are of very different kinds. Some are concerned with what is essential to being a machine—these are typically intricate, but definite, easily formalised by the mathematician, but unintelligible to the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  21. The Concept of Probability.J. R. Lucas - 1970 - Philosophy 47 (182):375-377.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  22.  25
    The Concept of Probability.J. P. Day & J. R. Lucas - 1973 - Philosophical Quarterly 23 (90):83.
  23. Space Time and Causality.J. R. LUCAS - 1987 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (2):259-261.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  24. The Future.J. R. Lucas - 1991 - Mind 100 (1):157-161.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  25. The Future.J. R. Lucas - 1991 - Philosophy 66 (255):124-125.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  26. The Principles of Politics.J. R. Lucas - 1968 - Philosophy 43 (165):300-301.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  27. Transcendental Tense.D. H. Mellor & J. R. Lucas - 1998 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes 72:29-56.
    [D. H. Mellor] Kant's claim that our knowledge of time is transcendental in his sense, while false of time itself, is true of tenses, i.e. of the locations of events and other temporal entities in McTaggart's A series. This fact can easily, and I think only, be explained by taking time itself to be real but tenseless. /// [J. R. Lucas] Mellor's argument from Kant fails. The difficulties in his first Antinomy are due to topological confusions, not the tensed nature (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  28.  36
    The Philosophy of the Reasonable Man.J. R. Lucas - 1963 - Philosophical Quarterly 13 (51):97-106.
  29.  34
    Prospects for Realism in Quantum Mechanics.J. R. Lucas - 1995 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 9 (3):225 – 234.
    Abstract Quantum mechanics has seemed to defy all attempts to construe it realistically, but antirealism, like the many?worlds hypothesis, is even more difficult to accept. In order to give a realist construal of quantum mechanics, we need first to distinguish the objective and rational aspect of reality from the paradigmatic thing?like aspects of having determinate physical properties: quantum?mechanical entities may be real in the former sense though not in the latter. Anti?realist arguments are based on the difficulty of giving an (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  30. The Phenomenon of Law.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    IT is ungenerous to pick holes in The Concept of Law. It is a great work. Its clarity is luminous, and its argument sustained and convincing. Hart is eminently successful in rescuing the concept of law from the Legal Realists, the Positivists, and the Formalists, who attempt to straitjacket it within schemata which are too narrow or too vague to give an adequate elucidation of it. But sometimes Hart is not carried along by his arguments as far as he should. (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  31.  27
    Ethical Intuitionism II: PHILOSOPHY.J. R. Lucas - 1971 - Philosophy 46 (175):1-11.
    South. So we have agreed to bury intuitionism. Well, I dare say it is right. But we ought to bury some of the grave-diggers too. Some of the things that Ross said are no doubt wrong, or at least misleading: but they are a lot less wrong than most of the things said since the war.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  32. Responsibility.J. R. Lucas - 1993 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 184 (4):528-528.
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  33. Discrimination.Janet Radcliffe Richards & J. R. Lucas - 1985 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes 59:53-83.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  34.  20
    Moralists and Gamesmen.J. R. Lucas - 1959 - Philosophy 34 (128):1 - 11.
    Professor Braithwaite’s inaugural lecture, here published in book form,1 is a trial run at a Platonic definition of the concept of dianemetic justice; or, as he himself would put it, a rational reconstruction of the concept “sensible-prudent-and-fair”. Aristotle left it that dianemetic justice was an equality and a matter of ratios. A just distribution of őoα µεριστ? τoς κoινωνoσι τς πoλιτείαѕ2 was one in which each had an equitable share, no one having either more or less than he should. Professor (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  35.  11
    Or Else.J. R. Lucas - 1969 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 69:207 - 222.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  36.  16
    Justice.J. R. Lucas - 1972 - Philosophy 47 (181):229 - 248.
    Justice has always been regarded as one of the fundamental political virtues. No association of human individuals could subsist, says Hume, “were no regard paid to the laws of equity and justice”, and nearly every thinker who has turned to consider human society, has reached the same conclusion. Yet we are not at all clear what justice is, nor why it is so important. There are many other ideals which a society may cherish, and often reformers have felt impatient of (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  37.  35
    Against Equality Again: J. R. Lucas.J. R. Lucas - 1977 - Philosophy 52 (201):255-280.
    Equality in the present age has become an idol, in much the same way as property was in the age of Locke. Many people worship it, and think that it provides the key to the proper understanding of politics, and that on it alone can a genuinely just society be reconstructed. This is a mistake. Although, like property, it is a useful concept, and although, like property, there are occasions when we want to have it in practice, it is not (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  38. The Conceptual Roots of Mathematics: An Essay on the Philosophy of Mathematics.J. R. Lucas - 2001 - Philosophy 76 (296):316-320.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  39.  60
    On Not Worshipping Facts.J. R. Lucas - 1958 - Philosophical Quarterly 8 (31):144-156.
    My sights in this paper are trained on facts. Most people think that they know what facts are; that while their friends often, and themselves occasionally, are ignorant of the facts, at least they know what sort of things facts are---they can recognise a fact when they see it. Facts, in the popular philosophy of today, are good, simple souls; there is no guile in them, nor any room for subjective bias, and once we have made ourselves acquainted with them, (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  40.  5
    XII—Or Else.J. R. Lucas - 1969 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 69 (1):207-222.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  41.  5
    Discrimination.Janet Radcliffe Richards & J. R. Lucas - 1985 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 59 (1):53-84.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  42. .J. R. Lucas - unknown
    There was once a leak from Hebdomadal Council. The Assessor told her husband, who told my wife, who told me that Monday afternoon had been spent discussing what Lucas would say if various courses of action were adopted, leading to the conclusion that it would be best to do nothing. I was flattered, but a bit surprised. The tide of philosophical scepticism had ebbed, and it was generally allowed that a reasonable way of discovering what someone would say was to (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  43. Fellow of Merton College.J. R. Lucas - unknown
    It is meet and right that pride and humility should be the two human characteristics on which University sermons have to be preached. Left to myself, although I might have picked on my modesty as something I should share with you, I should have given the preeminence to other among my sins than pride. My greed, my sloth, my avarice or, in this salacious age my lust, are subjects on which I could tell you much that might interest you. Pride (...)
    No categories
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  44. The Unity of Science Without Reductionism.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    The Unity of Science is often thought to be reductionist, but this is because we fail to distinguish questions from answers. The questions asked by different sciences are different---the biologist is interested in different topics from the physicist, and seeks different explanations---but the answers are not peculiar to each particular science, and can range over the whole of scientific knowledge. The biologist is interested in organisms--- concept unknown to physics---but explains physiological processes in terms of chemistry, not a mysterious vital (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45. New Books. [REVIEW]Norwood R. Hanson, G. B. Keene, J. L. Ackrill, J. R. Lucas, Thomas McPherson, E. J. Lemmon, W. von Leyden, C. H. Whiteley, Renford Bambrough, A. C. MacIntyre, W. Gerber & M. Kneale - 1958 - Mind 67 (266):272-288.
    No categories
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46.  27
    The Lesbian Rule.J. R. Lucas - 1955 - Philosophy 30 (114):195 - 213.
    The problem with which I wish to deal in this paper is the problem of singular reasons in the humanities, whether they exist, or rather, whether they can exist: for it would seem that the word “reason” carried with it some idea of generality, so that the phrase “singular reason” was a contradiction in terms, a specification which could never be fulfilled. But humanists are always sensing the singularity of their studies: and the philosopher wondering about the nature of humane (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  47.  63
    Foreknowledge and the Vulnerability of God.J. R. Lucas - 1989 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 25:119-128.
  48. Chapter 9a What is Logic?J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    Thus far the logic out of which mathematics has developed has been First-order Predicate Calculus with Identity, that is the logic of the sentential functors, ¬, →, ∧, ∨, etc., together with identity and the existential and universal quotifiers restricted to quotify- ing only over individuals, and not anything else, such as qualities or quotities themselves. Some philosophers—among them Quine— have held that this, First-order Logic, as it is often called, con- stitutes the whole of logic. But that is a (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49.  41
    Towards a Theory of Taxation*: J. R. LUCAS.J. R. Lucas - 1984 - Social Philosophy and Policy 2 (1):161-173.
    “Towards a Theory of Taxation” is a proper theme for an Englishman to take when giving a paper in America. After all it was from the absence of such a theory that the United States derived its existence. The Colonists felt strongly that there should be no taxation without representation, and George III was unable to explain to them convincingly why they should contribute to the cost of their defense. Since that time, understanding has not advanced much. In Britain we (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50. The Ontological Argument.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    The ontological argument has run for a long time, regularly refuted, regularly re-appearing in a new form. Something can be learnt from its longevity. Its proponents must be on to something, or it would not have survived its many refutations. But equally, it must have been much misformulated, or it would not have seemed evidently fallacious to its many critics. Perhaps it does express a deep philosophical intimation. Certainly it has been taken to prove more than it really can establish. (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
1 — 50 / 135