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  1. Minds, Machines and Gödel.J. R. Lucas - 1961 - Etica E Politica 5 (1):1.
    In this article, Lucas maintains the falseness of Mechanism - the attempt to explain minds as machines - by means of Incompleteness Theorem of Gödel. Gödel’s theorem shows that in any system consistent and adequate for simple arithmetic there are formulae which cannot be proved in the system but that human minds can recognize as true; Lucas points out in his turn that Gödel’s theorem applies to machines because a machine is the concrete instantiation of a formal system: therefore, for (...)
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  2.  50
    Consciousness: A Philosophic Study of Minds and Machines.J. R. Lucas & Kenneth M. Sayre - 1972 - Philosophical Review 81 (2):241.
  3.  7
    A Treatise on Time and Space.J. R. Lucas - 1973 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 164 (4):486-487.
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  4.  34
    Spacetime and electromagnetism: an essay on the philosophy of the special theory of relativity.J. R. Lucas - 1990 - New York: Oxford University Press. Edited by P. E. Hodgson.
    That space and time should be integrated into a single entity, spacetime, is the great insight of Einstein's special theory of relativity, and leads us to regard spacetime as a fundamental context in which to make sense of the world around us. But it is not the only one. Causality is equally important and at least as far as the special theory goes, it cannot be subsumed under a fundamentally geometrical form of explanation. In fact, the agent of propagation of (...)
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  5.  58
    Satan Stultified.J. R. Lucas - 1968 - The Monist 52 (1):145-158.
    The application of Gödel’s theorem to the problem of minds and machines is difficult. Paul Benacerraf makes the entirely valid ‘Duhemian’ point that the argument is not, and cannot be, a purely mathematical one, but needs some philosophical premisses to be able to yield any philosophical conclusions. Moreover, the philosophical premisses are of very different kinds. Some are concerned with what is essential to being a machine—these are typically intricate, but definite, easily formalised by the mathematician, but unintelligible to the (...)
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  6. Minds, Machines, and Gödel: A Retrospect.J. R. Lucas - 1996 - In Raffaela Giovagnoli (ed.), Etica E Politica. Clarendon Press. pp. 1.
    In this paper Lucas comes back to Gödelian argument against Mecanism to clarify some points. First of all, he explains his use of Gödel’s theorem instead of Turing’s theorem, showing how Gödel’ theorem, but not Turing’s theorem, raises questions concerning truth and reasoning that bear on the nature of mind and how Turing’s theorem suggests that there is something that cannot be done by any computers but not that it can be done by human minds. He considers moreover how Gödel’s (...)
     
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  7.  19
    Responsibility.Mark Ravizza & J. R. Lucas - 1995 - Philosophical Review 104 (2):306.
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  8. Wilberforce and Huxley: A Legendary Encounter.J. R. Lucas - unknown
    The legend of the encounter between Wilberforce and Huxley is well established. Almost every scientist knows, and every viewer of the BBC's recent programme on Darwin was shown,* how Samuel Wilberforce, bishop of Oxford, attempted to pour scorn on Darwin's Origin of Species at a meeting of the British Association in Oxford on 30 June 1860, and had the tables turned on him by T. H. Huxley. In this memorable encounter Huxley's simple scientific sincerity humbled the prelatical insolence and clerical (...)
     
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  9.  25
    The Future.Robin LePoidevin & J. R. Lucas - 1991 - Philosophical Quarterly 41 (164):333.
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  10. Euclides ab omni naevo vindicatus.J. R. Lucas - 1969 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 20 (1):1-11.
    The issue is obscured by the fact that the word `space' can be used in four different ways. It can be used, first, as a term of pure mathematics, as when mathematicians talk of an `n-dimensional phase-space', an `n-dimensional vector-space', a `three-dimensional projective space' or a `twodimensional Riemannian space'. In this sense the word `space' means the totality of the abstract entities-the `points'-implicitly defined by the axioms. There is no doubt that there exist, iii this sense, non-Euclidean spaces, because all (...)
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  11. Responsibility.J. R. Lucas - 1993 - Ethics 105 (2):404-407.
     
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  12. Against Equality.J. R. Lucas - 1965 - Philosophy 40 (154):296 - 307.
    Equality is the great political issue of our time. Liberty is forgotten: Fraternity never did engage our passions: the maintenance of Law and Order is at a discount: Natural Rights and Natural Justice are outmoded shibboleths. But Equality—there men have something to die for, kill for, agitate about, be miserable about. The demand for Equality obsesses all our political thought. We are not sure what it is—indeed, as I shall show later, we are necessarily not sure what it is—but we (...)
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  13.  20
    Satan Stultified.J. R. Lucas - 1968 - The Monist 52 (1):145-158.
    The application of Gödel’s theorem to the problem of minds and machines is difficult. Paul Benacerraf makes the entirely valid ‘Duhemian’ point that the argument is not, and cannot be, a purely mathematical one, but needs some philosophical premisses to be able to yield any philosophical conclusions. Moreover, the philosophical premisses are of very different kinds. Some are concerned with what is essential to being a machine—these are typically intricate, but definite, easily formalised by the mathematician, but unintelligible to the (...)
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  14. On Justice.J. R. Lucas - 1982 - Ethics 93 (1):156-157.
     
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  15. The Freedom of the Will.J. R. LUCAS - 1971 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (4):382-387.
     
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  16. The Future.J. R. Lucas - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (3):579-583.
     
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  17. The Freedom of the Will.J. R. LUCAS - 1970 - Philosophy 47 (180):180-181.
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  18. Responsibility.J. R. Lucas - 1993 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 184 (4):528-528.
     
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  19. The Principles of Politics.J. R. Lucas - 1968 - Philosophy 43 (165):300-301.
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  20.  33
    The Concept of Probability.J. P. Day & J. R. Lucas - 1973 - Philosophical Quarterly 23 (90):83.
  21.  29
    Induction by Enumeration and Induction by Elimination.Jaakko Hintikka, Imre Lakatos, J. R. Lucas, R. Carnap, M. B. Hesse & J. Hintikka - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (3):448-449.
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  22. Responsibility.J. R. Lucas - 1993 - Philosophy 69 (268):254-255.
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  23. Space Time and Causality.J. R. LUCAS - 1987 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (2):259-261.
     
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  24. The Concept of Probability.J. R. Lucas - 1970 - Philosophy 47 (182):375-377.
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  25. The Future.J. R. Lucas - 1991 - Mind 100 (1):157-161.
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  26.  40
    The philosophy of the reasonable man.J. R. Lucas - 1963 - Philosophical Quarterly 13 (51):97-106.
  27. The responsibilities of a businessman.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    MANY thinkers deny the possibility of businessmen having responsibilities or ethical obligations. A businessman has no alternative, in view of the competition of the market-place, to do anything other than buy at the cheapest and sell at the dearest price he can. In any case, it would be irrational-if, indeed, it were possible-not to do so. Admittedly, there is a framework of law within which he has to operate, but that is all, and so long as he keeps the law (...)
     
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  28. .J. R. Lucas - unknown
    There was once a leak from Hebdomadal Council. The Assessor told her husband, who told my wife, who told me that Monday afternoon had been spent discussing what Lucas would say if various courses of action were adopted, leading to the conclusion that it would be best to do nothing. I was flattered, but a bit surprised. The tide of philosophical scepticism had ebbed, and it was generally allowed that a reasonable way of discovering what someone would say was to (...)
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  29.  27
    Justice.J. R. Lucas - 1972 - Philosophy 47 (181):229 - 248.
    Justice has always been regarded as one of the fundamental political virtues. No association of human individuals could subsist, says Hume, “were no regard paid to the laws of equity and justice”, and nearly every thinker who has turned to consider human society, has reached the same conclusion. Yet we are not at all clear what justice is, nor why it is so important. There are many other ideals which a society may cherish, and often reformers have felt impatient of (...)
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  30.  73
    On not worshipping facts.J. R. Lucas - 1958 - Philosophical Quarterly 8 (31):144-156.
    My sights in this paper are trained on facts. Most people think that they know what facts are; that while their friends often, and themselves occasionally, are ignorant of the facts, at least they know what sort of things facts are---they can recognise a fact when they see it. Facts, in the popular philosophy of today, are good, simple souls; there is no guile in them, nor any room for subjective bias, and once we have made ourselves acquainted with them, (...)
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  31.  42
    Prospects for realism in quantum mechanics.J. R. Lucas - 1995 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 9 (3):225 – 234.
    Abstract Quantum mechanics has seemed to defy all attempts to construe it realistically, but antirealism, like the many?worlds hypothesis, is even more difficult to accept. In order to give a realist construal of quantum mechanics, we need first to distinguish the objective and rational aspect of reality from the paradigmatic thing?like aspects of having determinate physical properties: quantum?mechanical entities may be real in the former sense though not in the latter. Anti?realist arguments are based on the difficulty of giving an (...)
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  32. The Future.J. R. Lucas - 1991 - Philosophy 66 (255):124-125.
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  33. Transcendental Tense.D. H. Mellor & J. R. Lucas - 1998 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72:29-56.
    [D. H. Mellor] Kant's claim that our knowledge of time is transcendental in his sense, while false of time itself, is true of tenses, i.e. of the locations of events and other temporal entities in McTaggart's A series. This fact can easily, and I think only, be explained by taking time itself to be real but tenseless. /// [J. R. Lucas] Mellor's argument from Kant fails. The difficulties in his first Antinomy are due to topological confusions, not the tensed nature (...)
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  34.  14
    Because You Are a Woman.J. R. Lucas - 1973 - Philosophy 48 (184):161 - 171.
  35.  19
    Or Else.J. R. Lucas - 1969 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 69:207 - 222.
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  36.  16
    Vive la Différence.J. R. Lucas - 1978 - Philosophy 53 (205):363-.
    Some of my best friends are women, but I would not want my sister to marry one of them. Modern-minded persons criticize me for manifesting such out-dated prejudices, and would like to send me to Coventry for a compulsory course of reindoctrination. They may be right. It could conceivably be the case that in due course the Sex Discrimination Act will be tightened up, even to the extent of our recognizing that there are no ‘good reasons why the State should (...)
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  37.  6
    XII—Or Else.J. R. Lucas - 1969 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 69 (1):207-222.
    J. R. Lucas; XII—Or Else, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Volume 69, Issue 1, 1 June 1969, Pages 207–222, https://doi.org/10.1093/aristotelian/69.1.207.
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  38.  10
    Discrimination.Janet Radcliffe Richards & J. R. Lucas - 1985 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 59 (1):53-84.
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  39. The phenomenon of law.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    IT is ungenerous to pick holes in The Concept of Law. It is a great work. Its clarity is luminous, and its argument sustained and convincing. Hart is eminently successful in rescuing the concept of law from the Legal Realists, the Positivists, and the Formalists, who attempt to straitjacket it within schemata which are too narrow or too vague to give an adequate elucidation of it. But sometimes Hart is not carried along by his arguments as far as he should. (...)
     
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  40.  28
    Moralists and Gamesmen.J. R. Lucas - 1959 - Philosophy 34 (128):1 - 11.
    Professor Braithwaite’s inaugural lecture, here published in book form,1 is a trial run at a Platonic definition of the concept of dianemetic justice; or, as he himself would put it, a rational reconstruction of the concept “sensible-prudent-and-fair”. Aristotle left it that dianemetic justice was an equality and a matter of ratios. A just distribution of őoα µεριστ? τoς κoινωνoσι τς πoλιτείαѕ2 was one in which each had an equitable share, no one having either more or less than he should. Professor (...)
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  41.  9
    True.J. R. Lucas - 1969 - Philosophy 44 (169):175 - 186.
  42.  38
    The Lesbian Rule.J. R. Lucas - 1955 - Philosophy 30 (114):195 - 213.
    The problem with which I wish to deal in this paper is the problem of singular reasons in the humanities, whether they exist, or rather, whether they can exist: for it would seem that the word “reason” carried with it some idea of generality, so that the phrase “singular reason” was a contradiction in terms, a specification which could never be fulfilled. But humanists are always sensing the singularity of their studies: and the philosopher wondering about the nature of humane (...)
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  43.  66
    Because You Are a Woman.J. R. Lucas - 1973 - Philosophy 48 (184):161-171.
    Plato was the first feminist. In the Republic he puts forward the view that women are just the same as men, only not quite so good. It is a view which has often been expressed in recent years, and generates strong passions. Some of these have deep biological origins, which a philosopher can only hope to recognize and not to assuage. But much of the heat engendered is due to unnecessary friction between views which are certainly compatible and probably correct. (...)
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  44.  30
    Ethical Intuitionism II.J. R. Lucas - 1971 - Philosophy 46 (175):1-11.
    South. So we have agreed to bury intuitionism. Well, I dare say it is right. But we ought to bury some of the grave-diggers too. Some of the things that Ross said are no doubt wrong, or at least misleading: but they are a lot less wrong than most of the things said since the war.
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  45.  4
    Mechanism: A Rejoinder.J. R. Lucas - 1970 - Philosophy 45 (172):149-151.
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  46. The Conceptual Roots of Mathematics: An Essay on the Philosophy of Mathematics.J. R. Lucas - 2001 - Philosophy 76 (296):316-320.
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  47.  13
    True1: Philosophy.J. R. Lucas - 1969 - Philosophy 44 (169):175-186.
    “ Ich liebe dich 3 ” the swains in mountain valleys of Austria inscribe on their presents to those to whom they plight their troth. The pun is a rare one in German. Only in remote valleys does the word for ‘three’ rhyme with joy; and the word for ‘true’ is usually ‘ wahr ’ not ‘ treu ’ ‘ Wahr ’ is more propositional, less evaluative than our ‘true’. So too in Latin and the romance languages ‘ verum ’, (...)
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  48.  45
    Transcendental tense: J.r. Lucas.J. R. Lucas - 1998 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72 (1):45–56.
  49. Discrimination.Janet Radcliffe Richards & J. R. Lucas - 1985 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 59:53-83.
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  50.  22
    Discrimination.Janet Radcliffe Richards & J. R. Lucas - 1986 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 86:307 - 324.
    Janet Radcliffe Richards, J. R. Lucas; Discrimination, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Volume 86, Issue 1, 1 June 1986, Pages 307–324, https://doi.org/.
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