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  1.  63
    Minds, Machines and Gödel.J. R. Lucas - 2003 - Etica E Politica 5 (1):1.
    In this article, Lucas maintains the falseness of Mechanism - the attempt to explain minds as machines - by means of Incompleteness Theorem of Gödel. Gödel’s theorem shows that in any system consistent and adequate for simple arithmetic there are formulae which cannot be proved in the system but that human minds can recognize as true; Lucas points out in his turn that Gödel’s theorem applies to machines because a machine is the concrete instantiation of a formal system: therefore, for (...)
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  2. Responsibility.J. R. Lucas - 1995 - Clarendon Press.
    Responsibility is a key concept in our moral, social, and political thinking, but it is not itself properly understood. J.R. Lucas here presents a lively, broad, and accessible discussion of responsibility in various areas of human life, from personal and sexual relations to politics.
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  3.  28
    Wilberforce and Huxley: A Legendary Encounter.J. R. Lucas - unknown
    The legend of the encounter between Wilberforce and Huxley is well established. Almost every scientist knows, and every viewer of the BBC's recent programme on Darwin was shown,* how Samuel Wilberforce, bishop of Oxford, attempted to pour scorn on Darwin's Origin of Species at a meeting of the British Association in Oxford on 30 June 1860, and had the tables turned on him by T. H. Huxley. In this memorable encounter Huxley's simple scientific sincerity humbled the prelatical insolence and clerical (...)
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  4. Spacetime and Electromagnetism: An Essay on the Philosophy of the Special Theory of Relativity.J. R. Lucas - 1990 - Oxford University Press.
    That space and time should be integrated into a single entity, spacetime, is the great insight of Einstein's special theory of relativity, and leads us to regard spacetime as a fundamental context in which to make sense of the world around us. But it is not the only one. Causality is equally important and at least as far as the special theory goes, it cannot be subsumed under a fundamentally geometrical form of explanation. In fact, the agent of propagation of (...)
     
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  5. A Treatise on Time and Space.J. R. Lucas - 1973 - [London]Methuen.
  6.  20
    Consciousness: A Philosophic Study of Minds and Machines.J. R. Lucas & Kenneth M. Sayre - 1972 - Philosophical Review 81 (2):241.
  7.  7
    Responsibility.Mark Ravizza & J. R. Lucas - 1995 - Philosophical Review 104 (2):306.
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  8. Euclides Ab Omni Naevo Vindicatus.J. R. Lucas - 1969 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 20 (1):1-11.
    The issue is obscured by the fact that the word `space' can be used in four different ways. It can be used, first, as a term of pure mathematics, as when mathematicians talk of an `n-dimensional phase-space', an `n-dimensional vector-space', a `three-dimensional projective space' or a `twodimensional Riemannian space'. In this sense the word `space' means the totality of the abstract entities-the `points'-implicitly defined by the axioms. There is no doubt that there exist, iii this sense, non-Euclidean spaces, because all (...)
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  9.  11
    The Future.Robin LePoidevin & J. R. Lucas - 1991 - Philosophical Quarterly 41 (164):333.
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  10.  28
    The Conceptual Roots of Mathematics: An Essay on the Philosophy of Mathematics.J. R. Lucas - 2000 - Routledge.
    The Conceptual Roots of Mathematics is a comprehensive study of the foundation of mathematics. Lucas, one of the most distinguished Oxford scholars, covers a vast amount of ground in the philosophy of mathematics, showing us that it is actually at the heart of the study of epistemology and metaphysics.
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  11.  26
    Space, Time, and Causality: An Essay in Natural Philosophy.J. R. Lucas - 1984 - Clarendon Press.
  12.  79
    Against Equality.J. R. Lucas - 1965 - Philosophy 40 (154):296 - 307.
    Equality is the great political issue of our time. Liberty is forgotten: Fraternity never did engage our passions: the maintenance of Law and Order is at a discount: Natural Rights and Natural Justice are outmoded shibboleths. But Equality—there men have something to die for, kill for, agitate about, be miserable about. The demand for Equality obsesses all our political thought. We are not sure what it is—indeed, as I shall show later, we are necessarily not sure what it is—but we (...)
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  13. Minds, Machines, and Gödel: A Retrospect.J. R. Lucas - 1996 - In P. J. R. Millican & A. Clark (eds.), Etica E Politica. Clarendon Press. pp. 1.
    In this paper Lucas comes back to Gödelian argument against Mecanism to clarify some points. First of all, he explains his use of Gödel’s theorem instead of Turing’s theorem, showing how Gödel’ theorem, but not Turing’s theorem, raises questions concerning truth and reasoning that bear on the nature of mind and how Turing’s theorem suggests that there is something that cannot be done by any computers but not that it can be done by human minds. He considers moreover how Gödel’s (...)
     
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  14.  40
    Satan Stultified: A Rejoinder to Paul Benacerraf.J. R. Lucas - 1968 - The Monist 52 (1):145-158.
    The application of Gödel’s theorem to the problem of minds and machines is difficult. Paul Benacerraf makes the entirely valid ‘Duhemian’ point that the argument is not, and cannot be, a purely mathematical one, but needs some philosophical premisses to be able to yield any philosophical conclusions. Moreover, the philosophical premisses are of very different kinds. Some are concerned with what is essential to being a machine—these are typically intricate, but definite, easily formalised by the mathematician, but unintelligible to the (...)
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  15. The Responsibilities of a Businessman.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    MANY thinkers deny the possibility of businessmen having responsibilities or ethical obligations. A businessman has no alternative, in view of the competition of the market-place, to do anything other than buy at the cheapest and sell at the dearest price he can. In any case, it would be irrational-if, indeed, it were possible-not to do so. Admittedly, there is a framework of law within which he has to operate, but that is all, and so long as he keeps the law (...)
     
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  16. A Treatise on Time and Space.J. R. Lucas - 1973 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 164 (4):486-487.
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  17. On Justice =.J. R. Lucas - 1980 - Oxford University Press.
  18.  32
    Prospects for Realism in Quantum Mechanics.J. R. Lucas - 1995 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 9 (3):225 – 234.
    Abstract Quantum mechanics has seemed to defy all attempts to construe it realistically, but antirealism, like the many?worlds hypothesis, is even more difficult to accept. In order to give a realist construal of quantum mechanics, we need first to distinguish the objective and rational aspect of reality from the paradigmatic thing?like aspects of having determinate physical properties: quantum?mechanical entities may be real in the former sense though not in the latter. Anti?realist arguments are based on the difficulty of giving an (...)
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  19.  60
    .J. R. Lucas - unknown
    There was once a leak from Hebdomadal Council. The Assessor told her husband, who told my wife, who told me that Monday afternoon had been spent discussing what Lucas would say if various courses of action were adopted, leading to the conclusion that it would be best to do nothing. I was flattered, but a bit surprised. The tide of philosophical scepticism had ebbed, and it was generally allowed that a reasonable way of discovering what someone would say was to (...)
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  20. The Phenomenon of Law.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    IT is ungenerous to pick holes in The Concept of Law. It is a great work. Its clarity is luminous, and its argument sustained and convincing. Hart is eminently successful in rescuing the concept of law from the Legal Realists, the Positivists, and the Formalists, who attempt to straitjacket it within schemata which are too narrow or too vague to give an adequate elucidation of it. But sometimes Hart is not carried along by his arguments as far as he should. (...)
     
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  21. Transcendental Tense.D. H. Mellor & J. R. Lucas - 1998 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes( 72:29-56.
    [D. H. Mellor] Kant's claim that our knowledge of time is transcendental in his sense, while false of time itself, is true of tenses, i.e. of the locations of events and other temporal entities in McTaggart's A series. This fact can easily, and I think only, be explained by taking time itself to be real but tenseless. /// [J. R. Lucas] Mellor's argument from Kant fails. The difficulties in his first Antinomy are due to topological confusions, not the tensed nature (...)
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  22.  55
    Fellow of Merton College.J. R. Lucas - unknown
    It is meet and right that pride and humility should be the two human characteristics on which University sermons have to be preached. Left to myself, although I might have picked on my modesty as something I should share with you, I should have given the preeminence to other among my sins than pride. My greed, my sloth, my avarice or, in this salacious age my lust, are subjects on which I could tell you much that might interest you. Pride (...)
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  23.  25
    The Concept of Probability.J. P. Day & J. R. Lucas - 1973 - Philosophical Quarterly 23 (90):83.
  24. New Books. [REVIEW]Norwood R. Hanson, G. B. Keene, J. L. Ackrill, J. R. Lucas, Thomas McPherson, E. J. Lemmon, W. von Leyden, C. H. Whiteley, Renford Bambrough, A. C. MacIntyre, W. Gerber & M. Kneale - 1958 - Mind 67 (266):272-288.
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  25. The Unity of Science Without Reductionism.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    The Unity of Science is often thought to be reductionist, but this is because we fail to distinguish questions from answers. The questions asked by different sciences are different---the biologist is interested in different topics from the physicist, and seeks different explanations---but the answers are not peculiar to each particular science, and can range over the whole of scientific knowledge. The biologist is interested in organisms--- concept unknown to physics---but explains physiological processes in terms of chemistry, not a mysterious vital (...)
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  26.  24
    Ethical Intuitionism II: PHILOSOPHY.J. R. Lucas - 1971 - Philosophy 46 (175):1-11.
    South. So we have agreed to bury intuitionism. Well, I dare say it is right. But we ought to bury some of the grave-diggers too. Some of the things that Ross said are no doubt wrong, or at least misleading: but they are a lot less wrong than most of the things said since the war.
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  27.  54
    The Ontological Argument.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    The ontological argument has run for a long time, regularly refuted, regularly re-appearing in a new form. Something can be learnt from its longevity. Its proponents must be on to something, or it would not have survived its many refutations. But equally, it must have been much misformulated, or it would not have seemed evidently fallacious to its many critics. Perhaps it does express a deep philosophical intimation. Certainly it has been taken to prove more than it really can establish. (...)
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  28.  35
    Towards a Theory of Taxation*: J. R. LUCAS.J. R. Lucas - 1984 - Social Philosophy and Policy 2 (1):161-173.
    “Towards a Theory of Taxation” is a proper theme for an Englishman to take when giving a paper in America. After all it was from the absence of such a theory that the United States derived its existence. The Colonists felt strongly that there should be no taxation without representation, and George III was unable to explain to them convincingly why they should contribute to the cost of their defense. Since that time, understanding has not advanced much. In Britain we (...)
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  29.  40
    ‘Because You Are a Woman’: J. R. Lucas.J. R. Lucas - 1973 - Philosophy 48 (184):161-171.
    Plato was the first feminist. In the Republic he puts forward the view that women are just the same as men, only not quite so good. It is a view which has often been expressed in recent years, and generates strong passions. Some of these have deep biological origins, which a philosopher can only hope to recognize and not to assuage. But much of the heat engendered is due to unnecessary friction between views which are certainly compatible and probably correct. (...)
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  30.  51
    Foreknowledge and the Vulnerability of God.J. R. Lucas - 1989 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 25:119-128.
  31.  20
    A Mind of One's Own.J. R. Lucas - 1993 - Philosophy 68 (266):457-471.
    Whatever good or ill it did to Guy Fawkes, his resuscitation at the hands of Bernard Williams has, by any utilitarian reckoning, been a Good Thing. A casual glance at the literature that has accumulated over the past thirty five years leaves no doubt that the topic has been reduplicated many times over, to the great enjoyment of undergraduates, who have been able to write science fiction under the guise of essays in the Philosophy of Mind, and of dons, who (...)
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  32.  25
    Against Equality Again: J. R. Lucas.J. R. Lucas - 1977 - Philosophy 52 (201):255-280.
    Equality in the present age has become an idol, in much the same way as property was in the age of Locke. Many people worship it, and think that it provides the key to the proper understanding of politics, and that on it alone can a genuinely just society be reconstructed. This is a mistake. Although, like property, it is a useful concept, and although, like property, there are occasions when we want to have it in practice, it is not (...)
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  33.  17
    Induction by Enumeration and Induction by Elimination.Jaakko Hintikka, Imre Lakatos, J. R. Lucas, R. Carnap, M. B. Hesse & J. Hintikka - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (3):448-449.
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  34. Responsibility.J. R. Lucas - 1993 - Ethics 105 (2):404-407.
     
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  35. The Conceptual Roots of Mathematics: An Essay on the Philosophy of Mathematics.J. R. Lucas - 2001 - Philosophy 76 (296):316-320.
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  36.  92
    Chapter 9a What is Logic?J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    Thus far the logic out of which mathematics has developed has been First-order Predicate Calculus with Identity, that is the logic of the sentential functors, ¬, →, ∧, ∨, etc., together with identity and the existential and universal quotifiers restricted to quotify- ing only over individuals, and not anything else, such as qualities or quotities themselves. Some philosophers—among them Quine— have held that this, First-order Logic, as it is often called, con- stitutes the whole of logic. But that is a (...)
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  37. The Future.J. R. Lucas - 1991 - Mind 100 (1):157-161.
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  38.  58
    On Not Worshipping Facts.J. R. Lucas - 1958 - Philosophical Quarterly 8 (31):144-156.
    My sights in this paper are trained on facts. Most people think that they know what facts are; that while their friends often, and themselves occasionally, are ignorant of the facts, at least they know what sort of things facts are---they can recognise a fact when they see it. Facts, in the popular philosophy of today, are good, simple souls; there is no guile in them, nor any room for subjective bias, and once we have made ourselves acquainted with them, (...)
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  39.  7
    Philosophy.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    "Ich liebe dich 3" the swains in mountain valleys of Austria inscribe on their presents to those to whom they plight their troth. The pun is a rare one in German. Only in remote valleys does the word for `three' rhyme with joy; and the word for `true' is usually..
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  40. The Freedom of the Will.J. R. LUCAS - 1970 - Philosophy 47 (180):180-181.
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  41.  13
    Foreknowledge and the Vulnerability of God.J. R. Lucas - 1989 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 25:119-128.
    Elijah foretold evil for Ahab in the name of the Lord. ‘I will bring evil upon you; I will utterly sweep you away, and will cut off from Ahab every male, bond or free in Israel’ … but when he heard those words, he rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted and lay in the sackcloth, and went about dejectedly. And the word of the Lord came to Elijah saying ‘Have you seen how Ahab has humbled (...)
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  42.  31
    The Philosophy of the Reasonable Man.J. R. Lucas - 1963 - Philosophical Quarterly 13 (51):97-106.
  43.  82
    An Engagement with Plato's Republic.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    Plato was politically incorrect---gloriously incorrect: hard to ignore and difficult to refute. Read An Engagement with Plato's Republic to argue with him or against him, for contemporary orthodoxies or against them. ``Plato was the first feminist. Women were the same as men, only not so good.''.
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  44. Space Time and Causality.J. R. LUCAS - 1987 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (2):259-261.
     
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  45. Discrimination.Janet Radcliffe Richards & J. R. Lucas - 1985 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes( 59:53-83.
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  46.  17
    A Mind of One's Own: J. R. Lucas.J. R. Lucas - 1993 - Philosophy 68 (266):457-471.
    Whatever good or ill it did to Guy Fawkes, his resuscitation at the hands of Bernard Williams has, by any utilitarian reckoning, been a Good Thing. A casual glance at the literature that has accumulated over the past thirty-five years leaves no doubt that the topic has been reduplicated many times over, to the great enjoyment of undergraduates, who have been able to write science fiction under the guise of essays in the Philosophy of Mind, and of dons, who in (...)
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  47. The Freedom of the Will.J. R. LUCAS - 1971 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (4):382-387.
     
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  48. The Concept of Probability.J. R. Lucas - 1970 - Philosophy 47 (182):375-377.
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  49. On Justice.J. R. Lucas - 1982 - Ethics 93 (1):156-157.
     
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  50.  8
    Or Else.J. R. Lucas - 1968 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 69:207 - 222.
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