The attempt to study religion objectively has been part of the academic scene in the West for a century. Such men as F. Max Mueller, Edward Tylor, W. Brede Kristenson, Raffaele Peettazzoni, and Joachim Wach worked to develop such a truly scientific study of religion. They held that a study of religious data could reveal what religious life means for people who participate in it if methods are used which prevent a superimposition of the investigator's personal value judgments. At the (...) same time, there has been the recognition by some scholars, including some of the above, that there is something about religious life that cannot be investigated by normal empirical methods. This sense of the uniqueness of religion is symbolised in Rudolf Otto's book The Idea of the Holy , where he maintains that in order to understand religion in its innermost core, an investigator must recognise ‘a unique “numinous” category of value and of a definitely “numinous” state of mind’. Our concern here is to examine one problem arising from the claim that religious life must be studied in terms of its own intention, or category of value; and yet studied through an inductive method which allows for the distinctive character of different historical expressions of religion. (shrink)
The Sound of Liberating Truth: Buddhist-Christian Dialogues in Honor of Frederick J. Streng. Edited by Sallie B. King and Paul O. Ingram. Curzon Press, Richmond 1999. xxxii, 276 pp. £40.00. ISBN 0-7007-1121-X.
This is one of the best studies to date on the philosophy of emptiness, established by the Buddhist scholar Nägärjuna. It not only presents an exposition of emptiness, the lack of self-existent entities, but also gives the background in India at the time of the formulation of the Mädhyamika and analyzes the structures of religious apprehension in Indian thought. Streng finds three types of religious realization: mythic, intuitive, and dialectical. He clearly sees and demonstrates that the doctrine of emptiness (...) is not a teaching of an unqualified base of phenomena, and thus classifies this system as a dialectical structure. The second part is devoted to a study of the system itself; the third, to placing that system in the context of Indian religious thought; the fourth, to relating the doctrine of emptiness to the general problem of religious knowledge as a means for ultimate transformation. Thus, the book is by no means limited to Buddhologists or Indologists. The almost constant translation of Buddhist Sanskrit terms into English makes this work available to all interested in philosophy and religious thought. The appendix contains translations of the whole of the Mülamadhyamakakärikäs and of the Vigrahavyävartanï both by Nägärjuna. Because the texts are root or fundamental texts, and thus brief, the translations are not easily comprehensible; however, those parts can be skipped over as the principle being exemplified is the same in every instance. Because this book places the concept of emptiness in its proper perspective, distinguishing emptiness from an all-pervasive base out of which phenomena are produced, and yet appreciates the spiritual value of the doctrine, it is a must for all who wish to know more of the more profound aspects of Buddhist philosophy.--P. J. H. (shrink)
This volume is a “state-of-the-art‘ assessment of comparative philosophy written by some of the leading practitioners of the field. While its primary focus is on gaining methodological clarity regarding the comparative enterprise of “interpreting across boundaries,‘ the book also contains new substantive essays on Indian, Chinese, Japanese, and European thought. The contributors are Roger T. Ames, William Theodore de Bary, Wing-tsit Chan, A. S. Cua, Eliot Deutsch, Charles Hartshorne, Daya Krishna, Gerald James Larson, Sengaku Mayeda, Hajime Nakamura, Raimundo Panikkar, Karl (...) H. Potter, Henry Rosemont, Jr., Ben-Ami Scharfstein, Ninian Smart, Fritz Staal, and Frederick J. Streng. Comparative or cross-cultural philosophy can be seen as a relative newcomer to the field of philosophy. It has its antecedents in the emergence of comparative studies in nineteenth-century European intellectual history, as well as in the sequence of East-West Philosophers’ Conferences at the University of Hawaii, which began in 1939. This book will prove to be of great significance in helping to define a field that is only now becoming fully self-conscious, methodologically and substantively, about its role and function in the larger enterprises of philosophy and comparative studies. (shrink)
Philosophers, novelists, and intercultural comparisons : Heidegger, Kundera, and Dickens / Richard Rorty Lifeworlds, modernity, and philosophical praxis : race, ethnicity, and critical social theory / Lucius Outlaw Modern China and the postmodern West / David L. Hall From Marxism to post-Marxism / Svetozar Stojanović Incommensurability and otherness revisited / Richard J. Bernstein Incommensurability, truth, and the conversation between Confucians and Aritotelians about the virtues / Alasdair MacIntyre The commensurability of Indian epistemological theories / Karl H. Potter Pluralism, relativism, and (...) interaction between cultures / Bimal K. Matilal The problem of relativism / Jiang Tianji. Between relativism and fundamentalism : hermeneutics as Europe’s mainstream political and moral tradition / Ferenc Feher Conceptual schemes and linguistic relativism in relation to Chinese / A.C. Graham The origins of the question : four traditional Japanese philosophies of language / Thomas P. Kasulis Meaning as imaging : Prolegomena to a Confucian epistemelogy / Roger T. Ames On the dual nature of traditional Chinese thought and its modernization / Li Zhilin A planetary macroethics for humankind : the need, the apparent difficulty, and the eventual possibility / Karl-Otto Apel Reasonable challenges and preconditions of adjudication / Antonio S. Cua The French Revolution and the Holocaust : can ethics be ahistorical? / Hilary Putnam Tradition and moral progress / Joel J. Kupperman The shape of artistic pasts, East and West / Arthur C. Danto. Surrealistic distortion of landscape and the reason of the milieu / Megumi Sakabe Why art changes / Richard Wollheim The transcendental in a comparative context / Frederick J. Streng Reflections on religious pluralism in the Indian context / Margaret Chatterjee Three enduring achievements of Islamic philosophy / Lenn E. Goodman Two dimensions of religion : reflections based on Indian spiritual experience and philosophical traditions / G.C. Pande Between nationalism and nomadism : wondering about the languages of philosophy / Graham Parkes The discourse of cultural authenticity : Islamist revivalism and enlightenment universalism / Aziz Al-Azmeh Traditional political values and ideas : an examination of their relevance to developments in contemporary African political order / Kwame Gyekye On the interpretation of traditional cultures / Maria L. Herrera. The concept of progress and cultural identity / Roop Rekha Verma Moses, Hsüan-tsang, and history / Agnes Heller Secularism : sacred and profane / Daya Krishna Scientific progress and content loss / Larry Laudan A dialectical view of scientific rationality and progress / Marcello Pera Scientific progress reconsidered / Ilkka Niiniluoto Does progress in science lead to truth? / Lorenz Krüger. (shrink)
Im subjektphilosophischen Denken J.-J. Rousseaus treten sie einander als streng separierte Größen gegenüber. Für ein Denken jenseits von Seins- und Subjektphilosophie präsentiert sich die musikalische Situation als Spielwerk.
The texts collected in this volume, which was originally published in 1969, contain Herder's most original and stimulating ideas on politics, history and language. They had for the most part not been previously available in English. In his introduction, Professor Barnard analyses the basic premises of Herder's political thought against the background of the Enlightenment. He examines Herder's concepts of language, community and culture, his theory of historical interaction, and his approach to the problem of change and progress. Finally, he (...) provides a brief comparative analysis of traditionalist thought following the French Revolution, showing how substantive writers like Burke differed from Herder despite the close similarity of political vocabulary. (shrink)
Es mag etwas seltsam erscheinen, daB sich eine Untersuchung mit dem Problem der Zeit bei Nietzsche befassen soUte. Die Philosophie Nietzsches enthaIt einen Reichtum von Begriffen und Gedanken, die fUr die verschiedensten Bereiche aufschluBreich sind und sich zu einer Mannigfaltigkeit von Auslegungen herge ben. Manche von Nietzsches Hauptgedanken, etwa der Tod Got tes, der Nihilismus, die Umwertung alier Werte, oder der Wille zur Macht sind ftir das sich wandelnde Verstandnis des Wesens des Menschen und der Welt ausschlaggebend gewesen. Sie sind (...) fruchtbare Gedanken in dem Sinne gewesen, daB sie weiter ver wandelt und auf anderes Denken bezogen werden konnten. Eine ausdriickliche Beschaftigung mit der Zeit als solcher aber scheint nicht in das Schema von Nietzsches Grundproblemen hineinzu passen. Er machte keine ausfUhrlichen genauen Analysen tiber sie, machte sie nie thematisch, wie es viele Denker sowohl vor als auch nach ihm taten. Es hat sogar zunachst den Anschein, als bewegten sich seine AuBerungen tiber sie in dem Bereich eines etwas oberflachlichen Verstandnisses und einer fraglosen 'Ober nahme der Analysen der Tradition. Man muB sich aber davor htiten, den absoluten Mangel an systematischem Prunk bei Nietz sche mit einer Art von Ungeduld und Unvermogen zu strengen Analysen zu verwechseln. J eder Denker von Rang hat seine eigene Art von Strenge, die seiner einmaligen Aufgabe und seiner eigen ttimlichen Verfahrensweise erwachst und tiber die vermittelst von MaBstaben, die einem anderen Denken und Problemzusammen hang entnommen worden sind, nichts entschieden werden kann. (shrink)