The paper depicts the philosophical views of F. Bochwic (1799-1856) which are as follows: ontology, anthropology, epistemology, ethics, and education. The world, according to Bochwic, was created by God (creationism) and is divided into two spheres: spiritual and carnal (ontological dualism). The factor that unites them is man. His purpose, as a free creature, is his tendency to perfection. The sources of human knowledge are the following: unreliable senses and reliable conscience (intuitionism). Conscience is the source of our presentiments with (...) regard to: the existence of God, immortality of the soul, God\'s justice, and moral orders obligatory for all people (axiological absolutism): the order to make good and avoid evil, the order to love oneself and the neighbour, and the order to obey one\'s parents and superiors. The philosophical views of Bochwic lay at the grounds of his educational doctrine. According to it, education should instil civil virtues in adolescents and be versatile, balanced, varied, imitative, kind, and permanent. (shrink)
Academic ethos is a set of norms that are binding for a scholar as such. (1) A scholar should especially take up useful research, do it guardedly (so without infringing higher values), formulating well asked questions, using effective methods of searching for true and sufficiently justified answers to those questions — and expressing the research results in an exact, adjusted to the object of the research, simple, forcible, concise and beautiful language. (2) A scholar should undertake vital, i.e. new, fundamental, (...) creative and difficult research. (3) Conducting research should be accompanied by passion, concentration, reliability, imagination, and self-criticism. 4) A scholar should be a guide,minder and supervisor for his pupils and co-workers. (5) A Catholic scholar should also be expected to behave in a morally impeccable way, and if he does not meet this expectation, at least he should feel ashamed of it. (shrink)
The authors proposes a philosophical hinterland of nomological type for various conceptions of alethic modalities. Differences among these conceptions are explained by the fact, that modalizators can be relativized to various types of laws. Thus one can speak respectively about logic and definitional, ontical and physical, technical and dispositional, psychological and methodological, and finally deontic modalities. The authors shows that in their conceptual apparatus modal logics find intuitive interpretation more clear and ontologically more cautious than the semantics of possible worlds (...) philosophically interpreted. The nomological explication of main notions of this semantics (like “possible world” and “accessibility relation”) is also given. (shrink)
After recalling the fact that many Polish philosophers participated in national insurgences of the 18th and 19th centuries, the paper presents the philosophical standpoint held by representatives of the lost generation of Professor Władysław Tatarkiewicz’s pupils, killed during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. The main features of this standpoint were: optimism, realism, creativism, and, first of all, patriotism.
With the help of six primitive predicates the author formulates twenty-seven basic ontological theses. The primitive terms used are referring to the so-called elementary ontic relations, which are not reducible to each other. These are: the relation of being a part, the relation of being localized, the relation of temporal precedence, and the epistemic relation - knowing that.