General-elimination harmony articulates Gentzen’s idea that the elimination-rules are justified if they infer from an assertion no more than can already be inferred from the grounds for making it. Dummett described the rules as not only harmonious but stable if the E-rules allow one to infer no more and no less than the I-rules justify. Pfenning and Davies call the rules locally complete if the E-rules are strong enough to allow one to infer the original judgement. A method is given (...) of generating harmonious general-elimination rules from a collection of I-rules. We show that the general-elimination rules satisfy Pfenning and Davies’ test for local completeness, but question whether that is enough to show that they are stable. Alternative conditions for stability are considered, including equivalence between the introduction- and elimination-meanings of a connective, and recovery of the grounds for assertion, finally generalizing the notion of local completeness to capture Dummett’s notion of stability satisfactorily. We show that the general-elimination rules meet the last of these conditions, and so are indeed not only harmonious but also stable. (shrink)
In a series of papers, 137–158; 1994, Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 23, 61–74, 1999) Fine develops his hylomorphic theory of embodiments. In this article, we supply a formal semantics for this theory that is adequate to the principles laid down for it in. In Section 1, we lay out the theory of embodiments as Fine presents it. In Section 2, we argue on Cantorian grounds that the theory needs to be stabilized, and sketch some ways forward, discussing various choice points (...) in modeling the view. In Section 3, we develop a formal semantics for the theory of embodiments by constructing embodiments in stages and restricting the domain of the second-order quantifiers. In Section 4 we give a few illustrative examples to show how the models deliver Finean hylomorphic consequences. In Section 5, we prove that Fine’s principles are sound with respect to this semantics. In Section 6 we present some inexpressibility results concerning Fine’s various notions of parthood and show that in our formal semantics these notions are all expressible using a single mereological primitive. In Section 7, we prove several mereological results stemming from the model theory, showing that the mereology is surprisingly robust. In Section 8, we draw some philosophical lessons from the formal semantics, and in particular respond to Koslicki’s main objection to Fine’s theory. In the appendix we present proofs of the inexpressibility results of Section 6. (shrink)
The most common first- and second-order modal logics either have as theorems every instance of the Barcan and Converse Barcan formulae and of their second-order analogues, or else fail to capture the actual truth of every theorem of classical first- and second-order logic. In this paper we characterise and motivate sound and complete first- and second-order modal logics that successfully capture the actual truth of every theorem of classical first- and second-order logic and yet do not possess controversial instances of (...) the Barcan and Converse Barcan formulae as theorems, nor of their second-order analogues. What makes possible these results is an understanding of the individual constants and predicates of the target languages as strongly Millian expressions, where a strongly Millian expression is one that has an actually existing entity as its semantic value. For this reason these logics are called ‘strongly Millian’. It is shown that the strength of the strongly Millian second-order modal logics here characterised afford the means to resist an argument by Timothy Williamson for the truth of the claim that necessarily, every property necessarily exists. (shrink)
Two main questions are addressed in this dissertation, namely: 1. What is the correct higher-order modal theory; 2. What does it take for theories to be equivalent. The whole dissertation consists of an extended argument in defence of the joint truth of two higher-order modal theories, namely, Plantingan Moderate Contingentism, a higher-order necessitist theory advocated by Plantinga and committed to the contingent being of some individuals, and Williamsonian Thorough Necessitism, a higher-order necessitist theory advocated by Williamson and committed to the (...) necessary being of every possible individual. The case for the truth of these two theories relies on defences of the following metaphysical theses: i) Thorough Serious Actualism, according to which no things could have been related and yet be nothing, ii) Higher-Order Necessitism, according to which necessarily, every higher-order entity is necessarily something. It is shown that Thorough Serious Actualism and Higher-Order Necessitism are both implicit commitments of very weak logical theories. Prima facie, Plantingan Moderate Contingentism and Williamsonian Thorough Necessitism are jointly inconsistent. The argument for their joint truth thus relies also on showing i) their equivalence, and ii) that the dispute between Plantingans and Williamsonians is merely verbal. The case for i) and ii) relies on the Synonymy Account, an account of theory equivalence developed and defended in the dissertation. According to the account, theories are equivalent just in case they have the same structure of entailments and commitments, and the occupiers of the places in that structure are the same propositions. An immediate consequence of the Synonymy Account is that proponents of synonymous theories are engaged in merely verbal disputes. The Synonymy Account is also applied to the debate between noneists and Quineans, revealing that what is in question in that debate is what are the expressive resources available to describe the world. (shrink)
Serious actualism is the prima facie plausible thesis that things couldn’t have been related while being nothing. The thesis plays an important role in a number of arguments in metaphysics, e.g., in Plantinga’s argument for the claim that propositions do not ontologically depend on the things that they are about and in Williamson’s argument for the claim that he, Williamson, is necessarily something. Salmon has put forward that which is, arguably, the most pressing challenge to serious actualists. Salmon’s objection is (...) based on a scenario intended to elicit the judgment that merely possible entities may nonetheless be actually referred to, and so may actually have properties. It is shown that predicativism, the thesis that names are true of their bearers, provides the resources for replying to Salmon’s objection. In addition, an argument for serious actualism based on Stephanou, 219–250 2007) is offered. Finally, it is shown that once serious actualism is conjoined with some minimal assumptions, it implies property necessitism, the thesis that necessarily all properties are necessarily something, as well as a strong comprehension principle for higher-order modal logic according to which for every condition there necessarily is the property of being a thing satisfying that condition. (shrink)
[Pseudo]Apolodoro nos informa acerca de una tradición mitológica que algunos asociaban a la historia de la ofrenda humana que los atenienses enviaban periódicamente a Minos. La tradición incluye elementos que nos remiten a una amplia gama de aspectos sumamente relevantes de la religión griega, tales como la estrecha relación entre las expresiones cultuales y las competiciones atléticas, la extendida convicción de los estados helenos al respecto de la utilidad práctica de las consultas oraculares (incluso conociéndose casos de inoperancia), o el (...) carácter liminar de los rituales de expiación. (shrink)
La erótica de la muerte es una noción ideada por Jacinto Choza que revela la ligazón originaria del eros con uno de los fenómenos más enigmáticos de la Historia de la Filosofía: la muerte. La felicidad pretendida, en virtud del eros y prometida por Dios, culmina con la eternidad a la hora de morir. El presente estudio aspira a elucidar las ideas cristalizadas en el Manual de Antropología filosófica, las cuales desarrollan la evolución que manifiesta el eros en su (...) proceso de consonancia con la muerte. (shrink)
Inspired by the text entitled The Collapse of the Fact/Value Dichotomy and Other Essays (2004) of Hilary Putnam, the volume focuses on the theory and practice of knowledge, but one can legitimately extend it to other fields, most especially in aesthetics. Certain observable features in the fields of aesthetics, practice and artistic creation show that old evaluation criteria may now be obsolete. This is because upon further consideration, the definition of value remains opaque : should the artwork be judged according (...) to its moral value, its market value, or its formal value ? To side with or against the concept of value in art and aesthetics does not preclude a certain number of differences concerning the very nature of what is meant by value. If traditionally the ‘fact’ was the work, taken in all its tangibility, currently the materiality of the object no longer seems to play such a major role. Art is increasingly populated by so-called ‘immaterial’ or ‘ephemeral’ works and is therefore rarely, or badly, quantifiable according to old aesthetic and economic evaluation criteria. The progressively pragmatic contextualization of works within the social space puts forward a new definition of aesthetic value, no longer eternal and ideal, but rather anchored in the sensible and the politico-economic issues of a culturally specific situation. The current changes too support the idea that the question of ‘value’ and its confrontation with the concept of ‘fact’ is urgent. What role do artistic practices and aesthetic theories play ? A role of emancipation, of liberation, escape, or transformation ? Or on the contrary, could art become another means to subject individuals to the status quo ? As can easily be noticed, the question of maintaining or rejecting the dichotomy of facts and values is at the heart of the most pressing issues. (shrink)
This article introduces a critical commentary to Hannah Arendt’s interpretation of Kant in her Lectures on Kant’s Political Philosophy. The author follows the scheme of what Arendt considers the three Kantian human perspectives: man as a rational being, man as an animal species, and man as a synthesis of the rational and the sensitive. Arendt’s research focuses on the contribution that the Kantian theory of the reflexive judgment can bring to a political theory, following the distinction between actor and spectator.
El presente trabajo intenta clarificar la relación entre el pensamiento sistemático y la obra historiográfica del filósofo neokantiano Wilhelm Windelband. Según el juicio de sus sucesores, la obra de Windelband se caracteriza por un déficit sistemático motivado por un énfasis historiográfico. La intención de este estudio, por el contrario, es mostrar cómo la historia de la filosofía se transforma en un verdadero impulso sistemático en el pensamiento de Windelband a través de un análisis de su método para una historia de (...) problemas. En última instancia, se intenta mostrar cómo la obra de Windelband realiza aportes para la elaboración de un concepto de filosofía histórica, es decir, para llevar a cabo la historización del pensamiento filosófico. (shrink)
ABSTRACT This paper is an analysis of the manner Nishida Kitarô, in the process of construction of his own philosophy of religion, enters into dialogue with Leibniz's thought concerning Pre-established Harmony. Although the philosophy of religion is an important theme and Nishida goes back to Leibniz at some points in his textual career, there are relatively few studies that touch on the relationship between these two thinkers. I study Nishida's approach under three headings. The first section concerns ten main aspects (...) of the world of pre-established harmony. The second tries to show the manner in which such a world becomes a guide towards a philosophy of religion, placing the emphasis on three characteristically Christian aspects: a created, fallen, and Trinitarian world. The third section includes some elements such as the entrance into religion, metanoia, satori and a comparison between Christian agape and Buddhist maha-kruna. These are themes on which Nishida elaborates in his 1945 masterpiece, The Logic of Basho and a Religious Worldview. RESUMO Este trabalho é uma análise da forma pela qual Nishida Kitarô, no processo de construção de sua própria filosofia da religião, entra em diálogo com o pensamento de Leibniz relativo à Harmonia Pré-Estabelecida. Embora a filosofia da religião seja um tema importante, e Nishida retome Leibniz em alguns pontos em sua carreira textual, existem relativamente poucos estudos que abordem a relação entre esses dois pensadores. Estudo a abordagem de Nishida sob três categorias. A primeira seção refere-se a dez principais aspectos do mundo de harmonia preestabelecida. A segunda busca demonstrar o modo pelo qual esse mundo se torna um guia para uma filosofia da religião, colocando a ênfase em três aspectos caracteristicamente cristãos: um mundo criado, caído e trinitário. A terceira seção inclui alguns elementos, tais como a entrada na religião, a metanoia, o satori e uma comparação entre o Ágape cristão e o Maha-Kruna budista. Estes são temas sobre os quais Nishida elabora em sua obra-prima de 1945, A Lógica de Basho e uma Visão Religiosa do Mundo. (shrink)
Since the appearance of Prior’s tonk, inferentialists tried to formulate conditions that a collection of inference rules for a logical constant has to satisfy in order to succeed in conferring an acceptable meaning to it. Dummett proposed a pair of conditions, dubbed ‘harmony’ and ‘stability’ that have been cashed out in terms of the existence of certain transformations on natural deduction derivations called reductions and expansions. A long standing open problem for this proposal is posed by quantum disjunction: although its (...) rules are intuitively unstable, they pass the test of existence of expansions. Although most authors view instabilities of this kind as too subtle to be detected by the requirement of existence of expansions, we first discuss a case showing that this requirement can indeed detect instabilities of this kind, and then show how the expansions for disjunction-like connectives have to be reformulated to rule out quantum disjunction. We show how the alternative pattern for expansions can be formulated for connectives and quantifiers whose rules satisfy a scheme originally developed by Prawitz and Schroeder-Heister. Finally we compare our proposal with a recent one due to Jacinto and Read. (shrink)
Normative theories suggest that inconsistencies be pointed out to the Decision Maker who is thus given the chance to modify his/her judgments. In this paper, we suggest that the inconsistencies problem be transferred from the Decision Maker to the Analyst. With the Mixture of Maximal Quasi Orders, rather than pointing out incoherences for the Decision Maker to change, these inconsistencies may be used as new source of information to model his/her preferences.
El alma bella representa en la obra de Hegel un momento en el que la acción y la moralidad pueden entrar en un conflicto con la realidad y con el otro, provocando en el sujeto moral la inactividad y la evasión de su _selbst_ en su pura abstracción, enajenándose de toda actividad y toda crítica. Se pretende mostrar, pues, el desarrollo de esta figura hegeliana para poder asumir que toda actividad dirigida al mundo deja de pertenecer al sujeto que la (...) ejecuta y se vuelve algo para el mundo e interpretado por éste. (shrink)
In contrast to industrial markets based on mass-production of material goods, postindustrial markets hinge on images, experiences, and emotions produced and exchanged on screens and in real life. Because postindustrial markets tend to be highly concentrated and technology-driven, they pose a threat to small businesses and low-skill workers in both advanced industrial economies and the Global South, where a large share of the population makes a living in the informal economy. Using the 2014 World Cup as a case of postindustrial (...) economic activity hinged on spectacle, emotional experience, and intellectual property, I analyze the income-making strategies used by street vendors in São Paulo, Brazil. I show that organizers’ control of fan markets was limited by local conceptions of ownership over national symbols as well as informal workers’ flexible relation to legal norms and enforcement-dodging practices. Circumventing market barriers required risky and sophisticated strategies, however, which were more readily available to the more marginal section of the street vending population. (shrink)
La reflexión de esle artículo no se dirige a dirimir qué máximas serían o nouniversalizables, sino aestudiar qué significa la universalidad de la ley moral. En primerlugar, expresa la exigencia racional de salir del mundo particular de cada uno y vivir en la realidad real. Quiere decir también que la autonomía del sujeto ha de detenninar en última instancia todos sus actos. Y, finalmente, la universalidad hace relación a la intersubjetividad o reino de fmes, que constituye el mundo moral. De (...) este modo, la universalidad de la ley moral se presenta como la forma básica de la relación de la libertadconsigo misma, el ámbito donde ha de realizarse el acto individual libre.In diesem Artikel wird nicht erórtert, wclche konkreten Maximen alígemein moralisch gelten kónnten, sondern cine noch fundamentalere Frage: wasdic Allgemeinhcit bei dem sittlichcn Gesetzbedeutet. Zucrst drúckt sic dic Anforderung der Vernunft aus, dalssjeder aus seiner nur ftir ihn bestehenden Wclt heraustreten und in der realen Wirklichkcit leben solí. Sic will auch sagen, daB dic Autonomie des Subjekts alíe seine Handlungen im Grunde genommen zu bcstimmen hat. Zuletzt bezieht sich dic Allgemeinhcit auf dic Intersubjektivitát oderdas Reich der Zwccke, das dic moralische Welt ausmacht. So zcigt sic sich als dic fundamentale Form der Beziehung der FreihelÉ mit sich seibst, wo dic individucíle frcic Handlung zur Entfaltung gebracht werden kann. (shrink)