Results for 'Jack A. Gilbert'

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  1.  43
    Beyond the Genome: Community-Level Analysis of the Microbial World.Iratxe Zarraonaindia, Daniel P. Smith & Jack A. Gilbert - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):261-282.
    The development of culture-independent strategies to study microbial diversity and function has led to a revolution in microbial ecology, enabling us to address fundamental questions about the distribution of microbes and their influence on Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. This article discusses some of the progress that scientists have made with the use of so-called “omic” techniques (metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics) and the limitations and major challenges these approaches are currently facing. These ‘omic methods have been used to describe the taxonomic structure (...)
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  2. Multilevel Research Strategies and Biological Systems.Maureen A. O'Malley, Ingo Brigandt, Alan C. Love, John W. Crawford, Jack A. Gilbert, Rob Knight, Sandra D. Mitchell & Forest Rohwer - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):811-828.
    Multilevel research strategies characterize contemporary molecular inquiry into biological systems. We outline conceptual, methodological, and explanatory dimensions of these multilevel strategies in microbial ecology, systems biology, protein research, and developmental biology. This review of emerging lines of inquiry in these fields suggests that multilevel research in molecular life sciences has significant implications for philosophical understandings of explanation, modeling, and representation.
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  3.  91
    A Theory of Political Obligation: Membership, Commitment, and the Bonds of Society.Margaret Gilbert - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    Margaret Gilbert offers an incisive new approach to a classic problem of political philosophy: when and why should I do what the law tells me to do? Do I have special obligations to conform to the laws of my own country and if so, why? In what sense, if any, must I fight in wars in which my country is engaged, if ordered to do so, or suffer the penalty for law-breaking the law imposes - including the death penalty? (...)
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  4.  20
    Would a Basic Income Guarantee Reduce the Motivation to Work? An Analysis of Labor Responses in 16 Trial Programs.Dianne Worku, Mark Barrett, Allison Stepka, Nora A. Murphy & Richard Gilbert - 2018 - Basic Income Studies 13 (2).
    Many opponents of BIG programs believe that receiving guaranteed subsistence income would act as a strong disincentive to work. In contrast, various areas of empirical research in psychology suggest that a BIG would not lead to meaningful reductions in work. To test these competing predictions, a comprehensive review of BIG outcome studies reporting data on adult labor responses was conducted. The results indicate that 93 % of reported outcomes support the prediction of no meaningful work reductions when the criterion for (...)
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  5. Rights and Demands: A Foundational Inquiry.Margaret Gilbert - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    Margaret Gilbert presents the first full-length treatment of a central class of rights: demand-rights. To have such a right is to have the standing or authority to demand a particular action of another person. Gilbert argues that joint commitment is a ground of demand-rights, and gives joint commitment accounts of both agreements and promises.
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  6.  67
    Holobionts as Units of Selection and a Model of Their Population Dynamics and Evolution.Joan Roughgarden, Scott F. Gilbert, Eugene Rosenberg, Ilana Zilber-Rosenberg & Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 2018 - Biological Theory 13 (1):44-65.
    Holobionts, consisting of a host and diverse microbial symbionts, function as distinct biological entities anatomically, metabolically, immunologically, and developmentally. Symbionts can be transmitted from parent to offspring by a variety of vertical and horizontal methods. Holobionts can be considered levels of selection in evolution because they are well-defined interactors, replicators/reproducers, and manifestors of adaptation. An initial mathematical model is presented to help understand how holobionts evolve. The model offered combines the processes of horizontal symbiont transfer, within-host symbiont proliferation, vertical symbiont (...)
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  7. Diversity Management: A New Organizational Paradigm. [REVIEW]Jacqueline A. Gilbert, Bette Ann Stead & John M. Ivancevich - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 21 (1):61 - 76.
    Currently, an increasing number of organizations are attempting to enhance inclusiveness of under represented individuals through proactive efforts to manage their diversity. In this article, we define diversity management against the backdrop of its predecessor, affirmative action. Next, selected examples of organizations that have experienced specific positive bottom line results from diversity management strategies are discussed. The present paper also provides a conceptual model to examine antecedents and consequences of effective diversity management. Additional research areas identified from the model and (...)
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  8.  16
    The Enthymeme Buster: A Heuristic Procedure for Position Exploration in Dialogic Dispute.Michael A. Gilbert - 1991 - Informal Logic 13 (3).
    Positions in dialogic dispute are presented enthymematically. It is important to explore the position the disputant holds. A model is offered which relies on the presentation of a counter-example to an inferred missing premiss. The example may be: [A+J embraced as falling under the rule; [A-] rejected as basically changing the position; or, [R] rejected as changing the proffered missing premiss. In each case the offered model indicates the next appropriate action. The focus of the model is on uncovering the (...)
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  9.  3
    Prolegomenon to a Pragmatics of Emotion.Michael A. Gilbert - unknown
    This paper begins the development of a pragmatics of emotion based on the pragma-dialectical programme, Externalization, Socialization, Functionalization, and Dialectification, applied to the emotional mode of argumentation. The first step points out a systematic equivocation within pragma-dialectics between the notion of argument and that of 'dialectics.' With this cleared, it is shown that each of the first three main assumptions can be altered to accommodate a non-logical mode of communication. However, dialectification, insofar as it is actually defining of the dialectical (...)
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  10.  9
    An Art-based Case Study: Reflections on End of Life from a Husband, Artist and Caregiver.Regina Emily Robbins & Mark Gilbert - 2019 - Journal of Medical Humanities 40 (3):437-448.
    This study explores the reflective processes of Scottish artist, Norman Gilbert, as he created twenty-five drawings depicting his wife, Pat Gilbert, as she lay dying following an Alzheimer’s-related stroke. Norman, ninety-one, had drawn Pat regularly over their sixty-five-year marriage. One week after Pat died, Norman was interviewed by a family friend to chronicle his reflections on the drawings. The drawings along with the interview transcript are analyzed qualitatively as a case study. Norman’s Hospital Drawings of Pat transform what (...)
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  11.  15
    Life's Empty Pack: Notes Toward a Literary Daughteronomy.Sandra M. Gilbert - 1985 - Critical Inquiry 11 (3):355.
    A definition of [George] Eliot as renunciatory culture-mother may seem an odd preface to a discussion of Silas Marner since, of all her novels, this richly constructed work is the one in which the empty pack of daughterhood appears fullest, the honey of femininity most unpunished. I want to argue, however, that this “legendary tale,” whose status as a schoolroom classic makes it almost as much a textbook as a novel, examines the relationship between woman’s fate and the structure of (...)
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  12.  22
    What Would a Thought Look Like?Joyce A. Griffin, Susan Gilbert, Nora Porter, Nancy Berlinger, Mary Crowley, Josephine Johnston, Thomas H. Murray & Erik Parens - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
  13. Honderich, T., "A Theory of Determinism: The Mind, Neuroscience and Life-Hopes". [REVIEW]A. Jack - 1989 - Mind 98:642.
  14. Merikle, PM, 115 Moffet, A., 263.P. Munkholm, S. Dehaene, D. Dennett, J. Driver, J. D. Eastwood, M. D. Hauser, L. Hermer-Vazquez, A. I. Jack, N. Kanwisher & L. Naccache - 2001 - Cognition 79:373.
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  15.  11
    Safety and Tolerability of Theta Burst Stimulation Vs. Single and Paired Pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Comparative Study of 165 Pediatric Subjects.Yaejee H. Hong, Steve W. Wu, Ernest V. Pedapati, Paul S. Horn, David A. Huddleston, Cameron S. Laue & Donald L. Gilbert - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  16.  40
    Makau and Marty's Cooperative Argumentation: A Model for Deliberative Community.Michael A. Gilbert - 2004 - Informal Logic 24 (3).
  17.  9
    One Is Not Born a Dramatist.Dennis A. Gilbert - 2017 - Sartre Studies International 23 (2).
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  18.  11
    Would You Fund This Movie? A Reply to Fox Et Al.Timothy D. Wilson, Daniel T. Gilbert, David A. Reinhard, Erin C. Westgate & Casey L. Brown - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  19.  11
    Design and Implementation of a Combined Influenza Immunization and Tuberculosis Screening Campaign with Simulation Modelling.Joseph A. Heim, Hao Huang, Zelda B. Zabinsky, Jane Dickerson, Monica Wellner, Michael Astion, Doris Cruz, Jeanne Vincent & Rhona Jack - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (4):727-734.
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  20.  13
    Critical Thinking: A Guide to Evaluating Information David Hitchcock Toronto: Methuen, 1983. Pp. Xiv, 283. $16.95. [REVIEW]Michael A. Gilbert - 1985 - Dialogue 24 (3):559-.
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  21.  11
    A Heuristic Procedure for Natural Deduction Derivations Using Reductio Ad Absurdum.Michael A. Gilbert - 1976 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 17 (4):638-639.
  22.  8
    The Indian Academic Profession: The Origins of a Tradition of Subordination. [REVIEW]Irene A. Gilbert - 1972 - Minerva 10 (3):384-411.
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  23.  7
    Portrait of a Process: Arts-Based Research in a Head and Neck Cancer Clinic.Mark A. Gilbert, William M. Lydiatt, Virginia A. Aita, Regina E. Robbins, Dennis P. McNeilly & Michele Marie Desmarais - 2016 - Medical Humanities 42 (1):57-62.
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  24.  12
    Book Reviews : Charles Arthur Willard, A Theory of Argumentation. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa and London, 1989. Pp. Xi, 360, $38.95 (Cloth. [REVIEW]M. A. Gilbert - 1993 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 23 (2):257-262.
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  25. A Logical Analysis of Relevance.Michael A. Gilbert - 1974 - Dissertation, University of Waterloo (Canada)
     
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  26. "A Theory of Argumentation", by Charles Arthur Willard. [REVIEW]Michael A. Gilbert - 1993 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 23 (2):257.
     
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  27.  17
    Embodiment and Estrangement: Results From a First-in-Human “Intelligent BCI” Trial.F. Gilbert, M. Cook, T. O’Brien & J. Illes - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (1):83-96.
    While new generations of implantable brain computer interface devices are being developed, evidence in the literature about their impact on the patient experience is lagging. In this article, we address this knowledge gap by analysing data from the first-in-human clinical trial to study patients with implanted BCI advisory devices. We explored perceptions of self-change across six patients who volunteered to be implanted with artificially intelligent BCI devices. We used qualitative methodological tools grounded in phenomenology to conduct in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Results (...)
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  28. Walking Together: A Paradigmatic Social Phenomenon.Margaret Gilbert - 1990 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 15 (1):1-14.
    The everyday concept of a social group is approached by examining the concept of going for a walk together, an example of doing something together, or "shared action". Two analyses requiring shared personal goals are rejected, since they fail to explain how people walking together have obligations and rights to appropriate behavior, and corresponding rights of rebuke. An alternative account is proposed: those who walk together must constitute the "plural subject" of a goal. The nature of plural subjecthood, the thesis (...)
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  29.  77
    Opportunities and Problems of Standardized Ethics Initiatives – a Stakeholder Theory Perspective.Dirk Ulrich Gilbert & Andreas Rasche - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):755-773.
    This article explains problems and opportunities created by standardized ethics initiatives (e.g., the UN Global Compact, the Global Reporting Initiative, and SA 8000) from the perspective of stakeholder theory. First, we outline differences and commonalities among currently existing initiatives and thus generate a common ground for our discussion. Second, based on these remarks, we critically evaluate standardized ethics initiatives by drawing on descriptive, instrumental, and normative stakeholder theory. In doing so, we explain why these standards are helpful tools when it (...)
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  30.  32
    Advancing Integrative Social Contracts Theory: A Habermasian Perspective.Dirk Ulrich Gilbert & Michael Behnam - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (2):215-234.
    We critically assess integrative social contracts theory (ISCT) and show that the concept particularly lacks of moral justification of substantive hypernorms. By drawing on Habermasian philosophy, in particular discourse ethics and its recent application in the theory of deliberative democracy , we further advance ISCT and show that social contracting in business ethics requires a well-justified procedural rather than a substantive focus for managing stakeholder relations. We also replace the monological concept of hypothetical thought experiments in ISCT by a concept (...)
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  31.  8
    Ethical Leadership as a Balance Between Opposing Neural Networks.Kylie C. Rochford, Anthony I. Jack, Richard E. Boyatzis & Shannon E. French - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 144 (4):755-770.
    In this article, we explore the implications of opposing domains theory for developing ethical leaders. Opposing domains theory highlights a neurological tension between analytic reasoning and socioemotional reasoning. Specifically, when we engage in analytic reasoning, we suppress our ability to engage in socioemotional reasoning and vice versa. In this article, we bring together the domains of neuroscience, psychology, and ethics, to inform our theorizing around ethical leadership. We propose that a key issue for ethical leadership is achieving a healthy balance (...)
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  32.  39
    Deep Brain Stimulation in the Media: Over-Optimistic Media Portrayals Calls for a New Strategy Involving Journalists and Scientifics in the Ethical Debate.Frederic Gilbert & Ovadia Daniela - 2011 - Journal of Integrative in Neuroscience 5 (16).
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is optimistically portrayed in contemporary media. This already happened with psychosurgery during the first half of the twentieth century. The tendency of popular media to hype the benefits of DBS therapies, without equally highlighting risks, fosters public expectations also due to the lack of ethical analysis in the scientific literature. Media are not expected (and often not prepared) to raise the ethical issues which remain unaddressed by the scientific community. To obtain a more objective portrayal of (...)
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  33.  47
    Is There a Moral Obligation to Develop Brain Implants Involving NanoBionic Technologies? Ethical Issues for Clinical Trials.Frédéric Gilbert & Susan Dodds - 2014 - NanoEthics 8 (1):49-56.
    In their article published in Nanoethics, “Ethical, Legal and Social Aspects of Brain-Implants Using Nano-Scale Materials and Techniques”, Berger et al. suggest that there may be a prima facie moral obligation to improve neuro implants with nanotechnology given their possible therapeutic advantages for patients [Nanoethics, 2:241–249]. Although we agree with Berger et al. that developments in nanomedicine hold the potential to render brain implant technologies less invasive and to better target neural stimulation to respond to brain impairments in the near (...)
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  34.  21
    Efficacy Testing as a Primary Purpose of Phase 1 Clinical Trials: Is It Applicable to First-in-Human Bionics and Optogenetics Trials?Frederic Gilbert, Alexander R. Harris & Robert M. I. Kapsa - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (2):20-22.
    In her article, Pascale Hess raises the issue of whether her proposed model may be extrapolated and applied to clinical research fields other than stem cell-based interventions in the brain (SCBI-B) (Hess 2012). Broadly summarized, Hess’s model suggests prioritizing efficacy over safety in phase 1 trials involving irreversible interventions in the brain, when clinical criteria meet the appropriate population suffering from “degenerative brain diseases” (Hess 2012). Although there is a need to reconsider the traditional phase 1 model, especially with respect (...)
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  35.  28
    Cardiovascular Medicine at Face Value: A Qualitative Pilot Study on Clinical Axiology.Adalberto de Hoyos, Rodrigo Nava-Diosdado, Jorge Mendez, Sergio Ricco, Ana Serrano, C. Flores Cisneros, Carlos Macías-Ojeda, Héctor Cisneros, P. G. Barbara & B. J. Gilbert - 2012 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7:14.
    IntroductionCardiology is characterized by its state-of-the-art biomedical technology and the predominance of Evidence-Based Medicine. This predominance makes it difficult for healthcare professionals to deal with the ethical dilemmas that emerge in this subspecialty. This paper is a first endeavor to empirically investigate the axiological foundations of the healthcare professionals in a cardiology hospital. Our pilot study selected, as the target population, cardiology personnel not only because of their difficult ethical deliberations but also because of the stringent conditions in which they (...)
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  36. More Than a Feeling: Counterintuitive Effects of Compassion on Moral Judgment.Anthony I. Jack, Philip Robbins, Jared Friedman & Chris Meyers - 2014 - In Justin Sytsma (ed.), Advances in Experimental Philosophy of Mind. Bloomsbury. pp. 125-179.
    Seminal work in moral neuroscience by Joshua Greene and colleagues employed variants of the well-known trolley problems to identify two brain networks which compete with each other to determine moral judgments. Greene interprets the tension between these brain networks using a dual process account which pits deliberative reason against automatic emotion-driven intuitions: reason versus passion. Recent neuroscientific evidence suggests, however, that the critical tension that Greene identifies as playing a role in moral judgment is not so much a tension between (...)
     
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  37. Freshest Advices on What To Do With the Historical Method in Philosophy When Using It to Study a Little Bit of Philosophy That Has Been Lost to History.Bennett Gilbert - 2012 - Essays in Philosophy 13 (1):pdf.
    The paper explores the question of the relationship between the practice of original philosophical inquiry and the study of the history of philosophy. It is written from my point of view as someone starting a research project in the history of philosophy that calls this issue into question, in order to review my starting positions. I argue: first, that any philosopher is sufficiently embedded in culture that her practice is necessarily historical; second, that original work is in fact in part (...)
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  38. Bernard Stiegler: 'A Rational Theory of Miracles: On Pharmacology and Transindividuation'.Bernard Stiegler, Ben Roberts, Jeremy Gilbert & Mark Hayward - unknown
    Bernard Stiegler interviewed by Ben Roberts, Jeremy Gilbert and Mark Hayward.
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  39.  23
    Deskilling, Agrodiversity, and the Seed Trade: A View From Contemporary British Allotments. [REVIEW]Paul Robert Gilbert - 2013 - Agriculture and Human Values 30 (1):101-114.
    Over the last half-century, quality control standards have had the perverse effect of restricting the circulation of non-commercially bred vegetable cultivars in Britain. Recent European and British legislation attempts to compensate for this loss of agrodiversity by relaxing genetic purity standards and the cost of seed marketing for designated “Amateur” and “Conservation” varieties. Drawing on fieldwork conducted at a British allotment site, this article cautions against bringing genetically heterogeneous cultivars into the commercial sphere. Such a move may intensify the horticultural (...)
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  40.  97
    Johannes Fontana’s Drawing for a Castellus Umbrarum, Udine or Padua, C. 1415–20.Bennett Gilbert - 2014 - Mediaevalia 35 (1):255-277.
    A finished sketch for a light-and-shadow projection device by the Paduan mechanical artisan Johannes de Fontana (c.1395–1455), in his manuscript book of drawings now known as Liber Bellicorum Instrumentorum, depicts a machine for communicating ideas or information through spectacle. The manuscript is fairly well known, and this sketch is just one of many interesting images worthy of study in its 70 leaves. A couple dozen manuscripts of the mechanical arts from this period survive, the best-studied of which fall into the (...)
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  41.  38
    Wormwholes: A Commentary on K. F. Schaffner's "Genes, Behavior, and Developmental Emergentism".Scott F. Gilbert & Erik M. Jorgensen - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (2):259-266.
    Although Caenorhabditis elegans was chosen and modified to be an organism that would facilitate a reductionist program for neurogenetics, recent research has provided evidence for properties that are emergent from the neurons. While neurogenetic advances have been made using C. elegans which may be useful in explaining human neurobiology, there are severe limitations on C. elegans to explain any significant human behavior.
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  42.  45
    Catholic Cartesian Dualism: A Reply to Freddoso.Christopher Gilbert - 2005 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 79 (2):233-249.
    Alfred Freddoso has argued that Cartesian dualism cannot serve as the model for a philosophical anthropology that will be consistent with the plain sense of Church teachings. I disagree. Although the interpretation of Cartesian dualism to which Freddoso objects is not unwarranted by the Cartesian texts, a close reading of those texts suggests a diff erent interpretation. I shall defend a reading of Cartesian dualism that departs from the one which Freddoso discusses. I shall then demonstrate that this alternative reading (...)
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  43.  1
    Addressing Governance Gaps in Global Value Chains: Introducing a Systematic Typology.Stephanie Schrage & Dirk Ulrich Gilbert - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-16.
    Multinational enterprises dominate the governance of global value chains, such that according to the concept of political corporate social responsibility, they are responsible to address governance gaps throughout the chains, even at the level of their independent suppliers. In practice, MNEs often struggle to cope with the complexity of these governance gaps, and PCSR does not provide a clear definition nor offer guidance for how to analyze and address them. By adopting the notion of governance mechanisms from GVC literature, this (...)
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  44.  19
    Global Production Increased by Spatial Heterogeneity in a Population Dynamics Model.J.-C. Poggiale, P. Auger, D. Nérini, C. Manté & F. Gilbert - 2005 - Acta Biotheoretica 53 (4):359-370.
    Spatial and temporal heterogeneity are often described as important factors having a strong impact on biodiversity. The effect of heterogeneity is in most cases analyzed by the response of biotic interactions such as competition of predation. It may also modify intrinsic population properties such as growth rate. Most of the studies are theoretic since it is often difficult to manipulate spatial heterogeneity in practice. Despite the large number of studies dealing with this topics, it is still difficult to understand how (...)
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  45.  33
    A Critique and a Retrieval of Management and the Humanities.Daniel Gilbert - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (1):23 - 35.
    The use of literature, and other sources from the humanities, in management education has become more prominent in recent years. But, there is reason to question the ethical justifications by which the marriage of Management and the Humanities is customarily defended. This paper is a critique of Management and the Humanities as it is practiced through the use of literature. By means of a liberal pragmatist kind of criticism, and a case analysis about a hypothetical Grand Theory of Management called (...)
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  46.  71
    Can a Wise Society Be a Free One?Margaret Gilbert - 2005 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (S1):151-167.
    This article invokes the idea of a wise society, something that has received little attention from contemporary philosophers. It argues that, given plausible interpretations of the relevant terms, the wiser a society is, the less free it is. Even if one prefers a different account of a wise society, the argument in question is significant, for on this account a wise society possesses features that would seem to be desirable whatever their relationship to wisdom in particular: it makes many true (...)
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  47.  2
    A Catholic Approach to Adolescent Medicine.M. D. Heyne, M. D. Hernandez & M. D. Gilbert - 2019 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 19 (1):63-88.
    Adolescence is an important yet vulnerable period of transition from childhood to adulthood. An increasing number of studies support the traditional Catholic view, which sees teens as prone to making poor decisions when influ­enced by emotions or peer pressure but capable of thriving when guided by parents and religion. However, newer policies of medical societies undermine the traditional supports of family and faith with a permissive approach toward sexual exploration. To counter this unhealthy trend, which seems to be based more (...)
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  48.  65
    On the Question Whether Language has a Social Nature: Some Aspects of Winch and Others on Wittgenstein.Margaret Gilbert - 1983 - Synthese 56 (3):301 - 318.
    Two claims common in wittgenstein exegesis are addressed, With special reference to a well-known discussion by Peter Winch. First: the claim that one person's language must be intelligible to another is ambiguous; one interpretation is intuitively plausible; strong, Less plausible versions are ascribed to Wittgenstein. Inattention to the ambiguity noted could facilitate their acceptance. Second: the claim that the necessity for standards of correctness in the use of language has as a direct consequence the need for social standards is false (...)
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  49.  60
    Sociality as a Philosophically Significant Category.Margaret Gilbert - 1994 - Journal of Social Philosophy 25 (3):5-25.
    Different accounts of what it is for something to have a social nature have been given. Sociality does not appear to be a category worthy of philosophical focus, given some of these accounts. If sociality is construed as plural subjecthood, it emerges as a category crucial for our understanding of the human condition. Plural subjects are constituted by a joint commitment of two or more persons to do something as a body. Such commitments generate rights and obligations of a special (...)
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  50.  27
    Freshest Advices on What To Do With the Historical Method in Philosophy When Using It to Study a Little Bit of Philosophy That Has Been Lost to History.Bennett Gilbert - 2012 - Essays in Philosophy 13 (1):7.
    The paper explores the question of the relationship between the practice of original philosophical inquiry and the study of the history of philosophy. It is written from my point of view as someone starting a research project in the history of philosophy that calls this issue into question, in order to review my starting positions. I argue: first, that any philosopher is sufficiently embedded in culture that her practice is necessarily historical; second, that original work is in fact in part (...)
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