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  1. Artificial Intelligence: A Philosophical Introduction.Jack Copeland - 1993 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Presupposing no familiarity with the technical concepts of either philosophy or computing, this clear introduction reviews the progress made in AI since the inception of the field in 1956. Copeland goes on to analyze what those working in AI must achieve before they can claim to have built a thinking machine and appraises their prospects of succeeding. There are clear introductions to connectionism and to the language of thought hypothesis which weave together material from philosophy, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. John (...)
     
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  2. The Broad Conception of Computation.Jack Copeland - 1997 - American Behavioral Scientist 40 (6):690-716.
    A myth has arisen concerning Turing's paper of 1936, namely that Turing set forth a fundamental principle concerning the limits of what can be computed by machine - a myth that has passed into cognitive science and the philosophy of mind, to wide and pernicious effect. This supposed principle, sometimes incorrectly termed the 'Church-Turing thesis', is the claim that the class of functions that can be computed by machines is identical to the class of functions that can be computed by (...)
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  3.  62
    On Alan Turing's Anticipation of Connectionism.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 1996 - Synthese 108:361-367.
    It is not widely realised that Turing was probably the first person to consider building computing machines out of simple, neuron-like elements connected together into networks in a largely random manner. Turing called his networks 'unorganised machines'. By the application of what he described as 'appropriate interference, mimicking education' an unorganised machine can be trained to perform any task that a Turing machine can carry out, provided the number of 'neurons' is sufficient. Turing proposed simulating both the behaviour of the (...)
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  4. Beyond the Universal Turing Machine.Jack Copeland - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-67.
    We describe an emerging field, that of nonclassical computability and nonclassical computing machinery. According to the nonclassicist, the set of well-defined computations is not exhausted by the computations that can be carried out by a Turing machine. We provide an overview of the field and a philosophical defence of its foundations.
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  5. Super Turing-Machines.Jack Copeland - 1998 - Complexity 4 (1):30-32.
    The tape is divided into squares, each square bearing a single symbol—'0' or '1', for example. This tape is the machine's general-purpose storage medium: the machine is set in motion with its input inscribed on the tape, output is written onto the tape by the head, and the tape serves as a short-term working memory for the results of intermediate steps of the computation. The program governing the particular computation that the machine is to perform is also stored on the (...)
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  6.  97
    On Alan Turing's Anticipation of Connectionism.Jack Copeland - 1996 - Synthese 108 (3):361-377.
    It is not widely realised that Turing was probably the first person to consider building computing machines out of simple, neuron-like elements connected together into networks in a largely random manner. Turing called his networks unorganised machines. By the application of what he described as appropriate interference, mimicking education an unorganised machine can be trained to perform any task that a Turing machine can carry out, provided the number of neurons is sufficient. Turing proposed simulating both the behaviour of the (...)
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  7. Turing's o-Machines, Searle, Penrose, and the Brain.Jack Copeland - 1998 - Analysis 58 (2):128-138.
    In his PhD thesis (1938) Turing introduced what he described as 'a new kind of machine'. He called these 'O-machines'. The present paper employs Turing's concept against a number of currently fashionable positions in the philosophy of mind.
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  8. Even Turing Machines Can Compute Uncomputable Functions.Jack Copeland - unknown
    Accelerated Turing machines are Turing machines that perform tasks commonly regarded as impossible, such as computing the halting function. The existence of these notional machines has obvious implications concerning the theoretical limits of computability.
     
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  9.  77
    Turing, Wittgenstein and the Science of the Mind.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 1994 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72:497-519.
  10.  85
    The Turing Guide.Jack Copeland, Jonathan Bowen, Robin Wilson & Mark Sprevak (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This volume celebrates the various facets of Alan Turing (1912–1954), the British mathematician and computing pioneer, widely considered as the father of computer science. It is aimed at the general reader, with additional notes and references for those who wish to explore the life and work of Turing more deeply. -/- The book is divided into eight parts, covering different aspects of Turing’s life and work. -/- Part I presents various biographical aspects of Turing, some from a personal point of (...)
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  11. Logic and Reality: Essays on the Legacy of Arthur Prior.Jack Copeland - 2000 - Mind 109 (435):570-573.
     
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  12.  83
    AI’s New Promise: Our Posthuman Future.Jack Copeland & Diane Proudfoot - 2012 - The Philosophers' Magazine 57:73-78.
  13. Turing’s Test: A Philosophical and Historical Guide.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2008 - In R. Epstein, G. Roberts & G. Beber (eds.), Parsing the Turing Test: Philosophical and Methodological Issues. pp. 119-138.
    We set the Turing Test in the historical context of the development of machine intelligence, describe the different forms of the test and its rationale, and counter common misinterpretations and objections. Recently published material by Turing casts fresh light on his thinking.
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  14.  74
    What Turing Did After He Invented the Universal Turing Machine.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9:491-509.
    Alan Turing anticipated many areas of current research incomputer and cognitive science. This article outlines his contributionsto Artificial Intelligence, connectionism, hypercomputation, andArtificial Life, and also describes Turing's pioneering role in thedevelopment of electronic stored-program digital computers. It locatesthe origins of Artificial Intelligence in postwar Britain. It examinesthe intellectual connections between the work of Turing and ofWittgenstein in respect of their views on cognition, on machineintelligence, and on the relation between provability and truth. Wecriticise widespread and influential misunderstandings of theChurch–Turing thesis (...)
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  15.  44
    Narrow Versus Wide Mechanism.Jack Copeland - 2002 - In Matthias Scheutz (ed.), Computationalism: New Directions. MIT Press. pp. 5-32.
  16. Turing, Wittgenstein, and the Science of the Mind.Jack Copeland - 1994 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72 (4):497-519.
  17. The Inconceivable Popularity of Conceivability Arguments.Douglas I. Campbell, Jack Copeland & Zhuo-Ran Deng - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (267):223-240.
    Famous examples of conceivability arguments include (i) Descartes’ argument for mind-body dualism, (ii) Kripke's ‘modal argument’ against psychophysical identity theory, (iii) Chalmers’ ‘zombie argument’ against materialism, and (iv) modal versions of the ontological argument for theism. In this paper, we show that for any such conceivability argument, C, there is a corresponding ‘mirror argument’, M. M is deductively valid and has a conclusion that contradicts C's conclusion. Hence, a proponent of C—henceforth, a ‘conceivabilist’—can be warranted in holding that C's premises (...)
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  18. Enigma Variations.Jack Copeland - unknown
    Fifty years ago this month[[June]], in the Computing Machine Laboratory at Manchester University, the world's first electronic stored-program computer performed its first calculation. The tiny program, stored on the face of a cathode ray tube, was just 17 instructions long. Electronic engineers Freddie Williams and Tom Kilburn built the Manchester computer in accordance with fundamental ideas explained to them by Max Newman, professor of mathematics at Manchester. The computer fell sideways out of research that nobody could have guessed would have (...)
     
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  19. Logic and Reality: Essays on the Legacy of Arthur Prior.Jack Copeland - 1999 - Studia Logica 62 (3):445-448.
     
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  20. Préface.Jack Copeland, Didier Galmiche, Dominique Larchey-Wendling & Joseph Vidal-Rosset - 2012 - Philosophia Scientiae 16 (3):3-5.
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  21. Philosophy Research Paper Series - Dept Philosophy, University of Canterbury.Jack Copeland (ed.) - 1998
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  22. The Conjunction Fallacy.Jack Copeland & Diane Proudfoot - 2003 - Logique Et Analyse 181:7-12.
     
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  23. The Essential Turing: Seminal Writings in Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life: Plus the Secrets of Enigma.Jack Copeland (ed.) - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Alan M. Turing, pioneer of computing and WWII codebreaker, is one of the most important and influential thinkers of the twentieth century. In this volume for the first time his key writings are made available to a broad, non-specialist readership. They make fascinating reading both in their own right and for their historic significance: contemporary computational theory, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and artificial life all spring from this ground-breaking work, which is also rich in philosophical and logical insight. An introduction (...)
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  24. Tree Formulations of Tense Logic.Jack Copeland - manuscript
    The tense tree method extends Jeffrey’s well-known formulation of classical propositional logic to tense logic (Jeffrey 1991).1 Tense trees combine pure tense logic with features of Prior’s U-calculi (where ‘U’ is the earlier-than relation; see Prior 1967 and the Introduction to this volume). The tree method has a number of virtues: trees are well suited to computational applications; semantically, the tree systems presented here are no less illuminating than model theory; the metatheory associated with tree formulations is often more tractable (...)
     
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  25. Artificial Intelligence.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2011 - In E. Margolis, R. Samuels & S. Stich (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Cognitive Science. pp. 147-182.
    In this article the central philosophical issues concerning human-level artificial intelligence (AI) are presented. AI largely changed direction in the 1980s and 1990s, concentrating on building domain-specific systems and on sub-goals such as self-organization, self-repair, and reliability. Computer scientists aimed to construct intelligence amplifiers for human beings, rather than imitation humans. Turing based his test on a computer-imitates-human game, describing three versions of this game in 1948, 1950, and 1952. The famous version appears in a 1950 article in Mind, ‘Computing (...)
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  26. Artificial Intelligence: History, Foundations, and Philosophical Issues.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2006 - In P. Thagard (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science. pp. 429-482.
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  27. Alan Turing: Codebreaker and Computer Pioneer.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2004 - History Today 54 (7):7.
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  28. Alan Turing, Father of the Modern Computer.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2011 - Rutherford Journal: The New Zealand Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology 4.
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  29. Alan Turing’s Forgotten Ideas in Computer Science.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 1999 - Scientific American 280 (4):99-103.
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  30. Connectionism: Computing with Neurons.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2017 - In Jack Copeland, Jonathan P. Bowen, Mark Sprevak, Robin Wilson & Others (eds.), The Turing Guide. Oxford: pp. 309-314.
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  31. Enigma Variations. [REVIEW]Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 1998 - Times Literary Supplement 4970:6.
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  32. ‘Intelligent Machinery’: Foreword to Christof Teuscher, Turing’s Connectionism: An Investigation of Neural Network Architectures (Vii-Xiii).Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2002 - In Turing’s Connectionism: An Investigation of Neural Network Architectures.
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  33. On Alan Turing’s Anticipation of Connectionism.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2000 - In R. Chrisley (ed.), Artificial Intelligence: Critical Concepts in Cognitive Science, Volume 2: Symbolic AI.
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  34. Turing and the First Electronic Brains: What the Papers Said.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2019 - In M. Colombo & M. Sprevak (eds.), Routledge Handbook of the Computational Mind. pp. 23-37.
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  35. Turing and the Computer.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2012 - In Jack Copeland & Others (eds.), Alan Turing’s Electronic Brain. Oxford and New York: pp. 107-148.
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  36. The Computer, Artificial Intelligence, and the Turing Test.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2004 - In C. Teuscher (ed.), Alan Turing: Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker. pp. 317-351.
    We discuss, first, TUring's role in the development of the computer; second, the early history of Artificial Intelligence (to 1956); and third, TUring's fa- mous imitation game, now universally known as the TUring test, which he proposed in cameo form in 1948 and then more fully in 1950 and 1952. Various objections have been raised to Turing's test: we describe some of the most prominent and explain why, in our view, they fail.
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  37. The Legacy of Alan Turing. [REVIEW]Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 1998 - Mind 108:187-195.
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  38. Turing’s Mystery Machine.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2019 - American Philosophical Association Newsletter for Philosophy and Computers 18 (2):1-6.
    This is a detective story. The starting-point is a philosophical discussion in 1949, where Alan Turing mentioned a machine whose program, he said, would in practice be “impossible to find.” Turing used his unbreakable machine example to defeat an argument against the possibility of artificial intelligence. Yet he gave few clues as to how the program worked. What was its structure such that it could defy analysis for (he said) “a thousand years”? Our suggestion is that the program simulated a (...)
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  39. Turing’s Tragedy.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 1999 - Scientific American 281 (2):4.
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  40. Time to Reinspect the Foundations?Diane Proudfoot, Jack Copeland, Eli Dresner & Oron Shagrir - 2016 - Communications of the Acm 59 (11):34-38.
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  41. Un Alan Turing Desconocido.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 1999 - Investigación y Ciencia 273:14-19.
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  42. Wittgenstein’s Deflationary Account of Reference.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2002 - Language and Communication 22 (3):331-351.
    Traditional accounts hold that reference consists in a relation between the mind and an object; the relation is effected by a mental act and mediated by internal mental contents (internal representations). Contemporary theories as diverse as Fodor’s [Fodor, J.A., 1987. Psychosemantics: The Problem of Meaning in the Philosophy of Mind. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA] language of thought hypothesis, Dretske’s [Dretske, F., 1988. Explaining Behaviour: Reasons in a World of Causes. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA] informational semantics and Millikan’s [Millikan, R.G., 1984. (...)
     
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  43. Whole-Brain Simulation, Cryptography, and Turing's Mystery Machine.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2020 - The Turing Conversation.
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