38 found
Order:
Disambiguations
Jacob Beck [37]Jacob Sigismund Beck [5]
See also
Jacob Beck
York University
  1. The number sense represents (rational) numbers.Sam Clarke & Jacob Beck - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-57.
    On a now orthodox view, humans and many other animals possess a “number sense,” or approximate number system, that represents number. Recently, this orthodox view has been subject to numerous critiques that question whether the ANS genuinely represents number. We distinguish three lines of critique – the arguments from congruency, confounds, and imprecision – and show that none succeed. We then provide positive reasons to think that the ANS genuinely represents numbers, and not just non-numerical confounds or exotic substitutes for (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   17 citations  
  2. Marking the Perception–Cognition Boundary: The Criterion of Stimulus-Dependence.Jacob Beck - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (2):319-334.
    Philosophy, scientific psychology, and common sense all distinguish perception from cognition. While there is little agreement about how the perception–cognition boundary ought to be drawn, one prominent idea is that perceptual states are dependent on a stimulus, or stimulus-dependent, in a way that cognitive states are not. This paper seeks to develop this idea in a way that can accommodate two apparent counterexamples: hallucinations, which are prima facie perceptual yet stimulus-independent; and demonstrative thoughts, which are prima facie cognitive yet stimulus-dependent. (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   51 citations  
  3. Border Disputes: Recent Debates along the Perception–Cognition Border.Sam Clarke & Jacob Beck - 2023 - Philosophy Compass 18 (8):e12936.
    The distinction between perception and cognition frames countless debates in philosophy and cognitive science. But what, if anything, does this distinction actually amount to? In this introductory article, we summarize recent work on this question. We first briefly consider the possibility that a perception-cognition border should be eliminated from our scientific ontology, and then introduce and critically examine five positive approaches to marking a perception–cognition border, framed in terms of phenomenology, revisability, modularity, format, and stimulus-dependence.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  4. Perception is Analog: The Argument from Weber's Law.Jacob Beck - 2019 - Journal of Philosophy 116 (6):319-349.
    In the 1980s, a number of philosophers argued that perception is analog. In the ensuing years, these arguments were forcefully criticized, leaving the thesis in doubt. This paper draws on Weber’s Law, a well-entrenched finding from psychophysics, to advance a new argument that perception is analog. This new argument is an adaptation of an argument that cognitive scientists have leveraged in support of the contention that primitive numerical representations are analog. But the argument here is extended to the representation of (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   30 citations  
  5. The Generality Constraint and the Structure of Thought.Jacob Beck - 2012 - Mind 121 (483):563-600.
    According to the Generality Constraint, mental states with conceptual content must be capable of recombining in certain systematic ways. Drawing on empirical evidence from cognitive science, I argue that so-called analogue magnitude states violate this recombinability condition and thus have nonconceptual content. I further argue that this result has two significant consequences: it demonstrates that nonconceptual content seeps beyond perception and infiltrates cognition; and it shows that whether mental states have nonconceptual content is largely an empirical matter determined by the (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   47 citations  
  6. Analogue Magnitude Representations: A Philosophical Introduction.Jacob Beck - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (4):829-855.
    Empirical discussions of mental representation appeal to a wide variety of representational kinds. Some of these kinds, such as the sentential representations underlying language use and the pictorial representations of visual imagery, are thoroughly familiar to philosophers. Others have received almost no philosophical attention at all. Included in this latter category are analogue magnitude representations, which enable a wide range of organisms to primitively represent spatial, temporal, numerical, and related magnitudes. This article aims to introduce analogue magnitude representations to a (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   29 citations  
  7. Contents and Vehicles in Analog Perception.Jacob Beck - 2023 - Crítica. Revista Hispanoamericana de Filosofía 55 (163):109–127.
    Building on Christopher Peacocke’s account of analog perceptual contentand my own account of analog perceptual vehicles, I defend three claims: that theperception of magnitudes often has analog contents; that the perception of magni-tudes often has analog vehicles; and that the first claim is true in virtue of the second—that is, the analog vehicles help to ground the analog contents.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  8. On Perceptual Confidence and “Completely Trusting Your Experience”.Jacob Beck - 2019 - Analytic Philosophy 61 (2):174-188.
    John Morrison has argued that confidences are assigned in perceptual experience. For example, when you perceive a figure in the distance, your experience might assign a 55-percent confidence to the figure’s being Isaac. Morrison’s argument leans on the phenomenon of ‘completely trusting your experience’. I argue that Morrison presupposes a problematic ‘importation model’ of this familiar phenomenon, and propose a very different way of thinking about it. While the article’s official topic is whether confidences are assigned in perceptual experience, it (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  9. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds.Kristin Andrews & Jacob Beck (eds.) - 2017 - Routledge.
    While philosophers have been interested in animals since ancient times, in the last few decades the subject of animal minds has emerged as a major topic in philosophy. _The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds_ is an outstanding reference source to the key topics, problems and debates in this exciting subject and is the first collection of its kind. Comprising nearly fifty chapters by a team of international contributors, the _Handbook_ is divided into eight parts: Mental representation Reasoning and (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  10. Why we can’t say what animals think.Jacob Beck - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (4):520–546.
    Realists about animal cognition confront a puzzle. If animals have real, contentful cognitive states, why can’t anyone say precisely what the contents of those states are? I consider several possible resolutions to this puzzle that are open to realists, and argue that the best of these is likely to appeal to differences in the format of animal cognition and human language.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  11. Can Bootstrapping Explain Concept Learning?Jacob Beck - 2017 - Cognition 158 (C):110–121.
    Susan Carey's account of Quinean bootstrapping has been heavily criticized. While it purports to explain how important new concepts are learned, many commentators complain that it is unclear just what bootstrapping is supposed to be or how it is supposed to work. Others allege that bootstrapping falls prey to the circularity challenge: it cannot explain how new concepts are learned without presupposing that learners already have those very concepts. Drawing on discussions of concept learning from the philosophical literature, this article (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  12.  72
    Review of Ned Block's The Border between Seeing and Thinking.Jacob Beck - 2023 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
    I summarize and critically review Block's book, focusing on his format-based account of the border between perception and cognition and his argument for the phenomenal overflow of color perception.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  13. Between Perception and Thought.Jacob Beck - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    In The Border between Seeing and Thinking, Ned Block argues that the distinction between perception and cognition should be grounded in representational format. I object that cognition is multifaceted, and includes representations with the same format as some perceptual representations. We can save Block’s view by interpreting it as concerning the border between one elite species of cognition—namely, propositional thought—and everything below it, including perception. But that leaves the border between perception and cognition in general unexplained. To fill this gap, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. Analog Mental Representation.Jacob Beck - forthcoming - WIREs Cognitive Science.
    Over the past 50 years, philosophers and psychologists have perennially argued for the existence of analog mental representations of one type or another. This study critically reviews a number of these arguments as they pertain to three different types of mental representation: perceptual representations, imagery representations, and numerosity representations. Along the way, careful consideration is given to the meaning of “analog” presupposed by these arguments for analog mental representation, and to open avenues for future research.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  15. Attention and Mental Primer.Jacob Beck & Keith A. Schneider - 2017 - Mind and Language 32 (4):463-494.
    Drawing on the empirical premise that attention makes objects look more intense, Ned Block has argued for mental paint, a phenomenal residue that cannot be reduced to what is perceived or represented. If sound, Block's argument would undermine direct realism and representationism, two widely held views about the nature of conscious perception. We argue that Block's argument fails because the empirical premise it is based upon is false. Attending to an object alters its salience, but not its perceived intensity. We (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  16. Do Animals Engage in Conceptual Thought?Jacob Beck - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (3):218-229.
    This paper surveys and evaluates the answers that philosophers and animal researchers have given to two questions. Do animals have thoughts? If so, are their thoughts conceptual? Along the way, special attention is paid to distinguish debates of substance from mere battles over terminology, and to isolate fruitful areas for future research.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  17. Numbers, numerosities, and new directions.Jacob Beck & Sam Clarke - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-20.
    In our target article, we argued that the number sense represents natural and rational numbers. Here, we respond to the 26 commentaries we received, highlighting new directions for empirical and theoretical research. We discuss two background assumptions, arguments against the number sense, whether the approximate number system represents numbers or numerosities, and why the ANS represents rational numbers.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  18. Mundane hallucinations and new wave relationalism.Jacob Beck - 2021 - Noûs 57 (2):391-413.
    Relationalism maintains that mind-independent objects are essential constituents of veridical perceptual experiences. According to the argument from hallucination, relationalism is undermined by perfect hallucinations, experiences that are introspectively indistinguishable from veridical perceptual experiences but lack an object. Recently, a new wave of relationalists have responded by questioning whether perfect hallucinations are possible: what seem to be perfect hallucinations may really be something else, such as illusions, veridical experiences of non-obvious objects, or experiences that are not genuinely possible. This paper argues (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  19.  67
    Analogue Magnitudes, the Generality Constraint, and Nonconceptual Thought.Jacob Beck - 2014 - Mind 123 (492):1155-1165.
    I reply to comments by David Miguel Gray and Grant Gillett concerning my paper, ‘The Generality Constraint and the Structure of Thought’.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  20.  9
    Animal rationality and belief.Hans Johann Glock, Kirstin Andrews & Jacob Beck - 2018 - In Glock, Hans Johann (2018). Animal rationality and belief. In: Andrews, Kirstin; Beck, Jacob. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds. London: Routledge, 89-99. pp. 89-99.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  21. Teaching & Learning Guide for: ‘Border Disputes: Recent Debates along the Perception–Cognition Border’.Sam Clarke & Jacob Beck - 2023 - Philosophy Compass 18 (10):e12949.
  22.  29
    Perceptual noise and the bell curve objection.Jacob Beck & William Languedoc - 2023 - Analysis 83 (3):429-436.
    Perceptual experience supports the assignment of confidences in belief – doxastic confidences. To explain this fact, many philosophers appeal to Perceptual Indeterminacy, which holds that perceptual content can be more or less determinate. Others instead appeal to Perceptual Confidence, which says that perceptual experience supports doxastic confidences because it assigns confidences too. Morrison argues that a primary reason to favour Perceptual Confidence is that it is uniquely capable of accounting for bell-shaped doxastic confidence distributions; we call this the bell curve (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  67
    Born to Count.Jacob Beck & Sam Clarke - 2023 - Scientific American 328 (3):42-49.
    Imagine hosting a party. You arrange snacks, curate a playlist and place a variety of beers in the refrigerator. Your first guest shows up, adding a six-pack before taking one bottle for himself. You watch your next guest arrive and contribute a few more beers, minus one for herself. Ready for a drink, you open the fridge and are surprised to find only eight beers remaining. You haven't been consciously counting the beers, but you know there should be more, so (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24.  20
    The relation of apparent shape to apparent slant in the perception of objects.Jacob Beck & James J. Gibson - 1955 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 50 (2):125.
  25. Does the number sense represent number?Sam Clarke & Jacob Beck - 2020 - In Blair Armstrong, Stephanie Denison, Michael Mack & Yang Xu (eds.), Proceedings of the 42nd Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.
    On a now orthodox view, humans and many other animals are endowed with a “number sense”, or approximate number system (ANS), that represents number. Recently, this orthodox view has been subject to numerous critiques, with critics maintaining either that numerical content is absent altogether, or else that some primitive analog of number (‘numerosity’) is represented as opposed to number itself. We distinguish three arguments for these claims – the arguments from congruency, confounds, and imprecision – and show that none succeed. (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26. El requisito de generalidad y la estructura del pensamiento.Jacob Beck - 2015 - In Mariela Aguilera, Laura Danón, Carolina Scotto & Elisabeth Camp (eds.), Conceptos, lenguaje y cognición. Editorial Universidad Nacional de Córdoba.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27.  19
    Apparent spatial arrangement and perceived brightness.Julian E. Hochberg & Jacob Beck - 1954 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 47 (4):263.
  28. Sense, Mentalese, and Ontology.Jacob Beck - 2013 - ProtoSociology 30:29-48.
    Modes of presentation are often posited to accommodate Frege’s puzzle. Philosophers differ, however, in whether they follow Frege in identifying modes of presentation with Fregean senses, or instead take them to be formally individuated symbols of “Mentalese”. Building on Fodor, Margolis and Laurence defend the latter view by arguing that the mind-independence of Fregean senses renders them ontologically suspect in a way that Mentalese symbols are not. This paper shows how Fregeans can withstand this objection. Along the way, a clearer (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  29. The Only Good Reason to Ban Steroids in Baseball: To Prevent an Arms Race.Jacob Beck - 2013 - The Atlantic:0-0.
    I review six bad arguments for banning performance-enhancing drugs from sports--and a seventh good one.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30.  22
    Apparent spatial position and the perception of lightness.Jacob Beck - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (2):170.
  31. Commentar Über Kants Metaphysik der Sitten. Halle, 1798. Impr. Anastaltique.Jacob Sigismund Beck & Immanuel Kant - 1970
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  18
    Effect of surround size on the perception of texture patterns.Jacob Beck - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (1):68.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33.  9
    Judgments of surface illumination and lightness.Jacob Beck - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (5):368.
  34.  17
    Relation between similarity grouping and peripheral discriminability.Jacob Beck - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):1145.
  35.  23
    Stimulus correlates for the judged illumination of a surface.Jacob Beck - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (4):267.
  36.  7
    Supplementary report: An examination of an aspect of the Gelb effect.Jacob Beck - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (2):199.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37.  26
    Amodal completion: Simplicity is not the explanation.Laura Moravec & Jacob Beck - 1986 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (4):269-272.
  38.  65
    By christopherpeacockethe primacy of metaphysics. Oxford university press, 2019, isbn 978‐0‐19‐883557‐8. 218 pp. $39.95. [REVIEW]Jacob Beck - 2020 - European Journal of Philosophy 28 (1):266-270.