This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societal-level analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub-dimensions and two sets of values dimensions (collectivism and individualism; openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence). At the societal-level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective (...) autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and harmony. For each society, we report the Cronbach’s α statistics for each values dimension scale to assess their internal consistency (reliability) as well as report interrater agreement (IRA) analyses to assess the acceptability of using aggregated individual level values scores to represent country values. We also examined whether societal development level is related to systematic variation in the measurement and importance of values. Thus, the contributions of our evaluation of the SVS values dimensions are two-fold. First, we identify the SVS dimensions that have cross-culturally internally reliable structures and within-society agreement for business professionals. Second, we report the society cultural values scores developed from the twenty-first century data that can be used as macro-level predictors in multilevel and single-level international business research. (shrink)
This article explores the complex bond between human life and the force of law from the contributions made by Michel Foucault and Giorgio Agamben. Both authors realize the transit of the legal system from sovereign power —which brings death by spilling the blood of men as a symbol of the naked life— to the analytics of biopower —which grants life but lets the race die—. However, Agamben goes further and proves the way contemporary biopower, closely linked to sovereign right, reduces (...) human life to the mere idea of biological life producing survivors. (shrink)
Dulce Chacón Gutiérrez ha sido una mujer que con su vida y obra ha dado testimonio de su valor como ser humano; vivió al servicio de la familia, los amigos y la creación literaria. Nació en Zafra, Badajoz, en 1954 y murió en su casa de Madrid, el 3 de diciembre de 2003, a los 49 años de edad, víctima de un cáncer fulminante que se la llevó en un mes. Estaba casada y tenía tres hijos.
Since time immemorial, the phenomenon of leadership and its understanding has attracted the attention of the business world because of its important role in human groups. Nevertheless, for years efforts to understand this concept have only been centred on people in leadership roles, thus overlooking an important aspect in its understanding: the necessary moral dimension which is implicit in the relationship between leader and follower. As an illustrative example of the importance of considering good morality in leadership, an empirical study (...) is conducted in which a good performance of the "leader-follower" relationship is reflected when individuals perceive ethical leadership in higher hierarchical managerial levels. To be precise, findings of this study demonstrate that follower job response is improved through an ethics trickle-down partial effect from the Top Manager to the immediate supervisor, and also reveal both key aspects and managerial level on which the practice of ethical leadership should rest upon to have a stronger effect on the follower positive job response. Practical implications of these findings and directions for future research are finally presented. (shrink)
This paper continues a dialogue that began with an article by Jeffrey Koperski entitled “Two Bad Ways to Attack Intelligent Design and Two Good Ones,” published in the June 2008 issue of Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science. In a response article, Christopher Pynes argues that ad hominem arguments are sometimes legitimate, especially when critiquing Intelligent Design (2012). We show that Pynes’s examples only apply to matters of testimony, not the kinds of arguments found in the best defenses of ID.
Moral Seduction Theory suggests that auditors are morally compromised by the perceived consequences of their opinions. The root of the auditing problem appears to result in an unintentional bias rather than in dishonesty. Although important accounting reforms have been taken to deal with auditors' trustworthiness, their lack of independence has not been adequately addressed. The new regulation (Sarbanes-Oxley Act) is a consequence of an incorrect understanding of the main true source of auditor's biases. We have developed a cognitive approach by (...) connecting the Throughput Model (TM) to the Moral Seduction Theory. This approach allows a better understanding of how conflicts of interest lead auditors to avoid the issuance of warning signals to stakeholders. We have tested our model by conducting a hypothetical scenario with eighty experienced auditors from international accounting firms. Our results confirm auditors' unintentional reluctance to issue qualified audit opinions alerting investors due to their fear of precipitating clients' final bankruptcy. The main implication is that, more than a regulation, effort should be made in monitoring those conflicts of interest to reduce unintentional bias. (shrink)
We review and discuss A. H. Louie’s book “More than Life Itself: A Reflexion on Formal Systems and Biology” from an interdisciplinary viewpoint, involving both biology and mathematics, taking into account new developments and related theories.
We propose compassion as a new model for moral education. The insufficiency of Kohlberg's cognitive model for such education is shown, as is the absence of compassion in dialogical ethics. We review briefly some authors who have treated the theme of compassion and propose the development of empathy as a foundation for educating for compassion. Specifically, we propose emotional guidance and observation-based tasks. Socio-affective experiences, the acquisition of social skills and the awakening of moral awareness are resources which enable the (...) development of empathy. To put oneself in someone else's place, feel for them, sympathize with them, is not merely the result of an exclusive intellectual exercise; rather it is linked to a moral sensibility. A moral engagement, a moral stance in the face of tragedy, requires compassion for the commitment to be effective. To educate in compassion is to educate for a moral life. (shrink)
The ethic of care has often been opposed to the ethic of justice as offering a different and even a contradictory approach to moral problems. This article argues that, from the perspective of the discourse ethic, both approaches are complementary in a very fundamental sense, since each one applies to one of two stages of moral reasoning that are as different as they are interconnected. It argues, in particular, that while justice is concerned with the justification and elaboration of norms, (...) care is concerned with finding a solution for specific moral situations. The article then places considerations of care at the centre of ideal discourse and subordinates the importance of rational understanding and moral justification to intuitive communication. (shrink)
La figura del payaso ha pasado por diferentes momentos y lecturas históricas, lo que permite considerarla como una figura arquetípica. Su papel en la sociedad históricamente fue el del ridículo, objeto de risas, pero el payaso no sólo es un ser congruente, auténtico y valiente, sino que también pued..
Se somete a discusión la utilidad heurística de incorporar la perspectiva de política de las culturas juveniles para analizar los vínculos entre juventud, política y cultura en la contemporaneidad. Si los enfoques tradicionales enfatizaron en el carácter cultural de la política, y enfatizaron en los..
There are important cases where properties not referred to by expressions from the languages of physics are enabled in certain times and circumstances to get causal control over some kinds of physical events. I will argue that in those cases we would have to transfer to those properties the causal sufficiency to bring about these events. This would offer a principle of causal inheritance in sharp contrast with the inheritance principle for the causal sufficiency of second order properties defended by (...) Jaegwon Kim in his recent discussion of the causal exclusion problem concerning mental properties. The two principles would be very different. Their domains of application would be distinct. Kim's principle would transfer causal sufficiency to the more "concrete" physical properties able to realize mental properties understood as second order properties. Our principle would transfer causal sufficiency to the more "general" properties able to cause the relevant physical effects in the times and circumstances in question. That way, it would be possible to give a quite simple answer to the problem of causal exclusion posed by Kim in relation to mental properties. Our approach also would have very important consequences in relation to ordinary macrophysical causation. (shrink)
In contrast with the development of big theories in the context of social sciences, there is nowadays an increasing interest in the construction of simulation models for complex phenomena. Those simulation models suggest a certain image of social sciences as a kind of, let us say, "patchwork". In that image, an increase in understanding about the phenomena modeled is obtained through a certain sort of aggregation. There is not an application of sound, established theories to all the phenomena of a (...) certain kind, but an aggregation of the structures supposed, and of the results obtained, when particular systems are modeled. The recent case of the "El Farol Bar" problem, and the models built in order to face this problem, are a good example of this. We will analyze that case, trying to make clear what would be implied by the image above mentioned. Special attention will be paid to the need to take seriously the notion of a bounded rationality, linked to the special circumstances generating each decision problem, and to the existence of an irreducible pluralism of models. (shrink)
Ya la ironía socrática dijo que la filosofía no progresaba porque se ocupaba siempre de los mismos asuntos; el saber filosófico, asediado por la cuestión de su legitimidad, muestra su capacidad regenerativa volviendo siempre sobre sus fundamentos histórico-conceptuales. De ahí que quien intente defi..
Se analiza en este estudio, las implicaciones que para el campo de la ética filosófica comporta el desarrollo de algunas de las investigaciones científicas en el campo de las neurociencias. El organismo humano nunca disocia de manera tajante la razón práctica de la teórica y, por tanto, las dimensio..
This paper offers a comparison between the aristocratic radicalism of Nietzsche and that of the Colombian philosopher, Nicolás Gómez Dávila, in order to point out their points of contact and their differences. This leads to the analysis of the uneven reception of their ideas, which at the same time ..
In the historical, turbulent and exciting times of the Renaissance Humanism, characterized by a return to classic Antiquity, and the renovation of all cultural manifestations, both philosophy and religion are affected from their very foundations. This scholastic crisis affects in such a way the conscience, of the individuals and the people that it demands a solution immediate although provisional solution, so that we continuing even the business of living. No wonder that among the ruins of tomist morality, some moralists arise, (...) as that of Justus Lipsius (1547-1606), engased in renovating the stoic doctrines of Epicteto (ca. 50 to. of C. -125/138) and Séneca (ca. 4-65), and that of Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), determined to Christianize Epicuro. For some could be a summarise of the Ethics of the Renaissance others believe that the first Ethics of modern philosophy should be considered to be a product of the Renaissance, even if it does not belong chronologically to it they meam Descartes (1596-1650), Spinoza (1632-1677) and Kant (1724-1804). However according to the opinion of some significant authors, we dont need to go back to Kant to find the authentic Ethics of the Renaissance. Juan Luis Vives published in 1524 a small booklet titled Introductio ad Sapientiam that for its internal ideological structure and its origin senequista and christan leaning occupies a privileged place within modern Ethic, and if we take accourt his content and chronology it can be considered as the Ethics of the Renaissance, at least of the Spanish Renaissance. (shrink)