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James G. Lennox [84]James Gordon Lennox [1]
  1. Darwin Was a Teleologist.James G. Lennox - 1993 - Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):409-421.
    It is often claimed that one of Darwin''s chief accomplishments was to provide biology with a non-teleological explanation of adaptation. A number of Darwin''s closest associates, however, and Darwin himself, did not see it that way. In order to assess whether Darwin''s version of evolutionary theory does or does not employ teleological explanation, two of his botanical studies are examined. The result of this examination is that Darwin sees selection explanations of adaptations as teleological explanations. The confusion in the nineteenth (...)
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  2.  46
    Philosophical Issues in Aristotle's Biology.Allan Gotthelf & James G. Lennox (eds.) - 1987 - Cambridge University Press.
    Aristotle's biological works - constituting over 25% of his surviving corpus and for centuries largely unstudied by philosophically oriented scholars - have been the subject of an increasing amount of attention of late. This collection brings together some of the best work that has been done in this area, with the aim of exhibiting the contribution that close study of these treatises can make to the understanding of Aristotle's philosophy. The book is divided into four parts, each with an introduction (...)
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  3. Concepts and Their Role in Knowledge: Reflections on Objectivist Epistemology.Allan Gotthelf & James G. Lennox (eds.) - 2013 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    The philosopher and novelist Ayn Rand is a cultural phenomenon. Her books have sold more than twenty-eight million copies, and countless individuals speak of her writings as having significantly influenced their lives. Despite her popularity, Rand’s philosophy of Objectivism has received little serious attention from academic philosophers. _Concepts and Their Role in Knowledge_ offers scholarly analysis of key elements of Ayn Rand’s radically new approach to epistemology. The four essays, by contributors intimately familiar with this area of her work, discuss (...)
     
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  4. Introduction to the Philosophy of Science.Merrilee H. Salmon, John Earman, Clark Glymour & James G. Lennox (eds.) - 1992 - Hackett Publishing Company.
    A reprint of the Prentice-Hall edition of 1992. Prepared by nine distinguished philosophers and historians of science, this thoughtful reader represents a cooperative effort to provide an introduction to the philosophy of science focused on cultivating an understanding of both the workings of science and its historical and social context. Selections range from discussions of topics in general methodology to a sampling of foundational problems in various physical, biological, behavioral, and social sciences. Each chapter contains a list of suggested readings (...)
     
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  5.  74
    Aristotle on the Emergence of Material Complexity: Meteorology IV and Aristotle’s Biology.James G. Lennox - 2014 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 4 (2):272-305.
    In this article I defend an account of Meteorology IV as providing a material-level causal account of the emergence of uniform materials with a wide range of dispositional properties not found at the level of the four elements—the emergence of material complexity. I then demonstrate that this causal account is used in the Generation of Animals and Parts of Animals as part of the explanation of the generation of the uniform parts (tissues) and of their role in providing nonuniform parts (...)
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  6.  69
    Natural Selection and the Struggle for Existence.James G. Lennox & Bradley E. Wilson - 1994 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 25 (1):65-80.
  7. Health as an Objective Value.James G. Lennox - 1995 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (5):499-511.
    Variants on two approaches to the concept of health have dominated the philosophy of medicine, here referred to as ‘reductionist’ and ‘relativis’. These two approaches share the basic assumption that the concept of health cannot be both based on an empirical biological foundation and be evaluative, and thus adopt either the view that it is ‘objective’ or evaluative. It is here argued that there are a subset of value concepts that are formed in recognition of certain fundamental facts about living (...)
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  8.  43
    An Aristotelian Philosophy of Biology: Form, Function and Development.James G. Lennox - 2017 - Acta Philosophica 26 (1):33-52.
    In metaphysics and philosophy of science, a significant movement is making inroads, under the banner of ‘neo-Aristotelianism’. This movement has so far been focused primarily on the physical sciences; but given that Aristotle the natural scientist was above all a biologist, it is worth asking what a neo-Aristotelian philosophy of biology would look like? In this paper, I begin a discussion on precisely that question. One interesting result is that the fact that biology is now permeated by evolutionary ways of (...)
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  9.  69
    Aristotelian Problems.James G. Lennox - 1994 - Ancient Philosophy 14 (S1):53-77.
  10.  54
    Aristotle on Genera, Species, And?The More and the Less?James G. Lennox - 1980 - Journal of the History of Biology 13 (2):321-346.
  11.  8
    Introduction.James G. Lennox & Mary Louise Gill - 2017 - In James G. Lennox & Mary Louise Gill (eds.), Self-Motion: From Aristotle to Newton. Princeton University Press.
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  12.  60
    Darwin’s Methodological Evolution.James G. Lennox - 2005 - Journal of the History of Biology 38 (1):85-99.
    A necessary condition for having a revolution named after you is that you are an innovator in your field. I argue that if Charles Darwin meets this condition, it is as a philosopher and methodologist. In 1991, I made the case for Darwin's innovative use of "thought experiment" in the "Origin." Here I place this innovative practice in the context of Darwin's methodological commitments, trace its origins back into Darwin's notebooks, and pursue Darwin's suggestion that it owes its inspiration to (...)
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  13.  88
    Aristotle on Norms of Inquiry.James G. Lennox - 2011 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 1 (1):23-46.
    Where does Aristotle stand in the debate between rationalism and empiricism? The locus classicus on this question, Posterior Analytics II. 19, seems clearly empiricist. Yet many commentators have resisted this conclusion. Here, I review their arguments and conclude that they rest in part on expectations for this text that go unfulfilled. I argue that this is because his views about norms of empirical inquiry are in the rich methodological passages in his scientific treatises. In support of this claim, I explore (...)
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  14.  60
    Teleology by Another Name: A Reply to Ghiselin. [REVIEW]James G. Lennox - 1994 - Biology and Philosophy 9 (4):493-495.
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  15. Self-Motion: From Aristotle to Newton.Mary Louise Gill & James G. Lennox (eds.) - 1994 - Princeton University Press.
     
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  16.  64
    Being, Nature, and Life in Aristotle: Essays in Honor of Allan Gotthelf.James G. Lennox & Robert Bolton (eds.) - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    This volume of essays explores major connected themes in Aristotle's metaphysics, philosophy of nature, and ethics, especially themes related to essence, definition, teleology, activity, potentiality, and the highest good. The volume is united by the belief that all aspects of Aristotle's work need to be studied together if any one of the areas of thought is to be fully understood. Many of the papers were contributions to a conference at the University of Pittsburgh entitled 'Being, Nature, and Life in Aristotle', (...)
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  17.  60
    The Darwin/Gray Correspondence 1857–1869: An Intelligent Discussion About Chance and Design.James G. Lennox - 2010 - Perspectives on Science 18 (4):456-479.
    This essay outlines one aspect of a larger collaboration with John Beatty and Alan Love.2 The project’s focus is philosophical, but for reasons that will become clear momentarily, the method of approach is historical. All three of us share the conviction that philosophical issues concerning the foundations of the sciences are often illuminated by investigating their history. It is my hope that this paper both provides support for that thesis, and illustrates it. The focal philosophical issue can be stated in (...)
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  18. Teleology, Chance, and Aristotle's Theory of Spontaneous Generation.James G. Lennox - 1982 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 20 (3):219-238.
  19.  23
    Aristotle's De Motu Animalium: Text with Translation, Commentary and Interpretive Essays.James G. Lennox - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (1):156-159.
  20.  21
    History and Philosophy of Science: A Phylogenetic Approach.James G. Lennox - unknown
    Kuhn closed the Introduction to The Structure of Scientific Revolutions with what was clearly intended as a rhetorical question: How could history of science fail to be a source of phenomena to which theories about knowledge may legitimately be asked to apply? (Kuhn 1970, 9) This paper argues that there is a more fruitful way of conceiving the relationship between a historical and philosophical study of science, which is dubbed the 'phylogenetic' approach. I sketch an example of this approach, and (...)
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  21. Aristotle on Chance.James G. Lennox - 1984 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 66 (1):52-60.
  22.  91
    Episteme, Demonstration, and Explanation: A Fresh Look at Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics. [REVIEW]Gregory Salmieri, David Bronstein, David Charles & James G. Lennox - 2014 - Metascience 23 (1):1-35.
  23.  10
    Getting a Science Going: Aristotle on Entry Level Kinds'.James G. Lennox - 2005 - In Gereon Wolters & Martin Carrier (eds.), Homo Sapiens Und Homo Faber. De Gruyter. pp. 87.
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  24. Concepts, Theories, and Rationality in the Biological Sciences.Gereon Wolters & James G. Lennox (eds.) - 1995 - Pittsburgh P.A./Konstanz, Germany: University of Pittsburgh Press/Universitätsverlag Konstanz.
    Leading biologists and philosophers of biology discuss the basic theories and concepts of biology and their connections with ethics, economics, and psychology, providing a remarkably unified report on the “state of the art” in the philosophy of biology.
     
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  25.  65
    The Place of Mankind in Aristotle’s Zoology.James G. Lennox - 1999 - Philosophical Topics 27 (1):1-16.
    Historians of psychology often treat Aristotle’s De Anima as the first scientific treatment of their subject; and historians of biology do likewise with his zoological treatises. How are the investigations recorded in works such as the Parts of Animals and History of Animals connected to those in the De Anima? More specifically, given Aristotle’s views about man’s special and distinctive cognitive capacities, what does he think about man as an object of a distinctively zoological investigation? In the following pages, this (...)
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  26. Aristotle: On the Parts of Animals.James G. Lennox (ed.) - 2002 - Clarendon Press.
    Aristotle is without question the founder of the science of biology. In his treatise On the Parts of Animals, he develops his systematic principles for biological investigation, and explanation, and applies those principles to explain why the different animal kinds have the different parts that they do. It is one of the greatest achievements in the history of science. This new translation from the Greek aims to reflect the subtlety and detail of Aristotle's reasoning. The commentary provides help in understanding (...)
     
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  27.  46
    Putting Philosophy of Science to the Test: The Case of Aristotle's Biology.James G. Lennox - 1994 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:239 - 247.
    During the Middle Ages and Rennaissance, it was commonly believed that Aristotle's biological studies reflected his theory of demonstrative science quite well. By contrast, most commentators in the twentieth century have taken it that this is not the case. This is largely the result of preconceptions about what a natural science modelled after the proposals of Aristotle's Posterior Analytics would look like. I argue that these modern preconceptions are incorrect, and that, while the Analytics leaves a variety of issues unanswered (...)
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  28.  13
    Robert Boyle's Defense of Teleological Inference in Experimental Science.James G. Lennox - 1983 - Isis 74 (1):38-52.
  29.  24
    Darwin, Philosopher.James G. Lennox - 2009 - Metascience 18 (1):121-124.
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  30.  12
    De Caelo 2.2 and Its Debt to De Incessu Animalium.James G. Lennox - 2009 - In A. C. Bowen & C. Wildberg (eds.), New Perspectives on Aristotle’s de Caelo. Brill. pp. 1--187.
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  31.  42
    Recent Philosophical Studies of Aristotle’s Biology.James G. Lennox - 1984 - Ancient Philosophy 4 (1):73-82.
  32.  71
    Aristotle on the Unity and Disunity of Science.James G. Lennox - 2001 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15 (2):133 – 144.
  33.  23
    Explanatory Structures: A Study of Concepts of Explanation in Early Physics and Philosophy.James G. Lennox - 1979 - Philosophy of Science 46 (4):652-654.
  34.  44
    The Causality of Finite Modes in Spinoza's "Ethics".James G. Lennox - 1976 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 6 (3):479 - 500.
    A central difficulty in the way of understanding Spinoza's metaphysical system is that of reconciling two apparently contradictory theories of the causation of finite modes found in his Ethics. The easiest way to present the problem is to place these two accounts side by side.A. All things which follow from the absolute nature of any attribute of God must forever exist, and must be infinite; that is to say, through that attribute they are eternal and infinite. A thing which has (...)
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  35.  27
    The Disappearance of Aristotle's Biology: A Hellenistic Mystery.James G. Lennox - 1994 - Apeiron 27 (4):7-24.
  36.  21
    Marjorie Grene, Aristotle's Philosophy of Science and Aristotle's Biology.James G. Lennox - 1984 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:365 - 377.
    Professor Grene's work on Aristotle is considered under three headings: teleology, form, and reductionism. A picture of Aristotle's philosophy of biology is sketched which stresses three elements: the place of living activity in the teleological account of the development and nature of organic structures; the functional nature of Aristotelian form; and the autonomy of biology as a natural science with its own basic principles. These elements are aspects of Aristotle's approach to biology with which Professor Grene has expressed sympathy.
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  37.  9
    Of Biology.James G. Lennox - 1992 - In Merrilee H. Salmon (ed.), Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Hackett. pp. 269.
  38. Aristotle's Philosophy of Action.James G. Lennox - 1986 - Philosophical Quarterly 36 (145):543-549.
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  39.  27
    Aristotle on the Unity of the Nutritive and Reproductive Functions.Cameron F. Coates & James G. Lennox - 2020 - Phronesis 65 (4):414-466.
    In De Anima 2.4, Aristotle claims that nutritive soul encompasses two distinct biological functions: nutrition and reproduction. We challenge a pervasive interpretation which posits ‘nutrients’ as the correlative object of the nutritive capacity. Instead, the shared object of nutrition and reproduction is that which is nourished and reproduced: the ensouled body, qua ensouled. Both functions aim at preserving this object, and thus at preserving the form, life, and being of the individual organism. In each case, we show how Aristotle’s detailed (...)
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  40. Chalmers, David J. The Character of Consciousness, Oxford University Press, 2010, 624 Pp. Cliteur, Paul. The Secular Outlook: In Defense of Moral and Political Secularism, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, 328 Pp. Cochran, Molly. The Cambridge Companion to Dewey, Cambridge Uni. [REVIEW]Fred Evans, Allan Gotthelf, James G. Lennox, Jesus Ilundain-Agurruza, Michael W. Austin, Timothy O'Connor, Constantine Sandis, Graham Oppy, Michael Scott & Roland Pierik - 2011 - Metaphilosophy 42 (3):0026-1068.
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  41. Metaethics, Egoism, and Virtue: Studies in Ayn Rand's Normative Theory.Allan Gotthelf & James G. Lennox (eds.) - 2010 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Philosopher-novelist Ayn Rand is a cultural phenomenon. Her books have sold more than 25 million copies, and countless individuals speak of her writings as having significantly influenced their lives. In spite of the popular interest in her ideas, or perhaps because of it, Rand’s work has until recently received little serious attention from academics. Though best known among philosophers for her strong support of egoism in ethics and capitalism in politics, there is an increasingly widespread awareness of both the range (...)
     
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  42. Abbreviations.James G. Lennox & Mary Louise Gill - 2017 - In James G. Lennox & Mary Louise Gill (eds.), Self-Motion: From Aristotle to Newton. Princeton University Press.
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  43.  40
    Aristotle's de Generatione Et Corruptione.James G. Lennox - 1984 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 22 (4):472-474.
  44.  2
    Aristotle's Lantern.James G. Lennox - 1983 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 103:147-151.
  45.  40
    Aristotle's Natural Science: The Many and the One.James G. Lennox - 2010 - Apeiron 43 (2-3):1-24.
  46. Aristotle on Inquiry: Erotetic Frameworks and Domain Specific Norms.James G. Lennox - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    Aristotle is a rarity in the history of philosophy and science - he is a towering figure in the history of both disciplines. Moreover, he devoted a great deal of philosophical attention to the nature of scientific knowledge. How then do his philosophical reflections on scientific knowledge impact his actual scientific inquiries? In this book James Lennox sets out to answer this question. He argues that Aristotle has a richly normative view of scientific inquiry, and that those norms are of (...)
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  47. Aristotle: On the Parts of Animals.James G. Lennox - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (213):607-609.
    Aristotle is without question the founder of the science of biology. In his treatise On the Parts of Animals, he develops his systematic principles for biological investigation, and explanation, and applies those principles to explain why the different animal kinds have the different parts that they do. It is one of the greatest achievements in the history of science. This new translation from the Greek aims to reflect the subtlety and detail of Aristotle's reasoning. The commentary provides help in understanding (...)
     
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  48. Aristotle: On the Parts of Animals.James G. Lennox (ed.) - 2002 - Clarendon Press.
    Aristotle is without question the founder of the science of biology. In his treatise On the Parts of Animals, he develops his systematic principles for biological investigation, and explanation, and applies those principles to explain why the different animal kinds have the different parts that they do. It is one of the greatest achievements in the history of science. This new translation from the Greek aims to reflect the subtlety and detail of Aristotle's reasoning. The commentary provides help in understanding (...)
     
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  49.  10
    Aristotle on the Generation of Animals: A Philosophical StudyJohannes Morsink.James G. Lennox - 1983 - Isis 74 (3):440-441.
  50. Aristotle’s Philosophy of Biology: Studies in the Origins of Life Science.James G. Lennox - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    In addition to being one of the world's most influential philosophers, Aristotle can also be credited with the creation of both the science of biology and the philosophy of biology. He was the first thinker to treat the investigations of the living world as a distinct inquiry with its own special concepts and principles. This book focuses on a seminal event in the history of biology - Aristotle's delineation of a special branch of theoretical knowledge devoted to the systematic investigation (...)
     
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