Results for 'James L. Barnes'

996 found
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  1.  51
    Philosophy of Engineering, East and West.Rita Armstrong, Erik W. Armstrong, James L. Barnes, Susan K. Barnes, Roberto Bartholo, Terry Bristol, Cao Dongming, Cao Xu, Carleton Christensen, Chen Jia, Cheng Yifa, Christelle Didier, Paul T. Durbin, Michael J. Dyrenfurth, Fang Yibing, Donald Hector, Li Bocong, Li Lei, Liu Dachun, Heinz C. Luegenbiehl, Diane P. Michelfelder, Carl Mitcham, Suzanne Moon, Byron Newberry, Jim Petrie, Hans Poser, Domício Proença, Qian Wei, Wim Ravesteijn, Viola Schiaffonati, Édison Renato Silva, Patrick Simonnin, Mario Verdicchio, Sun Lie, Wang Bin, Wang Dazhou, Wang Guoyu, Wang Jian, Wang Nan, Yin Ruiyu, Yin Wenjuan, Yuan Deyu, Zhao Junhai, Baichun Zhang & Zhang Kang (eds.) - 2018 - Cham: Springer Verlag.
    This co-edited volume compares Chinese and Western experiences of engineering, technology, and development. In doing so, it builds a bridge between the East and West and advances a dialogue in the philosophy of engineering. Divided into three parts, the book starts with studies on epistemological and ontological issues, with a special focus on engineering design, creativity, management, feasibility, and sustainability. Part II considers relationships between the history and philosophy of engineering, and includes a general argument for the necessity of dialogue (...)
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  2. Producing A Technologically Literate Citizen: A Curriculum Model.James L. Barnes - 1988 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 8 (5):483-489.
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  3. The effects of culture on ethical decision-making: An application of Hofstede’s typology. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell, Saviour L. Nwachukwu & James H. Barnes - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (10):753 - 760.
    This paper addresses a significant gap in the conceptualization of business ethics within different cultural influences. Though theoretical models of business ethics have recognized the importance of culture in ethical decision-making, few have examinedhow this influences ethical decision-making. Therefore, this paper develops propositions concerning the influence of various cultural dimensions on ethical decision-making using Hofstede''s typology.
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  4.  34
    The Paradoxical Privilege of Men and Masculinity in Institutional Review Boards.Liberty Walther Barnes & Christin L. Munsch - 2015 - Feminist Studies 41 (3):594.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:594 Feminist Studies 41, no. 3. © 2015 by Feminist Studies, Inc. Liberty Walther Barnes and Christin L. Munsch The Paradoxical Privilege of Men and Masculinity in Institutional Review Boards In the 1939 Hollywood classic The Wizard of Oz, the great wizard admonishes Dorothy and her friends to “pay no attention to that man behind the curtain.” Dorothy and company turn to see a man standing before a (...)
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  5.  47
    Distributed memory and the representation of general and specific information.James L. McClelland & David E. Rumelhart - 1985 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 114 (2):159-188.
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  6. On Scepticism About Ought Simpliciter.James L. D. Brown - 2023 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy.
    Scepticism about ought simpliciter is the view that there is no such thing as what one ought simpliciter to do. Instead, practical deliberation is governed by a plurality of normative standpoints, each authoritative from their own perspective but none authoritative simpliciter. This paper aims to resist such scepticism. After setting out the challenge in general terms, I argue that scepticism can be resisted by rejecting a key assumption in the sceptic’s argument. This is the assumption that standpoint-relative ought judgments bring (...)
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  7.  21
    Clarifying the DDR and DCD.James L. Bernat - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (2):1-3.
    Over the past quarter century, organ donation after the circulatory determination of death (DCD) has grown in acceptance and prevalence throughout the world (Domínguez-Gil et al. 2021). Notwithstan...
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  8.  31
    The Whole-Brain Concept of Death Remains Optimum Public Policy.James L. Bernat - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (1):35-43.
    The definition of death is one of the oldest and most enduring problems in biophilosophy and bioethics. Serious controversies over formally defining death began with the invention of the positive-pressure mechanical ventilator in the 1950s. For the first time, physicians could maintain ventilation and, hence, circulation on patients who had sustained what had been previously lethal brain damage. Prior to the development of mechanical ventilators, brain injuries severe enough to induce apnea quickly progressed to cardiac arrest from hypoxemia. Before the (...)
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  9.  66
    An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: I. An account of basic findings.James L. McClelland & David E. Rumelhart - 1981 - Psychological Review 88 (5):375-407.
  10.  94
    Subjectivization in Ethics.James L. Hudson - 1989 - American Philosophical Quarterly 26 (3):221 - 229.
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  11.  93
    Letting structure emerge: connectionist and dynamical systems approaches to cognition.James L. McClelland, Matthew M. Botvinick, David C. Noelle, David C. Plaut, Timothy T. Rogers, Mark S. Seidenberg & Linda B. Smith - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (8):348-356.
  12.  17
    Una aproximación conexionista a los procesos mentales. Entrevista con James L. McClelland.Belén Pascual & James L. McClelland - 2005 - Anuario Filosófico 38 (3):841-855.
    In this interview, James L. McClelland responds to questions regarding connectionist models of cognition, a theory inspired by information processing in the brain. McClelland explains the distinction between symbolic and non-symbolic processing for a better understanding of mental processes. He argues that connectionist models can perform the computations which we know the brain can perform. In addition, he responds to several general questions on the perspectives of computational models of cognition.
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  13. The Place of Modeling in Cognitive Science.James L. McClelland - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (1):11-38.
    I consider the role of cognitive modeling in cognitive science. Modeling, and the computers that enable it, are central to the field, but the role of modeling is often misunderstood. Models are not intended to capture fully the processes they attempt to elucidate. Rather, they are explorations of ideas about the nature of cognitive processes. In these explorations, simplification is essential—through simplification, the implications of the central ideas become more transparent. This is not to say that simplification has no downsides; (...)
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  14. Interpretative expressivism: A theory of normative belief.James L. D. Brown - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 179 (1):1-20.
    Metaethical expressivism is typically characterised as the view that normative statements express desire-like attitudes instead of beliefs. However, in this paper I argue that expressivists should claim that normative statements express beliefs in normative propositions, and not merely in some deflationary sense but in a theoretically robust sense explicated by a theory of propositional attitudes. I first argue that this can be achieved by combining an interpretationist understanding of belief with a nonfactualist view of normative belief content. This results in (...)
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  15. The biophilosophical basis of whole-brain death.James L. Bernat - 2002 - Soc Philos Policy 19 (2):324-42.
    Notwithstanding these wise pronouncements, my project here is to characterize the biological phenomenon of death of the higher animal species, such as vertebrates. My claim is that the formulation of “whole- brain death ” provides the most congruent map for our correct understanding of the concept of death. This essay builds upon the foundation my colleagues and I have laid since 1981 to characterize the concept of death and refine when this event occurs. Although our society's well-accepted program of multiple (...)
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  16.  5
    The Unified Brain-Based Determination of Death Conceptually Justifies Death Determination in DCDD and NRP Protocols.James L. Bernat - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (6):4-15.
    Organ donation after the circulatory determination of death requires the permanent cessation of circulation while organ donation after the brain determination of death requires the irreversible cessation of brain functions. The unified brain-based determination of death connects the brain and circulatory death criteria for circulatory death determination in organ donation as follows: permanent cessation of systemic circulation causes permanent cessation of brain circulation which causes permanent cessation of brain perfusion which causes permanent cessation of brain function. The relevant circulation that (...)
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  17. Scientific Knowledge: A Sociological Approach and Steven Shapin, The Scientific Revolution.James Robert Brown, Barry Barnes, David Bloor & John Henry - 1998 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 12 (1):100.
  18. Additive Value and the Shape of a Life.James L. D. Brown - 2019 - Ethics 130 (1):92-101.
    The shape of a life hypothesis holds that the temporal sequence of good or bad times in a life can itself be a valuable feature of that life. This is generally thought to be incompatible with additivism about lifetime well-being, which holds that lifetime well-being is fully determined by momentary well-being. This paper examines Dale Dorsey’s recent argument that these views are in fact compatible. I argue that accepting the conjunction of these views requires stronger commitments than Dorsey recognizes. After (...)
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  19.  29
    A Conceptual Justification for Brain Death.James L. Bernat - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (S4):19-21.
    Among the old and new controversies over brain death, none is more fundamental than whether brain death is equivalent to the biological phenomenon of human death. Here, I defend this equivalency by offering a brief conceptual justification for this view of brain death, a subject that Andrew Huang and I recently analyzed elsewhere in greater detail. My defense of the concept of brain death has evolved since Bernard Gert, Charles Culver, and I first addressed it in 1981, a development that (...)
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  20. Conceptual Role Expressivism and Defective Concepts.James L. D. Brown - 2022 - In Oxford Studies in Metaethics 17. pp. 225-53.
    This paper examines the general prospects for conceptual role expressivism, expressivist theories that embrace conceptual role semantics. It has two main aims. The first aim is to provide a general characterisation of the view. The second aim is to raise a challenge for the general view. The challenge is to explain why normative concepts are not a species of defective concepts, where defective concepts are those that cannot meaningfully embed and participate in genuine inference. After rejecting existing attempts to answer (...)
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  21.  33
    Aligning the Criterion and Tests for Brain Death.James L. Bernat & Anne L. Dalle Ave - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (4):635-641.
    Abstract:Disturbing cases continue to be published of patients declared brain dead who later were found to have a few intact brain functions. We address the reasons for the mismatch between the whole-brain criterion and brain death tests, and suggest solutions. Many of the cases result from diagnostic errors in brain death determination. Others probably result from a tiny amount of residual blood flow to the brain despite intracranial circulatory arrest. Strategies to lessen the mismatch include improving brain death determination training (...)
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  22.  18
    The Brain-as-a-Whole Criterion and the Uniform Determination of Death Act.James L. Bernat - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (3):271-274.
    Nair-Collins and Joffe (2023) highlighted the noncongruence between the language of the Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA) and the accepted brain death bedside testing standard by showing th...
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  23.  16
    Vital Forces: Regulative Principles or Constitutive Agents? A Strategy in German Physiology, 1786-1802.James L. Larson - 1979 - Isis 70:235-249.
  24. Expressivism and Cognitive Propositions.James L. D. Brown - 2019 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 5 (3):371-387.
    Expressivists about normative thought and discourse traditionally deny that there are nondeflationary normative propositions. However, it has recently been suggested that expressivists might avoid a number of problems by providing a theory of normative propositions compatible with expressivism. This paper explores the prospects for developing an expressivist theory of propositions within the framework of cognitive act theories of propositions. First, I argue that the only extant expressivist theory of cognitive propositions—Michael Ridge's ‘ecumenical expressivist’ theory—fails to explain identity conditions for normative (...)
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  25. A Plea for Prudence.James L. D. Brown - 2023 - Analysis 83 (2):394-404.
    Critical notice of Guy Fletcher's 'Dear Prudence: The Nature and Normativity of Prudential Discourse' and Dale Dorsey's 'A Theory of Prudence'.
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  26.  19
    Conceptual Issues in DCDD Donor Death Determination.James L. Bernat - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (S4):26-28.
    Despite the popularity, success, and growth of programs of organ donation after the circulatory determination of death (DCDD), a long‐standing controversy persists over whether the organ donor is truly dead at the moment physicians declare death, usually following five minutes of circulatory and respiratory arrest. Advocates of the prevailing death determination standard claim that the donor is dead when declared because of permanent cessation of respiration and circulation. Critics of this standard argue that while the cessation of respiration and circulation (...)
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  27.  40
    The biophilosophical basis of whole-brain death.James L. Bernat - 2002 - Social Philosophy and Policy 19 (2):324-342.
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  28.  17
    The Brainstem Criterion of Death and Accurate Syndromic Diagnosis.James L. Bernat - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (1):100-103.
    Ariane Lewis provided an insightful review of several controversial cases of death by neurologic criteria (“brain death”) in the UK, focusing on Archie Battersbee, a boy whose tragic illness provok...
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  29.  46
    Description in ethnomethodology.James L. Heap - 1980 - Human Studies 3 (1):87 - 106.
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  30.  39
    Timing volition: Questions of what and when about W.James L. Ringo - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):550-551.
  31.  81
    Chronic disorders of consciousness.James L. Bernat - 2006 - Lancet 367 (9517):1181-1192.
  32.  12
    Computational approaches to color constancy: Adaptive and ontogenetic considerations.James L. Dannemiller - 1989 - Psychological Review 96 (2):255-266.
  33.  74
    A Defense of the Whole‐Brain Concept of Death.James L. Bernat - 1998 - Hastings Center Report 28 (2):14-23.
    The concept of whole‐brain death is under attack again. Scholars are arguing that the concept of brain death per se—regardless of the focus on “higher,” “stem” or “whole”—is fundamentally flawed. These scholars have identified what they believe are serious discrepancies between the definition and criterion of brain death, and have pointed out that medical professionals and lay persons remain confused about its meaning. Yet whole‐brain death remains the standard for determining death in much of the Western world and its defenders (...)
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  34.  98
    Integrating the Philosophy and Psychology of Well-Being: An Opinionated Overview.James L. D. Brown & Sophie Potter - 2024 - Journal of Happiness Studies 25 (50):1-29.
    This paper examines the integration and unification of the philosophy and psychology of well-being. For the most part, these disciplines investigate well-being without reference to each other. In recent years, however, with the maturing of each discipline, there have been a growing number of calls to integrate the two. While such calls are welcome, what it means to integrate well-being philosophy and psychology can vary greatly depending on one’s theoretical and practical ends. The aim of this paper is to provide (...)
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  35. Emergence in Cognitive Science.James L. McClelland - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):751-770.
    The study of human intelligence was once dominated by symbolic approaches, but over the last 30 years an alternative approach has arisen. Symbols and processes that operate on them are often seen today as approximate characterizations of the emergent consequences of sub- or nonsymbolic processes, and a wide range of constructs in cognitive science can be understood as emergents. These include representational constructs (units, structures, rules), architectural constructs (central executive, declarative memory), and developmental processes and outcomes (stages, sensitive periods, neurocognitive (...)
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  36.  38
    James Fredericks Interview.James L. Fredericks - 2002 - Buddhist-Christian Studies 22 (1):251-254.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Buddhist-Christian Studies 22.1 (2002) 251-254 [Access article in PDF] James Fredericks Interview The 2002 winner of the Frederick J.Streng Book Award is James Fredericks, professor ofTheological Studies at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, California. Professor Fredericks received the award for his book, Faith Among Faiths: Christian Theology and the Non-Christian Religions, published by Paulist Press (New York) in 2001. Buddhist-Christian Studies asked James about his (...)
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  37.  52
    Are there interactive processes in speech perception?James L. McClelland, Daniel Mirman & Lori L. Holt - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (8):363-369.
  38. Knowledge and deductive closure.James L. White - 1991 - Synthese 86 (3):409 - 423.
    The question whether epistemological concepts are closed under deduction is an important one since many skeptical arguments depend on closure. Such skepticism can be avoided if closure is not true of knowledge (or justification). This response to skepticism is rejected by Peter Klein and others. Klein argues that closure is true, and that far from providing the skeptic with a powerful weapon for undermining our knowledge, it provides a tool for attacking the skeptic directly. This paper examines various arguments in (...)
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  39.  33
    The Debate over Death Determination in DCD.James L. Bernat - 2010 - Hastings Center Report 40 (3):3-3.
  40.  85
    The diminishing marginal value of happy people.James L. Hudson - 1987 - Philosophical Studies 51 (1):123 - 137.
    Thomas Hurka has recently proposed a utilitarian theory which would effect a compromise between Average and Total utilitarianism, the better to deal with issues in population ethics. This Compromise theory would incorporate the principle that the value which an extra happy person contributes to a possible world is a decreasing function of the total population of that world: that happy people are of diminishing marginal value. In spite of its initial plausibility I argue against this principle. I show that the (...)
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  41.  30
    Why there are complementary learning systems in the hippocampus and neocortex: Insights from the successes and failures of connectionist models of learning and memory.James L. McClelland, Bruce L. McNaughton & Randall C. O'Reilly - 1995 - Psychological Review 102 (3):419-457.
  42. Animal artifacts.James L. Gould - 2007 - In Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (eds.), Creations of the Mind: Theories of Artifacts and Their Representaion. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 249--266.
     
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  43.  90
    Quantum theoretical concepts of measurement: Part II.James L. Park - 1968 - Philosophy of Science 35 (4):389-411.
    This portion of the essay concludes a two-part paper, Part I of which appeared in an earlier issue of this Journal. Part II begins with a careful study of the quantum description of real experiments in order to motivate a proposal that two distinct quantum theoretical measurement constructs should be recognized, both of which must be distinguished from the concept of preparation. The different epistemological roles of these concepts are compared and explained. It is then concluded that the only possible (...)
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  44. Medical Decision Making by Patients in the Locked-in Syndrome.James L. Bernat - 2018 - Neuroethics 13 (2):229-238.
    The locked-in syndrome is a state of profound paralysis with preserved awareness of self and environment who typically results from a brain stem stroke. Although patients in LIS have great difficulty communicating, their consciousness, cognition, and language usually remain intact. Medical decision-making by LIS patients is compromised, not by cognitive impairment, but by severe communication impairment. Former systems of communication that permitted LIS patients to make only “yes” or “no” responses to questions was sufficient to validate their consent for simple (...)
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  45.  56
    Interactive Activation and Mutual Constraint Satisfaction in Perception and Cognition.James L. McClelland, Daniel Mirman, Donald J. Bolger & Pranav Khaitan - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (6):1139-1189.
    In a seminal 1977 article, Rumelhart argued that perception required the simultaneous use of multiple sources of information, allowing perceivers to optimally interpret sensory information at many levels of representation in real time as information arrives. Building on Rumelhart's arguments, we present the Interactive Activation hypothesis—the idea that the mechanism used in perception and comprehension to achieve these feats exploits an interactive activation process implemented through the bidirectional propagation of activation among simple processing units. We then examine the interactive activation (...)
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  46.  45
    On Noncongruence between the Concept and Determination of Death.James L. Bernat - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (6):25-33.
    A combination of emerging life support technologies and entrenched organ donation practices are complicating the physician's task of determining death. On the one hand, technologies that support or replace ventilation and circulation may render the diagnosis of death ambiguous. On the other, transplantation of vital organs requires timely and accurate declaration of death of the donor to keep the organs as healthy as possible. These two factors have led to disagreements among physicians and scholars on the precise moment of death. (...)
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  47.  38
    Are there interactive processes in speech perception?Lori L. Holt James L. McClelland, Daniel Mirman - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (8):363.
  48.  57
    The sufficiency of hope: the conceptual foundations of religion.James L. Muyskens - 1979 - Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
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  49. Psalms.James L. Mays - 1994
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  50.  85
    Dharma and its Translation in the Mahābhārata.James L. Fitzgerald - 2004 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 32 (5-6):671-685.
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