41 found
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  1.  93
    The Whole-Brain Concept of Death Remains Optimum Public Policy.James L. Bernat - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (1):35-43.
    “Brain death,” the determination of human death by showing the irreversible loss of all clinical functions of the brain, has become a worldwide practice. A biophilosophical account of brain death requires four sequential tasks: agreeing on the paradigm of death, a set of preconditions that frame the discussion; determining the definition of death by making explicit the consensual concept of death; determining the criterion of death that proves the definition has been fulfilled by being both necessary and sufficient for death; (...)
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  2.  41
    A Defense of the Whole‐Brain Concept of Death.James L. Bernat - 1998 - Hastings Center Report 28 (2):14-23.
  3.  38
    Whither Brain Death?James L. Bernat - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (8):3-8.
    The publicity surrounding the recent McMath and Muñoz cases has rekindled public interest in brain death: the familiar term for human death determination by showing the irreversible cessation of clinical brain functions. The concept of brain death was developed decades ago to permit withdrawal of therapy in hopeless cases and to permit organ donation. It has become widely established medical practice, and laws permit it in all U.S. jurisdictions. Brain death has a biophilosophical justification as a standard for determining human (...)
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  4.  87
    Neuroimaging and Disorders of Consciousness: Envisioning an Ethical Research Agenda.Joseph J. Fins, Judy Illes, James L. Bernat, Joy Hirsch, Steven Laureys & Emily Murphy - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (9):3 – 12.
    The application of neuroimaging technology to the study of the injured brain has transformed how neuroscientists understand disorders of consciousness, such as the vegetative and minimally conscious states, and deepened our understanding of mechanisms of recovery. This scientific progress, and its potential clinical translation, provides an opportunity for ethical reflection. It was against this scientific backdrop that we convened a conference of leading investigators in neuroimaging, disorders of consciousness and neuroethics. Our goal was to develop an ethical frame to move (...)
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  5.  11
    The Whole-Brain Concept of Death Remains Optimum Public Policy.James L. Bernat - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (1):35-43.
    The definition of death is one of the oldest and most enduring problems in biophilosophy and bioethics. Serious controversies over formally defining death began with the invention of the positive-pressure mechanical ventilator in the 1950s. For the first time, physicians could maintain ventilation and, hence, circulation on patients who had sustained what had been previously lethal brain damage. Prior to the development of mechanical ventilators, brain injuries severe enough to induce apnea quickly progressed to cardiac arrest from hypoxemia. Before the (...)
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  6.  4
    Aligning the Criterion and Tests for Brain Death.James L. Bernat & Anne L. Dalle Ave - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (4):635-641.
    :Disturbing cases continue to be published of patients declared brain dead who later were found to have a few intact brain functions. We address the reasons for the mismatch between the whole-brain criterion and brain death tests, and suggest solutions. Many of the cases result from diagnostic errors in brain death determination. Others probably result from a tiny amount of residual blood flow to the brain despite intracranial circulatory arrest. Strategies to lessen the mismatch include improving brain death determination training (...)
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  7.  9
    A Conceptual Justification for Brain Death.James L. Bernat - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (S4):S19-S21.
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  8.  18
    On Noncongruence Between the Concept and Determination of Death.James L. Bernat - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (6):25-33.
  9. The Biophilosophical Basis of Whole-Brain Death.James L. Bernat - 2002 - Soc Philos Policy 19 (2):324-42.
    Notwithstanding these wise pronouncements, my project here is to characterize the biological phenomenon of death of the higher animal species, such as vertebrates. My claim is that the formulation of “whole- brain death ” provides the most congruent map for our correct understanding of the concept of death. This essay builds upon the foundation my colleagues and I have laid since 1981 to characterize the concept of death and refine when this event occurs. Although our society's well-accepted program of multiple (...)
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  10.  18
    The Organism as a Whole in an Analysis of Death.Andrew P. Huang & James L. Bernat - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (6):712-731.
    Although death statutes permitting physicians to declare brain death are relatively uniform throughout the United States, academic debate persists over the equivalency of human death and brain death. Alan Shewmon showed that the formerly accepted integration rationale was conceptually incomplete by showing that brain-dead patients demonstrated a degree of integration. We provide a more complete rationale for the equivalency of human death and brain death by defending a deeper understanding of the organism as a whole and by using a novel (...)
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  11.  66
    Chronic Disorders of Consciousness.James L. Bernat - 2006 - Lancet 367 (9517):1181-1192.
  12.  23
    Are Organ Donors After Cardiac Death Really Dead?James L. Bernat - 2006 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 17 (2):122.
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  13.  32
    How Much of the Brain Must Die in Brain Death?James L. Bernat - 1992 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (1):21.
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  14.  27
    Medical Decision Making by Patients in the Locked-in Syndrome.James L. Bernat - 2020 - Neuroethics 13 (2):229-238.
    The locked-in syndrome is a state of profound paralysis with preserved awareness of self and environment who typically results from a brain stem stroke. Although patients in LIS have great difficulty communicating, their consciousness, cognition, and language usually remain intact. Medical decision-making by LIS patients is compromised, not by cognitive impairment, but by severe communication impairment. Former systems of communication that permitted LIS patients to make only “yes” or “no” responses to questions was sufficient to validate their consent for simple (...)
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  15.  28
    An Analysis of Heart Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.Anne Laure Dalle Ave, David Shaw & James L. Bernat - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (5):312-317.
  16.  13
    The Biophilosophical Basis of Whole-Brain Death.James L. Bernat - 2002 - Social Philosophy and Policy 19 (2):324-342.
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  17. Perspectives and Experience of Healthcare Professionals on Diagnosis, Prognosis, and End-of-Life Decision Making in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness.Catherine Rodrigue, Richard J. Riopelle, James L. Bernat & Eric Racine - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (1):25-36.
    In the care of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), some ethical difficulties stem from the challenges of accurate diagnosis and the uncertainty of prognosis. Current neuroimaging research on these disorders could eventually improve the accuracy of diagnoses and prognoses and therefore change the context of end-of-life decision making. However, the perspective of healthcare professionals on these disorders remains poorly understood and may constitute an obstacle to the integration of research. We conducted a qualitative study involving healthcare professionals from an (...)
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  18.  24
    Defining Death in Theory and Practice.James L. Bernat, Charles M. Culver & Bernard Gert - 1982 - Hastings Center Report 12 (1):5-9.
  19.  10
    The Ethical Obligation of the Dead Donor Rule.Anne L. Dalle Ave, Daniel P. Sulmasy & James L. Bernat - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):43-50.
    The dead donor rule originally stated that organ donors must not be killed by and for organ donation. Scholars later added the requirement that vital organs should not be procured before death. Some now argue that the DDR is breached in donation after circulatory determination of death programs. DCDD programs do not breach the original version of the DDR because vital organs are procured only after circulation has ceased permanently as a consequence of withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. We hold that (...)
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  20. The Concept and Practice of Brain Death.James L. Bernat - 2006 - In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.
  21.  18
    The Debate Over Death Determination in DCD.James L. Bernat - 2010 - Hastings Center Report 40 (3):3-3.
  22.  5
    Conceptual Issues in DCDD Donor Death Determination.James L. Bernat - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (S4):S26-S28.
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  23.  14
    Donation After Brain Circulation Determination of Death.Anne L. Dalle Ave & James L. Bernat - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):15.
    The fundamental determinant of death in donation after circulatory determination of death is the cessation of brain circulation and function. We therefore propose the term donation after brain circulation determination of death [DBCDD]. In DBCDD, death is determined when the cessation of circulatory function is permanent but before it is irreversible, consistent with medical standards of death determination outside the context of organ donation. Safeguards to prevent error include that: 1] the possibility of auto-resuscitation has elapsed; 2] no brain circulation (...)
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  24.  21
    On Irreversibility as a Prerequisite for Brain Death Determination.James L. Bernat - 2004 - In C. Machado & D. E. Shewmon (eds.), Brain Death and Disorders of Consciousness. Plenum. pp. 161--167.
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  25.  6
    Declare Death or Attempt Experimental Resuscitation?James L. Bernat - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (5):17-19.
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  26.  7
    Distinguishing Between Patients' Refusals and Requests.Bernard Gert, James L. Bernat & R. Peter Mogielnicki - 1994 - Hastings Center Report 24 (4):13-15.
  27.  76
    Questions Remaining About the Minimally Conscious State.James L. Bernat - 2002 - Neurology 58 (3):337-338.
  28.  6
    Determining Death in Uncontrolled DCDD Organ Donors.James L. Bernat - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (1):30-33.
  29.  16
    Harmonizing Standards for Death Determination in DCDD.James L. Bernat - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (8):10-12.
  30.  10
    Defining Death: Which Way?James L. Bernat, Charles M. Culver, Bernard Gert, Alexander M. Capron & Joanne Lynn - 1982 - Hastings Center Report 12 (2):43.
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  31.  13
    The Boundaries of the Persistent Vegetative State.James L. Bernat - 1992 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (3):176.
  32. Death in the Clinic.David Barnard, Celia Berdes, James L. Bernat, Linda Emanuel, Robert Fogerty, Linda Ganzini, Elizabeth R. Goy, David J. Mayo, John Paris, Michael D. Schreiber, J. David Velleman & Mark R. Wicclair - 2005 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Death in the Clinic fills a gap in contemporary medical education by explicitly addressing the concrete clinical realities about death with which practitioners, patients, and their families continue to wrestle. Visit our website for sample chapters!
     
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  33.  2
    Commentary: Further Considerations in Using Functional Neuroimaging in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness.James L. Bernat - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (4):632-634.
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  34.  14
    Constitutes Human Death.James L. Bernat - 2013 - In Arthur L. Caplan & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Bioethics. Wiley. pp. 25--377.
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  35.  4
    Reply to Chiong.James L. Bernat - 2013 - In Arthur L. Caplan & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Bioethics. Wiley. pp. 25--397.
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  36.  7
    The Veterans Affairs National Center for Clinical Ethics.James L. Bernat - 1992 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 2 (4):385-388.
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  37.  2
    Refusals Involving Requests.Leigh C. Bishop, Robert D. Orr, Dennis de Leon, Bernard Gert, James L. Bernat & R. Peter Mogielnicki - 1995 - Hastings Center Report 25 (4):4.
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  38. Participants of the Working Meeting on Ethics, Neuroimaging and Limited States of Consciousness. Neuroimaging and Disorders of Consciousness: Envisioning an Ethical Research Agenda.Joseph J. Fins, Judy Illes, James L. Bernat, Joy Hirsch, Steven Laureys & Emily Murphy - 2008 - Am J Bioethics 8 (9):3-12.
     
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  39.  2
    Determination of Death: A Discussion on Responsible Scholarship, Clinical Practices, and Public Engagement.Eric Racine, Ralf J. Jox, James L. Bernat, Peter Dabrock, Dale Gardiner, Georg Marckmann, Annette Rid, David Rodriguez-Arias, Jürgen in der Schmitten & Bettina Schöne-Seifert - 2015 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 58 (4):444-465.
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  40.  1
    Caring for Patients with Disorders of Consciousness: Highlights From the Perspectives of Healthcare Professionals on Communication and End-of-Life Decision Making.Catherine Rodrigue, Richard J. Riopelle, James L. Bernat & Eric Racine - 2011 - Res Cogitans 8 (1).
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  41.  12
    How Contextual and Relational Aspects Shape the Perspective of Healthcare Providers on Decision Making for Patients With Disorders of Consciousness: A Qualitative Interview Study.Catherine Rodrigue, Richard Riopelle, James L. Bernat & Eric Racine - 2013 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 3 (3):261-273.