32 found
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  1. Competition for Consciousness Among Visual Events: The Psychophysics of Reentrant Visual Processes.Vincent Di Lollo, James T. Enns & Ronald A. Rensink - 2000 - Journal Of Experimental Psychology-General 129 (4):481-507.
    Advances in neuroscience implicate reentrant signaling as the predominant form of communication between brain areas. This principle was used in a series of masking experiments that defy explanation by feed-forward theories. The masking occurs when a brief display of target plus mask is continued with the mask alone. Two masking processes were found: an early process affected by physical factors such as adapting luminance and a later process affected by attentional factors such as set size. This later process is called (...)
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  2.  61
    What’s New in Visual Masking?James T. Enns & Vincent Di Lollo - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (9):345-352.
  3.  28
    Early Completion of Occluded Objects.Ronald A. Rensink & James T. Enns - 1998 - Vision Research 38:2489-2505.
    We show that early vision can use monocular cues to rapidly complete partially-occluded objects. Visual search for easily detected fragments becomes difficult when the completed shape is similar to others in the display; conversely, search for fragments that are difficult to detect becomes easy when the completed shape is distinctive. Results indicate that completion occurs via the occlusion-triggered removal of occlusion edges and linking of associated regions. We fail to find evidence for a visible filling-in of contours or surfaces, but (...)
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  4.  24
    Preemption Effects in Visual Search: Evidence for Low-Level Grouping.Ronald A. Rensink & James T. Enns - 1995 - Psychological Review 102 (1):101-130.
    Experiments are presented showing that visual search for Mueller-Lyer (ML) stimuli is based on complete configurations, rather than component segments. Segments easily detected in isolation were difficult to detect when embedded in a configuration, indicating preemption by low-level groups. This preemption—which caused stimulus components to become inaccessible to rapid search—was an all-or-nothing effect, and so could serve as a powerful test of grouping. It is shown that these effects are unlikely to be due to blurring by simple spatial filters at (...)
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  5.  12
    Negative Compatibility or Object Updating? A Cautionary Tale of Mask-Dependent Priming.Alejandro Lleras & James T. Enns - 2004 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 133 (4):475-493.
  6.  38
    Preattentive Recovery of Three-Dimensional Orientation From Line Drawings.James T. Enns & Ronald A. Rensink - 1991 - Psychological Review 98 (3):335-351.
    It has generally been assumed that rapid visual search is based on simple features and that spatial relations between features are irrelevant for this task. Seven experiments involving search for line drawings contradict this assumption; a major determinant of search is the presence of line junctions. Arrow- and Y-junctions were detected rapidly in isolation and when they were embedded in drawings of rectangular polyhedra. Search for T-junctions was considerably slower. Drawings containing T-junctions often gave rise to very slow search even (...)
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  7.  20
    Synesthesia and Learning: A Critical Review and Novel Theory.Marcus R. Watson, Kathleen A. Akins, Chris Spiker, Lyle Crawford & James T. Enns - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  8.  88
    Grapheme-Color Synaesthesia Benefits Rule-Based Category Learning.Marcus R. Watson, Mark R. Blair, Pavel Kozik, Kathleen A. Akins & James T. Enns - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1533-1540.
    Researchers have long suspected that grapheme-color synaesthesia is useful, but research on its utility has so far focused primarily on episodic memory and perceptual discrimination. Here we ask whether it can be harnessed during rule-based Category learning. Participants learned through trial and error to classify grapheme pairs that were organized into categories on the basis of their associated synaesthetic colors. The performance of synaesthetes was similar to non-synaesthetes viewing graphemes that were physically colored in the same way. Specifically, synaesthetes learned (...)
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  9.  44
    Influence of Scene-Based Properties on Visual Search.James T. Enns & Ronald A. Rensink - 1990 - Science 247:721-723.
    The task of visual search is to determine as rapidly as possible whether a target item is present or absent in a display. Rapidly detected items are thought to contain features that correspond to primitive elements in the human visual system. In previous theories, it has been assumed that visual search is based on simple two-dimensional features in the image. However, visual search also has access to another level of representation, one that describes properties in the corresponding three-dimensional scene. Among (...)
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  10.  19
    Cognitive Strategies and Natural Environments Interact in Influencing Executive Function.Stefan C. Bourrier, Marc G. Berman & James T. Enns - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  11.  58
    What's Next? New Evidence for Prediction in Human Vision.James T. Enns & Alejandro Lleras - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (9):327-333.
  12.  13
    Positive Effects of Nature on Cognitive Performance Across Multiple Experiments: Test Order but Not Affect Modulates the Cognitive Effects.Cecilia U. D. Stenfors, Stephen C. Van Hedger, Kathryn E. Schertz, Francisco A. C. Meyer, Karen E. L. Smith, Greg J. Norman, Stefan C. Bourrier, James T. Enns, Omid Kardan, John Jonides & Marc G. Berman - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
  13.  26
    Sensitivity to Three-Dimensional Orientation in Visual Search.James T. Enns & Ronald A. Rensink - 1990 - Psychological Science 1 (5):323-326.
    Previous theories of early vision have assumed that visual search is based on simple two-dimensional aspects of an image, such as the orientation of edges and lines. It is shown here that search can also be based on three-dimensional orientation of objects in the corresponding scene, provided that these objects are simple convex blocks. Direct comparison shows that image-based and scene-based orientation are similar in their ability to facilitate search. These findings support the hypothesis that scene-based properties are represented at (...)
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  14.  10
    How Much Like a Target Can a Mask Be? Geometric, Spatial, and Temporal Similarity in Priming: A Reply to Schlaghecken and Eimer.Alejandro Lleras & James T. Enns - 2006 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 135 (3):495-500.
  15.  52
    Unconscious and Out of Control: Subliminal Priming is Insensitive to Observer Expectations.Erin K. Cressman, Melanie Y. Lam, Ian M. Franks, James T. Enns & Romeo Chua - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):716-728.
    We asked whether the influence of an invisible prime on movement is dependent on conscious movement expectations. Participants reached to a central target, which triggered a directional prime–mask arrow sequence. Participants were instructed that the visible arrows would most often signal a movement modification in a specific direction. Kinematic analyses revealed that responses to the visible mask were influenced by participants’ intentional bias, as movements were fastest when the more probable mask was displayed. In addition, responses were influenced by the (...)
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  16.  35
    Object Substitution Without Reentry?Vincent Di Lollo, James T. Enns & Ronald A. Rensink - 2002 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 131 (4):594-596.
    G. Francis and F. Hermens (2002) used computer simulations to claim that many current models of metacontrast masking can account for the findings of V. Di Lollo, J. T. Enns, and R. A. Rensink (2000). They also claimed that notions of reentrant processing are not necessary because all of V. Di Lollo et al. 's data can be explained by feed-forward models. The authors show that G. Francis and F. Hermens's claims are vitiated by inappropriate modeling of attention and by (...)
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  17.  18
    On-Line Control of Pointing is Modified by Unseen Visual Shapes.Erin K. Cressman, Ian M. Franks, James T. Enns & Romeo Chua - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):265-275.
    Shapes that are rendered invisible through backward masking are still able to influence motor responses: this is called masked priming. Yet it is unknown whether this influence is on the control of ongoing action, or whether it merely influences the initiation of an already-programmed action. We modified a masked priming procedure such that the critical prime-mask sequence was displayed during the execution of an already-initiated goal-directed pointing movement. Psychophysical tests of prime visibility indicated that the identity of the prime shapes (...)
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  18.  4
    Updating a Cautionary Tale of Masked Priming: Reply to Klapp.Alejandro Lleras & James T. Enns - 2005 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 134 (3):436-440.
  19.  33
    Visual Awareness and the on-Line Modification of Action.Jillian H. Fecteau, Romeo Chua, Ian Franks & James T. Enns - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (2):104-110.
  20.  4
    Corrigendum: Positive Effects of Nature on Cognitive Performance Across Multiple Experiments: Test Order but Not Affect Modulates the Cognitive Effects.Cecilia U. D. Stenfors, Stephen C. Van Hedger, Kathryn E. Schertz, Francisco A. C. Meyer, Karen E. L. Smith, Greg J. Norman, Stefan C. Bourrier, James T. Enns, Omid Kardan, John Jonides & Marc G. Berman - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  21.  25
    The Prevalence of Synaesthesia Depends on Early Language Learning.Marcus R. Watson, Jan Chromý, Lyle Crawford, David M. Eagleman, James T. Enns & Kathleen A. Akins - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 48:212-231.
  22.  55
    Hemisphere Differences in Conscious and Unconscious Word Reading.Jillian H. Fecteau, Alan Kingstone & James T. Enns - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (3):550-64.
    Hemisphere differences in word reading were examined using explicit and implicit processing measures. In an inclusion task, which indexes both conscious and unconscious word reading processes, participants were briefly presented with a word in either the right or the left visual field and were asked to use this word to complete a three-letter word stem. In an exclusion task, which estimates unconscious word reading, participants completed the word stem with any word other than the prime word. Experiment 1 showed that (...)
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  23.  91
    What Competition?James T. Enns & Vincent Di Lollo - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (3):118.
  24.  47
    Origins of Substitution.James T. Enns & Vincent Di Lollo - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (2):54.
  25. A Reentrant View of Visual Masking, Object Substitution, and Response Priming.James T. Enns, Alejandro Lleras & Vince Di Lollo - 2006 - In Gmen, Haluk; Breitmeyer, Bruno G. (2006). The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes. (Pp. 127-147). Cambridge, Ma, Us: Mit Press. Xi, 410 Pp.
     
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  26. Gmen, Haluk; Breitmeyer, Bruno G. (2006). The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes. (Pp. 127-147). Cambridge, MA, US: MIT Press. Xi, 410 Pp. [REVIEW]James T. Enns, Alejandro Lleras & Vince Di Lollo - 2006
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  27.  33
    Rapid Resumption of Interrupted Visual Search: New Insights on the Interaction Between Memory and Vision.Alejandro Lleras, Ronald A. Rensink & James T. Enns - 2005 - Psychological Science 16 (9):684-688.
    A modified visual search task demonstrates that humans are very good at resuming a search after it has been momentarily interrupted. This is shown by exceptionally rapid response time to a display that reappears after a brief interruption, even when an entirely different visual display is seen during the interruption and two different visual searches are performed simultaneously. This rapid resumption depends on the stability of the visual scene and is not due to display or response anticipations. These results are (...)
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  28.  4
    The Role of Haptic Expectations in Reaching to Grasp: From Pantomime to Natural Grasps and Back Again.Robert L. Whitwell, Nathan J. Katz, Melvyn A. Goodale & James T. Enns - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    When we reach to pick up an object, our actions are effortlessly informed by the object’s spatial information, the position of our limbs, stored knowledge of the object’s material properties, and what we want to do with the object. A substantial body of evidence suggests that grasps are under the control of “automatic, unconscious” sensorimotor modules housed in the “dorsal stream” of the posterior parietal cortex. Visual online feedback has a strong effect on the hand’s in-flight grasp aperture. Previous work (...)
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  29.  10
    But is It Social? How to Tell When Groups Are More Than the Sum of Their Members.Allison A. Brennan & James T. Enns - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  30.  9
    Long-Term Memory Representations Influence Perception Before Edges Are Assigned to Objects.Todd A. Kahan & James T. Enns - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (2):566-574.
  31.  8
    The Snooze of Lose: Rapid Reaching Reveals That Losses Are Processed More Slowly Than Gains.Craig S. Chapman, Jason P. Gallivan, Jeremy D. Wong, Nathan J. Wispinski & James T. Enns - 2015 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (4):844-863.
  32.  5
    Fixations Are Not All Created Equal: An Objection to Mindless Visual Search.James T. Enns & Marcus R. Watson - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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