Results for 'Jan Aerts'

999 found
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  1.  65
    The generalised liar paradox: A quantum model and interpretation. [REVIEW]Jan Broekaert, Diederik Aerts & Bart D’Hooghe - 2006 - Foundations of Science 11 (4):399-418.
    The formalism of abstracted quantum mechanics is applied in a model of the generalized Liar Paradox. Here, the Liar Paradox, a consistently testable configuration of logical truth properties, is considered a dynamic conceptual entity in the cognitive sphere (Aerts, Broekaert, & Smets, [Foundations of Science 1999, 4, 115–132; International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 2000, 38, 3231–3239]; Aerts and colleagues[Dialogue in Psychology, 1999, 10; Proceedings of Fundamental Approachs to Consciousness, Tokyo ’99; Mind in Interaction]. Basically, the intrinsic contextuality of (...)
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  2. The Violation of Bell Inequalities in the Macroworld.Diederik Aerts, Sven Aerts, Jan Broekaert & Liane Gabora - 2000 - Foundations of Physics 30 (9):1387-1414.
    We show that Bell inequalities can be violated in the macroscopic world. The macroworld violation is illustrated using an example involving connected vessels of water. We show that whether the violation of inequalities occurs in the microworld or the macroworld, it is the identification of nonidentical events that plays a crucial role. Specifically, we prove that if nonidentical events are consistently differentiated, Bell-type Pitowsky inequalities are no longer violated, even for Bohm's example of two entangled spin 1/2 quantum particles. We (...)
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  3.  32
    Quantum structure and human thought.Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert, Liane Gabora & Sandro Sozzo - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):274-276.
    We support the authors' claims, except that we point out that also quantum structure different from quantum probability abundantly plays a role in human cognition. We put forward several elements to illustrate our point, mentioning entanglement, contextuality, interference, and emergence as effects, and states, observables, complex numbers, and Fock space as specific mathematical structures.
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  4. The liar-paradox in a quantum mechanical perspective.Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert & Sonja Smets - 1999 - Foundations of Science 4 (2):115-132.
    In this paper we concentrate on the nature of the liar paradox asa cognitive entity; a consistently testable configuration of properties. We elaborate further on a quantum mechanical model (Aerts, Broekaert and Smets, 1999) that has been proposed to analyze the dynamics involved, and we focus on the interpretation and concomitant philosophical picture. Some conclusions we draw from our model favor an effective realistic interpretation of cognitive reality.
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  5.  74
    Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert, Liane Gabora & Sandro Sozzo - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  6.  21
    Editorial: Quantum Structures in Cognitive and Social Science.Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert, Liane Gabora & Sandro Sozzo - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  7.  18
    Einstein meets Magritte: an interdisciplinary reflection: the white book of "Einstein meets Magritte".Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert & Ernest Mathijs (eds.) - 1999 - Boston: Kluwer Academic.
    Einstein Meets Magritte: An Interdisciplinary Reflection presents insights of the renowned key speakers of the interdisciplinary Einstein meets Magritte conference (1995, Brussels Free University). The contributions elaborate on fundamental questions of science, with regard to the contemporary world, and push beyond the borders of traditional approaches. All of the articles in this volume address this fundamental theme, but somewhere along the road the volume expanded to become much more than a mere expression of the conference's dynamics. The articles not only (...)
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  8. Inconsistencies in constituent theories of world views: Quantum mechanical examples. [REVIEW]Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert & Sonja Smets - 1998 - Foundations of Science 3 (2):313-340.
    We put forward the hypothesis that there exist three basic attitudes towards inconsistencies within world views: (1) The inconsistency is tolerated temporarily and is viewed as an expression of a temporary lack of knowledge due to an incomplete or wrong theory. The resolution of the inconsistency is believed to be inherent to the improvement of the theory. This improvement ultimately resolves the contradiction and therefore we call this attitude the ‘regularising’ attitude; (2) The inconsistency is tolerated and both contradicting elements (...)
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  9.  46
    Editorial: Formal and informal representations of science. [REVIEW]Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert & Liane Gabora - 1999 - Foundations of Science 4 (1):1-2.
  10. Promoting coherent minimum reporting guidelines for biological and biomedical investigations: the MIBBI project.Chris F. Taylor, Dawn Field, Susanna-Assunta Sansone, Jan Aerts, Rolf Apweiler, Michael Ashburner, Catherine A. Ball, Pierre-Alain Binz, Molly Bogue, Tim Booth, Alvis Brazma, Ryan R. Brinkman, Adam Michael Clark, Eric W. Deutsch, Oliver Fiehn, Jennifer Fostel, Peter Ghazal, Frank Gibson, Tanya Gray, Graeme Grimes, John M. Hancock, Nigel W. Hardy, Henning Hermjakob, Randall K. Julian, Matthew Kane, Carsten Kettner, Christopher Kinsinger, Eugene Kolker, Martin Kuiper, Nicolas Le Novere, Jim Leebens-Mack, Suzanna E. Lewis, Phillip Lord, Ann-Marie Mallon, Nishanth Marthandan, Hiroshi Masuya, Ruth McNally, Alexander Mehrle, Norman Morrison, Sandra Orchard, John Quackenbush, James M. Reecy, Donald G. Robertson, Philippe Rocca-Serra, Henry Rodriguez, Heiko Rosenfelder, Javier Santoyo-Lopez, Richard H. Scheuermann, Daniel Schober, Barry Smith & Jason Snape - 2008 - Nature Biotechnology 26 (8):889-896.
    Throughout the biological and biomedical sciences there is a growing need for, prescriptive ‘minimum information’ (MI) checklists specifying the key information to include when reporting experimental results are beginning to find favor with experimentalists, analysts, publishers and funders alike. Such checklists aim to ensure that methods, data, analyses and results are described to a level sufficient to support the unambiguous interpretation, sophisticated search, reanalysis and experimental corroboration and reuse of data sets, facilitating the extraction of maximum value from data sets (...)
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  11. Diederik aerts, Jan broekaert and Sonja Smets.Lorenzo Magnani - 1999 - Foundations of Science 4:507-509.
  12. Probing The Meaning Of Quantum Mechanics: Probability, Metaphysics, Explanation And Measurement.Diederik Aerts, Jonas Arenhart, Christian De Ronde & Giuseppe Sergioli (eds.) - 2023 - World Scientific.
    Quantum theory is perhaps our best confirmed theory for a description of the physical properties of nature. On top of demonstrating great empirical effectiveness, many technological developments in the 20th century (such as the interpretation of the periodic table of elements, CD players, holograms, and quantum state teleportation) were only made possible with Quantum theory.Despite its success in the past decades, even today it still remains without a universally accepted interpretation.This book provides an interdisciplinary perspective on the question; 'What is (...)
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  13. Probing the Meaning and Structure of Quantum Mechanics: Semantics, Dynamics and Identity.Diederik Aerts, Christian de Ronde, Hector Freytes & Roberto Giuntini (eds.) - 2016 - World Scientific.
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  14. More than a Feeling: Affect as Radical Situatedness.Jan Slaby - 2017 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 41 (1):7-26.
    It can be tempting to think of affect as a matter of the present moment – a reaction, a feeling, an experience or engagement that unfolds right now. This paper will make the case that affect is better thought of as not only temporally extended but as saturated with temporality, especially with the past. In and through affectivity, concrete, ongoing history continues to weigh on present comportment. In order to spell this out, I sketch a Heidegger-inspired perspective. It revolves around (...)
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  15. Probing the Meaning and Structure of Quantum Mechanics.D. Aerts, J. Arenhart, C. De Ronde & G. Sergioli (eds.) - forthcoming
  16.  9
    Above the gene, beyond biology: toward a philosophy of epigenetics.Jan Baedke - 2018 - Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Epigenetics is currently one of the fastest-growing fields in the sciences. Epigenetic information not only controls DNA expression but links genetic factors with the environmental experiences that influence the traits and characteristics of an individual. What we eat, where we work, and how we live affects not only the activity of our genes but that of our offspring as well. This discovery has imposed a revolutionary theoretical shift on modern biology, especially on evolutionary theory. It has helped to uncover the (...)
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  17.  21
    Polish Logicians on Social Functions of Logic.Jan Woleński - 2024 - History and Philosophy of Logic 45 (1):70-80.
    The paper examines the interplays between logic and politics in the Polish School of Logic starting from 1914. The Polish School of Logic flourished between 1920 and 1939. Philosophically, it was influenced by Kazimierz Twardowski (1866–1938). For Twardowski logic is fundamental for every kind of human activity, professional and private and this means that every argument should be formulated and proceed by correct inferential rules. These rules involve semiotics, formal logic and methodology of science. The paper shows how this position (...)
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  18.  12
    Probing the meaning of quantum mechanics: superpositions, dynamics, semantics and identity: Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Information: Physical, Philosophical and Logical Approaches, Cagliari, Italy, 23-25 July 2014.Diederik Aerts, Christian de Ronde, Hector Freytes & Roberto Giuntini (eds.) - 2016 - New Jersey: World Scientific.
    This book provides an interdisciplinary approach to one of the most fascinating and important open questions in science: What is quantum mechanics really talking about? In the last decades quantum mechanics has given rise to a new quantum technological era, a revolution taking place today especially within the field of quantum information processing; which goes from quantum teleportation and cryptography to quantum computation. Quantum theory is probably our best confirmed physical theory. However, in spite of its great empirical effectiveness it (...)
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  19.  6
    Probing the meaning of quantum mechanics: physical, philosophical and logical perspectives: proceedings of the Young Quantum Meetings, CLEA, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 8-9 October, 2009.Diederik Aerts, Sven Aerts & Christian de Ronde (eds.) - 2014 - Chennai: World Scientific.
    The theory of Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces with variable integrability is experiencing a steady expansion, and is the subject of much vigorous research by functional analysts, function-space analysts and specialists in nonlinear analysis. These spaces have attracted attention not only because of their intrinsic mathematical importance as natural, interesting examples of non-rearrangement invariant function spaces but also in view of their applications, which include the mathematical modeling of electrorheological fluids and image restoration.The main focus of this book is to provide (...)
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  20. Ordinal Type Theory.Jan Plate - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Higher-order logic, with its type-theoretic apparatus known as the simple theory of types (STT), has increasingly come to be employed in theorizing about properties, relations, and states of affairs—or ‘intensional entities’ for short. This paper argues against this employment of STT and offers an alternative: ordinal type theory (OTT). Very roughly, STT and OTT can be regarded as complementary simplifications of the ‘ramified theory of types’ outlined in the Introduction to Principia Mathematica (on a realist reading). While STT, understood as (...)
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  21.  35
    The Heart of an Image: Quantum Superposition and Entanglement in Visual Perception.Jonito Aerts Arguëlles - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (4):757-778.
    We analyse the way in which the principle that ‘the whole is greater than the sum of its parts’ manifests itself with phenomena of visual perception. For this investigation we use insights and techniques coming from quantum cognition, and more specifically we are inspired by the correspondence of this principle with the phenomenon of the conjunction effect in human cognition. We identify entities of meaning within artefacts of visual perception and rely on how such entities are modelled for corpuses of (...)
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  22. The Conditional in Three-Valued Logic.Jan Sprenger - forthcoming - In Paul Egre & Lorenzo Rossi (eds.), Handbook of Three-Valued Logic. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
    By and large, the conditional connective in three-valued logic has two different functions. First, by means of a deduction theorem, it can express a specific relation of logical consequence in the logical language itself. Second, it can represent natural language structures such as "if/then'' or "implies''. This chapter surveys both approaches, shows why none of them will typically end up with a three-valued material conditional, and elaborates on connections to probabilistic reasoning.
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  23.  4
    The role of meta-analysis and preregistration in assessing the evidence for cleansing effects.Robert M. Ross, Robbie C. M. van Aert, Olmo R. van den Akker & Michiel van Elk - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwarz interpret meta-analytic research and replication studies as providing evidence for the robustness of cleansing effects. We argue that the currently available evidence is unconvincing because publication bias and the opportunistic use of researcher degrees of freedom appear to have inflated meta-analytic effect size estimates, and preregistered replications failed to find any evidence of cleansing effects.
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  24. Contextualizing concepts using a mathematical generalization of the quantum formalism.Liane Gabora & Diederik Aerts - 2002 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 14 (4):327-358.
    We outline the rationale and preliminary results of using the State Context Property (SCOP) formalism, originally developed as a generalization of quantum mechanics, to describe the contextual manner in which concepts are evoked, used, and combined to generate meaning. The quantum formalism was developed to cope with problems arising in the description of (1) the measurement process, and (2) the generation of new states with new properties when particles become entangled. Similar problems arising with concepts motivated the formal treatment introduced (...)
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  25.  25
    What an International Declaration on Neurotechnologies and Human Rights Could Look like: Ideas, Suggestions, Desiderata.Jan Christoph Bublitz - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 15 (2):96-112.
    International institutions such as UNESCO are deliberating on a new standard setting instrument for neurotechnologies. This will likely lead to the adoption of a soft law document which will be the first global document specifically tailored to neurotechnologies, setting the tone for further international or domestic regulations. While some stakeholders have been consulted, these developments have so far evaded the broader attention of the neuroscience, neurotech, and neuroethics communities. To initiate a broader debate, this target article puts to discussion twenty-five (...)
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  26.  30
    Expanding the notion of mechanism to further understanding of biopsychosocial disorders? Depression and medically-unexplained pain as cases in point.Jan Pieter Konsman - 2024 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 103 (C):123-136.
    Evidence-Based Medicine has little consideration for mechanisms and philosophers of science and medicine have recently made pleas to increase the place of mechanisms in the medical evidence hierarchy. However, in this debate the notions of mechanisms seem to be limited to 'mechanistic processes' and 'complex-systems mechanisms,' understood as 'componential causal systems'. I believe that this will not do full justice to how mechanisms are used in biological, psychological and social sciences and, consequently, in a more biopsychosocial approach to medicine. Here, (...)
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  27.  84
    Medieval philosophy as transcendental thought: from Philip the Chancellor (ca. 1225) to Francisco Súarez.Jan Aertsen - 2012 - Boston: Brill.
    This book provides for the first time a complete history of the doctrine of the transcendentals and shows its importance for the understanding of philosophy in the Middle Ages.
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  28.  6
    Focus-Style Proofs for the Two-Way Alternation-Free μ-Calculus.Jan Rooduijn & Yde Venema - 2023 - In Helle Hvid Hansen, Andre Scedrov & Ruy J. G. B. De Queiroz (eds.), Logic, Language, Information, and Computation: 29th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2023, Halifax, NS, Canada, July 11–14, 2023, Proceedings. Springer Nature Switzerland. pp. 318-335.
    We introduce a cyclic proof system for the two-way alternation-free modal μ-calculus. The system manipulates one-sided Gentzen sequents and locally deals with the backwards modalities by allowing analytic applications of the cut rule. The global effect of backwards modalities on traces is handled by making the semantics relative to a specific strategy of the opponent in the evaluation game. This allows us to augment sequents by so-called trace atoms, describing traces that the proponent can construct against the opponent’s strategy. The (...)
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  29.  73
    Niels Bohr and the Philosophy of Physics: Twenty-First Century Perspectives.Jan Faye & Henry J. Folse (eds.) - 2017 - New York: Bloomsbury.
    Niels Bohr and Philosophy of Physics: Twenty-First Century Perspectives examines the work, influences and legacy of the Nobel Prize physicist and philosopher of experiment Niels Bohr. While covering Bohr's groundbreaking contribution to quantum mechanics, this collection reveals the philosophers who influenced his work. Linking him to the pragmatist C.I. Lewis and the Danish philosopher Harald Høffding, it draws strong similarities between Bohr's philosophy and the Kantian way of thinking. Addressing the importance of Bohr's views of classical concepts, it discusses how (...)
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  30.  10
    History and Ethics of Keeping Pets: Comparison with Farm Animals.Stuart Spencer, Eddy Decuypere, Stefan Aerts & Johan Tavernier - 2006 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (1):17-25.
    Perhaps the commonest reasons for the keeping of pets are companionship and as a conduit for affection. Pets are, therefore, being “used” for human ends in much the same way as laboratory or farm animals. So shouldn’t the same arguments apply to the use of pets as to those used in other ways? In accepting the “rights” of farm animals to fully express their natural behavior, one must also accept the “right” of pets to express their intrinsic natural behavior. Dogs (...)
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  31. "In and Through Their Association": Freedom and Communism in Marx.Jan Kandiyali & Andrew Chitty - 2023 - In Joe Saunders (ed.), Freedom After Kant: From German Idealism to Ethics and the Self. Blackwell's.
  32.  5
    Epistemic defeat: a treatment of defeat as an independent phenomenon.Jan Constantin - 2021 - Boston: De Gruyter.
    A number of well-developed theories shed light on the question, under what circumstances our beliefs enjoy epistemic justification. Yet, comparatively little is known about epistemic defeat--when new information causes the loss of epistemic justification. This book proposes and defends a detailed account of epistemic defeaters. The main kinds of defeaters are analyzed in detail and integrated into a general framework that aims to explain how beliefs lose justification. It is argued that defeaters introduce incompatibilities into a noetic system and thereby (...)
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  33.  6
    The nature of scientific thinking: on interpretation, explanation, and understanding.Jan Faye - 2014 - New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Forms of understanding -- Understanding as organized beliefs -- On interpretation -- Representations -- Scientific explanation -- Causal explanations -- Other types of explanations -- The pragmatics of explanation -- Not just why-questions -- A rhetorical approach to explanation -- Pluralism and the unity of science.
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  34.  4
    The nature of scientific thinking: on interpretation, explanation, and understanding.Jan Faye - 2014 - New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Forms of understanding -- Understanding as organized beliefs -- On interpretation -- Representations -- Scientific explanation -- Causal explanations -- Other types of explanations -- The pragmatics of explanation -- Not just why-questions -- A rhetorical approach to explanation -- Pluralism and the unity of science.
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  35.  36
    Confusion in the Bishop’s Church.Jan Heylen - 2023 - Philosophia 51 (4):1993-2003.
    Kearns (2021) reconstructs Berkeley’s (1713) Master Argument as a formally valid argument against the Materialist Thesis, with the key premise the Distinct Conceivability Thesis, namely the thesis that truths about sensible objects having or lacking thinkable qualities are (distinctly) conceivable and as its conclusion that all sensible objects are conceived. It will be shown that Distinct Conceivability Thesis entails the Reduction Thesis, which states that de dicto propositional (ordinary or distinct) conceivability reduces to de re propositional (ordinary or distinct) conceivability. (...)
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  36. Jan Hempel: idee i wartości.Jan Szmyd - 1975 - Warszawa: Książka i Wiedza.
     
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  37.  21
    Cohen’s Rescue.Jan Narveson - 2010 - The Journal of Ethics 14 (3):263-334.
    G. A. Cohen’s Rescuing Justice and Equality proposes that both concepts need rescuing from the work of John Rawls. Especially, it is concerned with Rawls’ famous second principle of justice according to which social primary goods should be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution is to the benefit of the worst off. The question is why this would ever be necessary if all parties are just. Cohen and I agree that Rawls cannot really justify inequalities on the basis given. But (...)
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  38. Concepts and Their Dynamics: A Quantum‐Theoretic Modeling of Human Thought.Diederik Aerts, Liane Gabora & Sandro Sozzo - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (4):737-772.
    We analyze different aspects of our quantum modeling approach of human concepts and, more specifically, focus on the quantum effects of contextuality, interference, entanglement, and emergence, illustrating how each of them makes its appearance in specific situations of the dynamics of human concepts and their combinations. We point out the relation of our approach, which is based on an ontology of a concept as an entity in a state changing under influence of a context, with the main traditional concept theories, (...)
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  39.  29
    Quantum Structure in Cognition: Human Language as a Boson Gas of Entangled Words.Diederik Aerts & Lester Beltran - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):755-802.
    We model a piece of text of human language telling a story by means of the quantum structure describing a Bose gas in a state close to a Bose–Einstein condensate near absolute zero temperature. For this we introduce energy levels for the words (concepts) used in the story and we also introduce the new notion of ‘cogniton’ as the quantum of human thought. Words (concepts) are then cognitons in different energy states as it is the case for photons in different (...)
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  40.  7
    The psychologization of humanitarian aid: skimming the battlefield and the disaster zone.Jan Vos - 2011 - History of the Human Sciences 24 (3):103-122.
    Humanitarian aid’s psycho-therapeutic turn in the 1990s was mirrored by the increasing emotionalization and subjectivation of fund-raising campaigns. In order to grasp the depth of this interconnectedness, this article argues that in both cases what we see is the post-Fordist production paradigm at work; namely, as Hardt and Negri put it, the direct production of subjectivity and social relations. To explore this, the therapeutic and mental health approach in humanitarian aid is juxtaposed with the more general phenomenon of psychologization. This (...)
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  41.  15
    The Conception of Man in the Works of John Amos Comenius.Jan Cizek - 2016 - Frankfurt nad Mohanem, Německo: Peter Lang.
    This book maps the entire development of Comenius’s considerations on man, from his earliest writings to his philosophical masterwork. Although this book primarily offers an analysis and description of the conception of man in Comenius’s work, it may also serve the reader as a more general introduction to his philosophical conception. The author shows that, in spite of the fact that Comenius has received no small amount of academic attention, funded studies or monographs in English language remain in single figures. (...)
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  42. On selected issues and challenges in dendroclimatology.Jan Esper, David C. Frank & Jurg Luterbacher - 2007 - In Felix Kienast, Otto Wildi & S. Ghosh (eds.), A changing world: challenges for landscape research. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
     
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  43.  4
    Antropodramatyka: krakowska szkoła antropologiczna.Jan Galarowicz - 2021 - Kraków: Wydawnictwo Petrus.
    Wprowadzenie -- Roman ingarden -- Antoni kępiński -- Karol wojtyła -- Władysław stróżewski -- Józef tischner.
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  44.  8
    Transparente Wahrheit: nicht-klassische Modelle disquotationalistischer Theorien.Jan Goerke - 2016 - Münster: Mentis.
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  45.  2
    Crises of the sentence.Jan Mieszkowski - 2019 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Introduction: what is a sentence? -- Slogans and other one-liners -- The poetic line -- Sentences terminable and interminable -- The democratic sentence -- Conclusion: the sentence fetish.
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  46.  6
    Onze Vader: christelijk spreken over God.Jan Muis - 2016 - Zoetermeer: Uitgeverij Boekencentrum.
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  47.  7
    Filosofické deníky: nepublikované záznamy z let 1946-1950.Jan Patočka - 2022 - Praha: OIKOYMENH. Edited by Ivan Chvatík.
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  48.  5
    Polish theory of history and metahistory in Topolski, Pomian, and Tokarczuk: from Hayden White and beyond.Jan Pomorski - 2024 - New York: Routledge.
    This book traces the development of the Polish theory of history, analyzing how Jerzy Topolski, Krzysztof Pomian, and Olga Tokarczuk have both built upon and transgressed the metahistorical theories of American historian Hayden White. By deconstructing and reconstructing contemporary theories of history, this research is a unique contribution to the fields of historiography and the philosophy of history.
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  49.  53
    Contextualizing concepts.Liane Gabora & Diederik Aerts - unknown
    To cope with problems arising in the description of (1) contextual interactions, and (2) the generation of new states with new properties when quantum entities become entangled, the mathematics of quantum mechanics was developed. Similar problems arise with concepts. We use a generalization of standard quantum mechanics, the mathematical lattice theoretic formalism, to develop a formal description of the contextual manner in which concepts are evoked, used, and combined to generate meaning.
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  50.  14
    On Rank Not Only in Nsop Theories.Jan Dobrowolski & Daniel Max Hoffmann - forthcoming - Journal of Symbolic Logic:1-34.
    We introduce a family of local ranks $D_Q$ depending on a finite set Q of pairs of the form $(\varphi (x,y),q(y)),$ where $\varphi (x,y)$ is a formula and $q(y)$ is a global type. We prove that in any NSOP $_1$ theory these ranks satisfy some desirable properties; in particular, $D_Q(x=x)<\omega $ for any finite tuple of variables x and any Q, if $q\supseteq p$ is a Kim-forking extension of types, then $D_Q(q) (...)
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