This paper presents logics for reasoning about extension and reduction of partial information states. This enterprise amounts to nonpersistent variations of certain constructive logics, in particular the so-called logic of constructible falsity of Nelson. We provide simple semantics, sequential calculi, completeness and decidability proofs.
The sensorimotor theory of perceptual consciousness offers a form of enactivism in that it stresses patterns of interaction instead of any alleged internal representations of the environment. But how does it relate to forms of enactivism stressing the continuity between life and mind? We shall distinguish sensorimotor enactivism, which stresses perceptual capacities themselves, from autopoietic enactivism, which claims an essential connection between experience and autopoietic processes or associated background capacities. We show how autopoiesis, autonomous agency, and affective dimensions of experience (...) may fit into sensorimotor enactivism, and we identify differences between this interpretation and autopoietic enactivism. By taking artificial consciousness as a case in point, we further sharpen the distinction between sensorimotor enactivism and autopoietic enactivism. We argue that sensorimotor enactivism forms a strong default position for an enactive account of perceptual consciousness. (shrink)
Our ability to rapidly distinguish new from already stored information is important for behavior and decision making, but the underlying processes remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that contextual cues lead to a preselection of information and, therefore, faster recognition. Specifically, on the basis of previous modeling work, we hypothesized that recognition time depends on the amount of relevant content stored in long-term memory, i.e., set size, and we explored possible age-related changes of this relationship in older humans. In (...) our paradigm, subjects learned by heart four different word lists written in different colors. On the day of testing, a color cue indicated with a probability of 50% that a subsequent word might be from the corresponding list or from a list of new words. The old/new status of the word had to be distinguished via button press. As a main finding, we can show in a sample of n = 49 subjects, including 26 younger and 23 older humans, that response times increased linearly and logarithmically as a function of set size in both age groups. Conversely, corrected hit rates decreased as a function of set size with no statistically significant differences between both age groups. As such, our findings provide empirical evidence that contextual information can lead to a preselection of relevant information stored in long-term memory to promote efficient recognition, possibly by cyclical top-down and bottom-up processing. (shrink)
This article describes the origin and the work of a volunteer run nonprofit agency designed to provide low cost psychotherapy. The agency was developed by psychotherapists connected with the Seattle University graduate program guided by the vision of psychotherapy as a healing relationship and in response to a growing crisis in the mental health system. We address the benefits and the challenges of this collaborative effort, and especially the difficulty involved in successfully running an agency while staying true to a (...) particular vision of therapy, collaboration, and community. (shrink)
Článek se zaměřuje na historický kontext vývoje americké sociologie v období mezi lety 1930-1965, jež je spojeno se specifickým projektem sjednocení oboru rozpracovaným na Harvardské a Kolumbijské univerzitě. Samotná myšlenka jednotné sociologie je neoddělitelně vpletena do celého projektu americké sociologie jako vědy a své „čisté" vyjádření nalezla v úsilí prokázat „objektivitu a koherenci" sociologického myšlení/vědění. Zcela zřetelně také formovala profesní identitu oboru. Prostředkem zajištění vědecké integrity bylo především zajištění kontinuity teorie a praxe, ježby založilo a o něž by se mohlo (...) opírat pevné metodologické „sebevědomí". Historická kontextualizace tohoto formativního období si klade za cíl sledovat, nakolik myšlenka sjednocené sociologie ovlivnila teoretické a metodologické perspektivy v rámci oboru i vlastní představy o možnosti jeho integrované výzkumné agendy. (shrink)
Friis and Crease illustrate the diversity of content and styles in postphenomenology, a burgeoning field that has attracted attention among scholars engaged in technology studies. Contributors to this edited collection seek to analyze, clarify, and develop postphenomenological language and concepts, expand the work of Don Ihde, the field's founder, and delve into areas that Ihde never tackled.
This text analyzes the concept of philosophical superstition according to Joseph Maria Bocheński. It specifies sufficient conditions for beliefs and statements to be a philosophical superstition. Philosophical superstitions consist in specific contradictions in beliefs or statements: (a) Superstitions assume or contain contradictory beliefs or statements or/and (b) they are inconsistent with direct experiences or (c) beliefs of their followers, or/and (d) without sufficient reasons superstitions contradict what has already been sufficiently justified or/and (e) they contradict semantic rules of reference of (...) a language in which they are formulated. (shrink)
The paper is a critique of Professor Anna Jedynak's claim, propounded in her article "The structure of scientific theories and value systems" (Filozofia Nauki, no. 31-32/2000, pp. 31-44), that there exist some significant analogies between scientific theories perceived from the viewpoint of various scientific methodologies and systems of normative ethics considered from the perspectives of various metaethical theories. The authors attempt to justify the thesis that principal structural similarities postulated by Professor Jedynak are questionable, thus challenging her proposition that metaethics (...) can incorporate into its domain a number of problems which were hitherto seen as specific to the philosophy of science. (shrink)
Studie mapuje Patočkovu filosofickou koncepci rozpracovanou v dosud nevydaných válečných rukopisech. Člověk dle Patočky rozvrhuje svůj smysluplný svět díky základnímu úkolu, kterému může ve svém životě dostát, nebo jej zmařit. Jeho naplnění ovšem nesplývá s převzetím vlastní individuality a konečnosti, nýbrž Patočka jej vymezuje jako vztah k nekonečnému životu, který každou individuální existenci zakládá. K tomuto nekonečnu se ale nelze vrátit jednoduchým vytržením z vědomého života, nýbrž teprve duchovní proměnou, která ukazuje nepředmětný charakter světa a přitom zachovává lidské vědomí.
This paper addresses theoretical challenges, still relevant today, that arose in the first decades of the twentieth century related to the concept of the organism. During this period, new insights into the plasticity and robustness of organisms as well as their complex interactions fueled calls, especially in the UK and in the German-speaking world, for grounding biological theory on the concept of the organism. This new organism-centered biology understood organisms as the most important explanatory and methodological unit in biological investigations. (...) At least three theoretical strands can be distinguished in this movement: Organicism, dialectical materialism, and holistic biology. This paper shows that a major challenge of OCB was to describe the individual organism as a causally autonomous and discrete unit with consistent boundaries and, at the same time, as inextricably interwoven with its environment. In other words, OCB had to conciliate individualistic with anti-individualistic perspectives. This challenge was addressed by developing a concept of life that included functionalist and metabolic elements, as well as biochemical and physical ones. It allowed for specifying organisms as life forms that actively delimit themselves from the environment. Finally, this paper shows that the recent return to the concept of the organism, especially in the so-called “Extended Evolutionary Synthesis,” is challenged by similar anti-individualistic tendencies. However, in contrast to its early-twentieth-century forerunner, today’s organism-centered approaches have not yet offered a solution to this problem. (shrink)